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Full text of "Narrative of a five years' expedition, against the revolted negroes of Surinam, in Guiana, on the wild coast of South America; from the year 1772, to 1777: elucidating the history of that country, and describing its productions ... with an account of the Indians of Guiana, & negroes of Guinea"

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The Bequest of 

Colonel George Earl Church 


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Chapter XVI. Page 1. 

^ Reinforcement of fresh Troops arrives from Holland — 
Encampment on Mount Magdenberg, in Tempatee Creek 

• — tiemarkahlc Instance of Ltcnucti in a Negro — Moun- 
tains — Beautiful Views — The Sick sent to Europe. 

Chapter XVII. Page 25. 

New Instances of unprecedented Barbarity — Occurrences 
on Mount Magdenberg — Trices of Provisions at Parama- 
ribo — Description of a new Animal — Great Mortality 
amongst the Troops in Tempatee Creek and Comewina River. 

Chapter XVIII. Page 49. 

A Tiger taken in the Camp — Fatal Rencounter of a Party 
with the Rebels, who /ailed several of the Troops, and 
forced the rest back-^Deseription of a Planter of Surinam 
— Contagious Distempers — Suicide — Scene of primitive 

Vol. II. _ b Chapter 


Chapter XIX. Page 67. 

The Troops march to Barbacoeba, in the River Cottica — 
Frenzy Fever — Gratitude in an English Sailor — Descrip- 
tion of the Government of Surinam — Some Account of 
the Emigrant Americans during the late War— Scene of 
•unprecedented Generosity, 

Chapter XX. Page 90. 

A Rebel Negro described — Eush-figliting—Seiitimental Ex- 
pressions of the African Blacks — The Town of Gado-Sahy 
taken by Colonel Fourgeoud — Superstition — IVonderful 
Expedients — Great Generalship in the Enemy. 

C H A p T E Fv XXI. Page 122. 

Spirited Conduct of the Rangers and Rebels — A Skirmish—- 
Scene of brotherly Affection — The Troops return to Bar- 
bacoeba — Flan of the Field of Action — A Slave killed 
by the Oroocookoo Snake. 

Chapter XXII. Page 141. 

Alarm in the Pirica River — A Detachment marches to its 
Relief — Ambuscade — Wonderful Effect from the Biting of 
a Bat — Scene in a Quagmire — Sketch of the Inquisition, 
and Return of the Troops to Cormoetibo Creek. 



Chapter XXIII. Page 165. 

Second March to Gado-Sabi/ — Account of a living Skeleton 
— Beautiful Landscapes — The Commander in Chief falls 
sick, and leaves the Camp — Some Rebels taken — Discourse 
on the Existence of Mermaids — Heavy Rains — Disease — 

Fa m ine — Mise ry . 

Chapter XXIV. Page 191. 

Two Volunteer Companies raised, of free Mulattoes and 
Negroes — Description of the Arrowouka Indian Nation — 
Colonel Foiirgeoud's Regiment receives Orders to sail for 

Europe Couniei'inandod He enter the Hoods — Trade of 

the Colony — Description of a Cacao Estate — Sample of 
Sable Heroism. 

Chapter XXV. Page 224. 

Singidar Method of detecting a Theft — Rencounter between 
the Rangers and Rebels — Amazonian Action of a black 
Girl — Wonderful Sagacity in Wild Bees — The Regiment 
receives a second Order to return to Europe. 

Chapter XXVI. Page 250. 

The Troops on board — Again ordered to disembark — Great 
Dejection — Mutiny — Insolent Conduct of an Owca Negro 
Captain — ISlear two hundred Sick sent to Holland — Gene- 
ral Description of the African Negroes. 



Chapter XXVII. Page 302. 
The Hape of the Sabines — Shocking Execution, and African 
Fortitude — Description of an Indigo Plantation — The 
Span.w BocJiO, a Punishment — The Troops again re-enter 
the JFoods — The Expedition draws to a Conclusion. 

C II A p T E K XXV^III. Page 326. 
The Rebels Jfi/ for Protection to Cayenne — Third March to 
Gado-Sabij — A second Keinf or cement of Troops arrive 
from Tlolland — Shipwreck of the Transport Paramaribo 
— March to Rio Comewina — Dismal Picture of Distress 
and of Mortality — The Peace of the Colony restored. 

Chapter XXIX. 358. 
Some Account of a remarkable Negro — The Troops prepare 
for Europe — Description of a Coffee Plantation — Plan 
of Reform for the Increase of Population, and universal 
Happiness — One more Instance of horrid Barbarity ; 
and E^tample of Humanity — The Regiment embarks. 

Chapter XXX. Page 395. 
The Ships xiei^Ji Anchor, and put to Sea — Review of the 
Troops — Account of the Voyage — The Arrival in thtTexel 
— Description of the Pampas near Amsttrdam — Final 
Debarkation in the Town of Bois-le-Duc — The Death of 
Colonel F..urj;eoud — End of the Expedition — Short History 
of the la it Scorch Brigade — Conclusion. 





A Reinforcement of fresh Troops arrives from Holland — En- 
campment on Mount Magdenher^, in Tempatee Creek — 
Remarkable Instance of Ltinaci/ in a Negro — Mountains 
— Beautiful Views — The Sickfent to Europe. 

I NOW once more return to the principal object of my c n a p. 
Journal, viz. Fourgeoud's military operations. I have .^_^^ll . 
before mentioned, that a supply of frefli troops was ex- 
pected to reinforce our decayed little army ; and, on the 
30th of January 1775, the news came to Paramaribo that 
the transport ship Maastroom, Captain Eeg, was arrived 
in the river Surinam, and come to an anchor before the 
fortress Amsterdam, with Colonel Seyburgh aiid two divi- 
sions, consisting together of one hundred and twenty men, 
under his command, two more divisions being expected. 

The following day I went down with a row-boat to 
welcome them ; and having dined on board together, the 

Vol. II. B ship 

ship weighed anchor, and I sailed up with them till before 
the fortress Zealandia, where they moored, and were saluted 
by a few guns. Among the officers, I with pleasure recol- 
lected my old ship-mate, poor Ensign Hesseling, whom we 
had left behind us on the Helder, according to every ap- 
pearance dying of the small-pox, when we sailed from the 
Texel, the 24th of December 1 772. This young man, who 
now joined us with rank of second lieutenant, had been 
peculiarly unfortunate since his recovery ; for, soon after 
taking a passage on board another ship for Surinam, the 
vessel encountered a gale in the Bay of Biscay ; when off 
Cape Finisterre, her quarter-gallery and rudder were beat 
away ; besides which she lost her fore-masL and main-top- 
mast. In this dangerous condition, having the wind against 
her for Lisbon, the vessel run with difficulty into Plymouth. 
From this place Mr. Hesseling took a passage for France, 
on board a small sloop loaded with coals, with which he 
had no better success ; for she ran, through the inad- 
vertence of the master, on the Caskets, which rocks went 
through her bottom, and she foundered immediately. Be- 
fore the vessel sunk, however, he had time to break open 
his chest, and take out some linen and other necessaries, 
with which he arrived in a crazy yaul at Brest. He now 
took shipping again for Amsterdam, on board a Dutchman ; 
but the master ran the ship a-ground, and he had nearly 
been once more wrecked. Nevertheless he arrived safe 
at the TcxeJ, whence he had twice in vain attempted 
10 to 


to set out for South America ; and oa this last passage it 
blew so violently hard, that all the boats, the sheep, the 
pigs, and the poultry, were washed overboard. Till this 
date I had been the oldest officer in the corps, excepting 
only Colonel Fourgeoud. 

On the arrival of the troops, our commander invited 
them to a dinner, which consisted of salt beef, pork, barley, 
and hard pease, of which I had the honour to partake, 
to my no small amusement, when I observed the signifi- 
cant looks Avhich were directed by these new-comers 
on their commander and his entertainment. In the even- 
ing we conducted them to the play-house, Avhere the death 

of Caesar, and Crispin Dorter, %vcre performed, the one 

exactly as laughable as the other. I must however confess, 
that I was better entertained the next day, when the gover- 
nor gave to all a superb dinner and supper, where the 
strangers seemed to be as much surprised with the magni- 
ficence of the feast, as they had been the day before 
amazed with Colonel Fourgeoud's frugality. 

Having met at this table with some excellent preserved 
fruits, among which was the guava, I will embrace an op- 
portunity which is banen of incident to say something 
of it. The guaba, or guava-tree, grows to about twenty- 
four feet high, with leaves like those of a plum-tree. It 
is light-coloured, and the wood of little consequence ; 
but the fruit, which is yellow, oval, and about the size of 

B 2 a gold 

a gold pippin, incloses a reddish pulp, full of small seeds ; 
the pulp is very sweet, and may be eaten raw, or made 
into marmalade or jelly, and then it is delicious. There 
are two species of guava ; that which is . the sweetest has 
the smallest quantity of seeds. 

On the 5 th of February, the troops that were so lately 
landed were sent to the upper parts of the river Come- 
•wina to be encamped. I speak of the privates, for most 
of the officers remained to partake of a feast at the house 
of a Mr. Mercellus ; by whose command (to crown the ban- 
quet) half a dozen negroes continued blowing the trumpet 
and French horn in the room where we dined, till the com- 
pany were absolutely deafened by diacordancy and noise. 

On the 6th, the whole corps, without exception, re- 
ceived orders to leave Paramaribo, and to encamp at Mag- 
denberg, a mountain near the Tempatee Creek, in the 
tipper parts of the river Comewina, to which, as I hav& 
juft mentioned, the reinforcement was already dispatched. 
Having, therefore, prepared myself to set out on my 
fourth campaign, and taken leave of my little family and 
friends, I repaired to the water side, to set out in the iame 
barge Avith Colonel Seyburgh, but who, erroneously sup- 
posing that the troops which came with him from Holland 
were a distinct corps from those arrived with Fourgeoud 
nn 1773, made the negroes shove off the boat in my 
presence, when I was not a stone's cast from it, and left 


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me on the beach, to my utter surprize and mortification. 
I knew Fourgeoud had swore that he sliould " dance just 
" as much to his pipes as the youngest ensign in the re- 
" giment ;" and in that he was perfectly right : I there- 
fore strenuously supported the chief against his antago- 
nist, and setting otf immediately with another boat, soon 
overtook him, to his astonishment, when we all went 
ashore at the plantation Vossenburgh, in the river Come- 
wina. The next day we came to the estate Arentrust, 
having passed the heavy barges that departed from Para- 
maribo on the 3th; and on the 10th we made the Hope, 
where having spent so many months, I here present the 

reader with a view of that estate, and of the estate 

Clarenbeek, where still our hospital was kept. This day 
Colonel Fourgeoud also came up the river, and slept 
at Wajampibo. 

On the 1 1th, we arrived at the plantation Crawassibo, 
where we passed the night. Here the overseer, a Mr. 
De Bruyn, was so very impertinent, that, as I already had 
no abundance of aft'ection for the fraternity of overseers, 
I gave him such a sound beating that, with a bloody face, 
he suddenly decamped from the estate in a small canoe 
with one negro, and in this trim, at twelve o'clock at night, 
like Banquo the ghost, appeared before the amazed Four- 
geoud; who thought pro[)er to give him no other conso- 
lation than to dismiss him with a hearty curse. 

On the 12th we arrived safe at Maodenbero-, viz. 


Fourgeoud, the officers, and the barges with the privates. 
From the Hope, the estates now began to appear thinner ; 
and after passing Goet-Accord, about ten or twelve miles 
farther upAvards, not a cultivated spot was to be seen, the 
plantations having been all laid in ashes by the rebels in 
1 757, as I have already mentioned, a small place excepted, 
just below Magdenberg, which is, I think, called the Jaco6, 
and where a few negroes are kept to cut timber. The river 
above Goet-Accord becomes very narrow, being lined on 
each side with impenetrable brush-wood, like the river Cot- 
tica, between Devil's-Harwar and Patamaca; and theTem- 
patee Creek, which may be considered as the source of the 

Avhole river Comewina, becoiTips also mucin narro"\vt;r. Mag- 
denberg, which is about a hundred miles from Paramaribo, 
was formerly an estate, but has now not a vestige of culti- 
vation left, a poor old orange-tree excepted, and is at pre- 
sent neither more or less than a barren desolate mountain. 

Here we found the surface of the earth in some places 
covered with a kind of strata, that had the appearance of 
mother-of-pearl, and lay scattered in small scales, about 
the size af an English shilling. In many places of Suri- 
nam are found the marks of fossils and ores, as I have 
already hinted. Indeed, iron ore is common, and I have 
no doubt but gold and silver mines might be met with if 
the Dutch would be at the expence, and persevere in 
making the discovery. I have already mentioned the 
Marawina diamond, and white and red agate, which are 



often seen in the upper parts of the river Surinam. On this 
mountain we also found the air cooler and more pure, and 
of course more healthy than in any other part of the 

On the 1 7th the news reached us, that the transport ship, 
the Maria Helena, with the remaining two divisions of one 
hundred and twenty men, commanded by Captain Haniel, 
had also arrived in the river Surinam on the 1 4th instant. 
Thus the reinforcements together consisted of two hundred 
and forty men, and, on the 5th day of March, they all ar- 
rived in heavy barges at INIagdenberg, where I may now 
say that Colonel Fourgeoud's whole forces were assembled. 
The same day, one hundred negro slaves also aiTived, to 
carry the loads when we should march. One of the new 
negroes being missed from on board a military barge, and 
marks of blood discovered in it, the commanding officer, 
a Mr. Chatteauview, and a sentinel, were both put under 
an arrest to be tried for murder. On the same eventful 
day also, two of our captains fought a duel, in which one 
of them received a wound in his forehead. 

On the 1 3th, a barge with provisions, coming from Pa- 
ramaribo (shocking to relate!) found the negro that was 
missed on the 5 th at the water's edge, lying in the brush- 
wood, with his throat cut from ear to ear, but still alive, 
the knife having missed the wind-pipe. This miserable 
apparition of skin and bone they took on board, and 
Iwought to Magdenberg, where, by a skilful surgeon, 



CHAP. Mr. Knolaert, the wound was sewed up, and the man 

XVI. . . 

,^^^_^,.,^^ surprisingly recovered, having lain nine days in that 

dreadful condition Avithout any subsistence or covering 
whatever, and Aveltering in his own blood, even without a 
bandage. The week after I had nearly lost my own life 
by an accident. Two negroes of the estate Goet-Accord 
being employed in hunting and fishing for Fourgeoud, 
one of them, named Philander^ proposed to me to accom- 
pany them in the wood, where we might chance to meet 
with some phigoes, or powesa ; but a heavy shower of rain 
coming on, when we had only walked two miles, we de- 
termined to relinquish the project, and repair to the small 
spot called the Jacob for shelter, to gain which we were 
obliged to pass through a deep marsh. Having waded 
till up to our arm-pits. Philander, who was the finest man 
without exception that I ever saw, began to swim, as did 
his companion, with one hand, holding their fowling 
pieces above the Avater Avith the other, and desired me 
to follow them. This I tried, having nothing on but my 
shirt and trowsers ; when, after swimming two or three 
strokes, I sunk to the bottom like a stone, Avith the 
Aveight of my musquet ; but relinquishing it, I immedi- 
ately rose to the surface, and begged that Philander 
would dive for it; Avho having secured his own to a man- 
grove, brought it up without difficulty. At this mo- 
ment a thundering voice called out through the thicket, 

— " Who 


—" Who fomtna clattij ? and another footo footo da Bonny 
kiry da dago ? Who is that ? Who is there ? Fire ! shoot ! 
it is Bonny, kill the dog!" — and looking up, we saAV the 
muzzles of six musquets presented upon us at a very little 
distance indeed. I instantly dived, but Philander answer- 
ing that we belonged to Magdenberg, we were permitted 
to come on shore one l^y one at the Jacob, and found that 
these trusty negro slaves, having heard a flouncing in the 
water, and seeing three. armed men in the marsh, took it 
for granted that the rebels were coming, headed by Bonny 
himself, for whom they had mistaken me, being almost 
naked and so much sun-burnt; besides my hair, which 

was short and cuilj, I entirely resembled a mulatto. 

Being refreshed with some rum, and having dried our- 
selves by a good fire, we now returned back to the ]\Iag- 
denberg, Avhere I congratulated myself on my escape. 

On the 19th, Colonel Fourgeoud being now supplied 
with fresh troops, sent a whole ship -load of invalids to 
Holland, who sailed this da} ; and on February the 26th, 
my dear friend Heneman also sailed for Holland, in an 
extremely debilitated state. 

Among the troops which sailed at the same time with 
Heneman were several officers, not very sick, but justly 
disheartened and disgusted at Fourgeoud's injustice, in 
having stopped their preferment, as I have intimated in 
the end of the tenth chapter ; Avhile they now saw them- 
selves superseded by raw youths, who Avere at school 

Vol. II. C at 


at the time they were serving the colony in 1 772. With 
this vessel sailed also the officers Avhom he had put under 
an arrest, the 16th December, 1774. Never was an hos- 
pital ship so ill provided with refreshments. 

On the 21st, Fourgeoud reviewed with pleasure his 
recruited little army, where I was sorry the rangers 
did not appear. He now dispatched one hundred men 
as a patrole to reconnoitre the skirts of his new en- 
campment, of which number 1 had the honour to be 
one. During this time nothing remarkable happened, 
except meeting Avith a large company of quatas, which 
being one of the most remarkable species of monkies in 
the world, from their afTinity to the human race, I cannot 
tacitly pass over. One evening, walking with my black 
boy Quaco Avithout the camp, they came down so Ioav to 
look at us, and threw small sticks and excrements at us, 
that we stopped, and I had an opportunity thoroughly to 
examine them. The quata, or quato, is very large, with 
an enormous tail ; their arms and legs being covered over 
with long black hair, they make a very hideous appear- 
ance indeed ; the more so, as the creature's face is quite 
naked and red, with deep sunk eyes, Avhich gives it much 
the appearance of an old Indian woman. It has short 
ears, and only four fingers without a thumb on its hands 
or fore feet, but it has five toes on the hinder feet, all of 
which have black nails. The extremity of its tail has a 
spiral turn inwardly ; it is naked and callous, by its fre- 
1 quently 


^/^^^^Mr//rrJ(^. /uee<tu^/y//'ce -^ /'//^///■^/yo 


quently hanging to the branches of the trees; for when chap. 
so employed, it serves the animal as a fifth hmb. Most i_,^^-^ 
wonderful is the a2;ility of these monkies in swinfrino- 
from one tree to another, but I never saw them leap. 
Their throwing short sticks and excrements seems to 
be no more than a mimicking of the human actions 
without any purpose, as they neither have strength to 
throw far, nor dexterity to hit their objects, and if they 
befoul them it is by accident only. But M'hat appears 
peculiarly remarkable is, that when one is hurt by a 
musket or arrow, the poor animal instantly claps its hand 
on the wound, looks at the blood, and with the most 
piteous lamentations ascends to tlie vt-ry top of the tree, 
in which he is assisted by his companions ; w-here, hang- 
ing by the tail, he continues to bewail his fate, till by the 
loss of blood he grows totally faint, and drops down dead 
at the feet of his adversaries. 

It is not so extraordinary that one of this species, when 
wounded, should be assisted by his companions in climb- 
ing ; but that they should have so much knowledge in 
botany, as to procure vulnerary herbs, and chew and 
apply them to the wound, is what I cannot credit, though 
it is so confidently asserted by a late traveller : and as to 
the assistance they give in passing a rivei-, by holding each 
others tails, and swinging till the lowermost is thrown 
up to the branch of a high tree, though I have a great 
opinion of Ulloa, who relates it, and has given a print of 

2 it 


it in a vignette ; since he does not say he saw it himself, 
I must take the hberty to doubt this fact*, and even what 
he says he witnessed. 

I must here mention another monkey that I saw at Co- 
lonel Fourgeoud's house, which is in Surinam called the 
wanacoe, and is covered over with long black hair, like 
the quato; but its limbs are shorter and more hairy, and 
its face is a kind of dirty white. This monkey is the only 
one of the species that is not sociable, being constantly 
found alone; and so despicable is this solitary animal, 
that he is continually beaten and robbed of his food by 
all the others, from whom he is too lazy to escape, though 
too cowardl_y to fight. 

Of the long-haired monkies, the saccamnkee is the 
smallest ; indeed, I may say of all the monkies in 

* It is most probable, that Ulloa " thagene, iu the governor's house, 

took the account from Acosta's His- " so taught, as the tilings he did 

tory of the West Indies. This is his " seemed incredible. They sent him 

account, taken from a translation " to the tavern for wine, putting the 

printed in 1604. " pot in one hand and the money in 

" They leap where they list, wind- " the other ; they could not possibly 

" ing their tails about a branch to " get the money out of his hand be- 

" shake it, when they will leap far- " fore he had his pot full of wine. If 

" ther than they can at once ; they " any children met him in the street, 

" ofe a pretty device, tying them" " and threw stones at him, he would 

" selves by the tails one of another, " set his pot down and cast stones 

" and by this means make as it were " against the children, till he had 

" a chain of many, then do they " assured his way ; then would he 

" launch themselves forth." " return to carry home his pot. And, 

Acosta does not say he saw this " which is more, although he were 

himself; but to the following he pro- " a good bibber of wine, yet he would 

fesses he was an eye-witness. Thefe " never touch it till leave was givea 

are his words—" I saiv one in Car- " him." 



Guiana, if not in the world, being not much larger than 
a Norway rat. 

This is a beautiful little animal, with blackish grey 
frizzled hair, a white face, and very bright shining eyes ; 
its ears are large and naked, yet they are not very percep- 
tible, being covered by the very long and white whiskers 
that grow round the whole visage of this little creature: 
its feet are not unlike those of a squirrel, and its tail is 
bushy and annulated. So very delicate is the saccawinkee, 
and so sensible of the cold, that scarcely one of them is 
brought to Europe alive, and if they are they very soon 
pine and die. The Dutch call them the shagarintee, from 
their being chagrmcd at the snialksL trifle. In the an- 
nexed plate, I have delineated both those monkies, the 
large quato, and the small saccawinkee, thus endeavouring 
to correct with my pencil the deficiency of my pen. 

On my return to the Magdenberg, I narrov.'ly escaped be- 
ing crushed to death by an enormous tree, which dropped 
by age just at my feet. These accidents frequently happen 
in the forest ; this, however, only slightly wounded two 
or three of our marines. During this trip we had much 
rain, and Avere obliged to cross over a small creek. We 
cut down one of the palm trees on the water's edge, which 
falling across the river formed a temporary bridge. 

I now paid a visit to the miserable negro Avho had been 
found with his throat cut, and who was so well as to 
be able to converse ; when he declared to me, that he 



committed this violent action with his own hand. The 
suspected officer and sentinel were, therefore, instantly 
acquitted. I asked him by Avhat reason he had been 
incited to suicide ? and he answered — " None." 

" I have," said he, " as good a master and mistress as I 
" could wish, and a family of my own that I much love : 
" I had slept sound during the whole night till about four 
" o'clock in the morning, when awaking 1 took my knife 
" to pick my teeth with it, and inftantaneously cut my 
" throat without knowing why; but the moment after re- 
" pented of what I had done. I then rose from my hammock 
" and got into the canoe to Avash myself, and try to bind 
" up the wound, but stut^piug over the side and bleeding 
" very fast, I turned faint and fell into the liver. I was now 
" no more able to get on board, or to cry for assistance. 
" However, by struggling, I made shift to get on shore 
" where I fell down and lay helpless, till I was picked up 
" by a boat going to Magdenberg; during all which time 
" of nine days I had my perfect senses, and saw a tamanoir 
" or ant-bear come to smell the putrid blood about my 
" neck, M ho, on seeing me move, retired into the forest." 

I gave the poor man some Boston biscuits which I had 
got from Paramaribo, a large calibash with barley to 
make him some soup, and also some Avine. This negro 
appeared to be about sixt}' years of age. 

I now to my sorrow received a letter from Mr. Kennedy, 
who was preparing to visit Holland, requesting that my 



boy Quaco might be returned to his estate. I accordingiy chap. 
sent him down with a letter, offering to buy him of liis ^^^^^1^ 
master as soon as it should be in my power to pay liim. 

On the 2d of April, Colonel Fourgeoud ordered all the 
sick remaining in the colony to Magdenberg, where he 
had erected an hospital and a large victualling magazine. 
Thus all the invalids from Clarenbeck arrived here, with 
surgeons, apothecaries, attendants, &c.: and here, in fact, 
as I said, the air was more healthy. At this period the 
old gentleman Avas particularly ill-natured, and abused 
both friend and foe without distinction ; swearing, that 
not a soul should be exempt from duty, provided they 
could but stand on their legs. About this tune a strong- 
detachment was sent to the estate Bruyinsburgh in Co- 
mewqna, where an insurrection was expected, the slaves 
refusing to work upon a Sunday ; to which, however, 
they were driven by the lash of the whip. 

It was now in the midst of the rainy season, that 
Fourgeoud declared his intention of scouring the woods; 
and, in consequence, gave orders for two strong columns 
to march the next day. The reason for chusing this 
season was, that if he could now dislodge the rebels ihey 
must starve for want, which woul * not be the case in the 
dry months, for then the forest abounds with fruits and 
roots of many kinds. This was, however, in my opinion, 
a false piece of generalship ; if it be considered on the 
other hand, the dreadful havock which the wet weather 



must produce among his troops, of which he killed, I 
suppose, at the rate of twenty to one rebel negro. 

Fourgeoud was himself of a verv strong constitution, 
having been used to hunting and shooting the whole of 
his life-time : to which he added temperance, and the 
daily use of his beloved Tiisan. 

His dress consisted of nothing but a waistcoat, through 
one of the button -holes of Avhich he wore his sword : on 
his head he wore a cotton night-cap, with a white beaver 
liat above it, and in his hand a cane ; but he seldom car- 
ried his musket or his pistols. I have seen him all in 
rags and bare-footed, like the meanest soldier. 

On the morning of the 3d of April, at six o'clock, tlie 
two columns set out upon their march, the one com- 
manded by Colonel Seyburg, the other by Fourgeoud ; 
to which last I had the honour to belong. Our poor 
men were now loaded like asses. They were ordered to 
put their fire-locks in their knapsacks, of course the muz- 
zles excepted : this was to keep them from the rain, which 
absolutely poured in torrents. Our course was south by 
eaft, up among the banks of the Tempatee Creek, Avhere 
we soon came to swamps, and were marching in the water 
above our knees. 

During the first day's march we met some very pretty 
squirrels, which are of several kinds in this country. 
Those that we saw were brown, with the belly Avhite, the 
tail not so bushy ; nor were they, upon the whole, so large 



as those of Europe. There are also Avhite squiiTcls in this 
country with red eyes, and flying squirrels. These, it is 
well known, have no wings, but a membrane between 
the fore and hinder leg, being a part of their skin, which, 
when they leap, expands like the wing of a bat, and by 
this, like a parachute, they rest upon the air, and in their 
flights are earned to a considerable distance. 

On the 4th of April we marched again, our course south 
by east, till two o'clock, when we changed our course to 

This day we passed by piles of fine timber, that were 
left there to rot since 1757, when the estates were demo- 
lished by the negro slaves who were in rebellion. Among 
these were the purple-heart-tree, the iron-wood-tree, and the 
hourracourra, known in England by the name of Brazil. 

The purple-heart-tree grows sometimes to the height 
of fourscore feet, and thick in proportion, with a smooth 
dark brown bark ; the wood is of a beautiful purple co- 
lour and an agreeable smell, and is much esteemed on 
account of its weight and durability. 

The iron-wood-tree, so called from the gravity and per- 
manent quality of its timber, grows to about sixty feet m 
height, with a hght-coloured bark. It is much valued by 
the natives as well as the Europeans, on account of its 
hardness in particular (resisting even the hatchet), and for 
taking a most beautiful bright polish. This wood sinks in 
Vol. II. D The 

The bourracouna, or brazil, grows to between thirty and 
forty feet high, but not very thick, Avith a reddish bark. 
The heart only of this tree is valuable, after the white pithy 
part is cut away, though then it is much diminished. This 
wood is as truly beautiful as it is useful, the colovir being 
a fine crimson, variegated with irregular and fantastical 
black spots, from which, by the French, it is called boi$ 
de lettres. It is heavy, hard, and durable, though rather 
brittle, and is capable of taking the brightest polish ; this 
last is scarce in Guiana, but the others are more plentiful, 
growing on the highest grounds ; where also is found ebony. 
The heavy trees, being shaped into timbers for sugar-mills, 
are chiefly sent to the English West India islands, and 
often sold for the price of fifty guineas each piece. 

The word of command being again given on the 5th, 
we unslung our hammocks, then marched south-south- 
east, and south by east, through deep and dangerous 
marshes up to our breasts in water, and in very heavy rains; 
in which helpless situation we Avere suddenly alarmed, not 
by a party of rebels, but by a company of large monkies, 
which we discovered in the tops of the trees, knocking a 
kind of nuts against the branches to break them for 
their contents, with the greatest regularity, as it were 
keeping time alternately at every stroke, while some of 
them threw down their burthens ; and a nut falling from 
a considerable height, broke the head of one of our ma- 
rines. The sound of breaking these nuts, we had mis- 
taken for the rebel negroes cutting wood with an axe. 



In the evening we encamped near the Tempatee Creek ; c n a p. 
where we made large fires, and built comfortable huts ; ^"^n- 
thus this night we slept protected from the wet. Here M^e 
found the best water I ever tasted : and in the camp I 
saw two remarkable lizards, the one called the devil of the 
woods, and the other agama, in this country. The first is 
an ugly small lizard of a deep brown or blackish colour, 
which runs with amazing swiftness up and down the trees ; 
it has no scales, a large head, and iv is said to bite, which 
is supposed to be an uncommon property in a lizard. The 
other is called the Mexican cameleon, which is remarkably 
splendid ; and, like others of the kind, is endued with 
the property of changing its colour ; but of its nature and 
qualities I can say little more, having never had the oppor- 
tunity of a close examination. In Surinam there is also 
a species of lizard, known by the name of salamander, 
which also I never saw. 

On the 6th we marched again, keeping due west tiM 
twelve o'clock, through very heavy rain and deep water; 
when we changed our course to the north, and passed over 
very high mountains, by many supposed to be pregnant 
with treasure. 

" Rocks rich with gems, and mountains bright with mines, 

" That on the high equator ridgy rise ; 

" Where many a bursting stream auriferous plays : 

" Majestic woods of every vigorous green, 

" Stage above stage high waving o'er the hills." 


D 2 The 


The t\vo highest mountains in South America, are tliat 
peak of the Andes called Chimhorazo, which measures 
20,460 geometrical feet above the surface of the South Sea ; 
having, though under the line, 4000 feet of its summit con- 
tinually covered Avith snow. The other is that, on the slope 
of Avhich is built the city of Quito, at the height of 9,370 
feet, and is thought to be the highest inhabited land in 
South America, if not in the world. 

AVe still continued marching north, on the 7th, over 
mountains, from which, at intervals, we had undoubt- 
edly the most enchanting prospects, as well from the 
wildness of the country, as the beautiful variegated 
verdure displayed in so many different shades through 
this amazing forest. Here I saw a bird which is called a 
woodcock, which appears to have much of the colour of 
those in Europe, but Avhich flew very heavily ; I was 
however informed, that it can run Avith incredible swift- 
nefs. But the objects Avhich most attracted my attention 
were the arnotta-trees, a few of Avhich Ave met with : of 
these I have copied one of the twigs Avith great exactness. 
This tree, Avhich is alfo called the rowcow, or the orlean- 
tree, and by the Indians cossowee, may rather be styled 
a shrub, as it does not groAv above tAvelve feet in height. 
The leaves are greener on one side than the other, and 
are divided by fibres of a reddish broAvn colour, as is also 
the stem ; the pods, which are as large as a small hen's 
egg, are bristled like the outer husk of a chesnut. At 
first they are a beautiful rose colour, Avliich, as they 


^/Ar/// ^'/ mr - vvv/r>/^///'V_-^/?//^r>/^ cyrt 


Lon,t„ii.P„/.IMi„l P„-ri':'ii,„, In J.Joluijoil SfF.ti^U {/innii l„r,l. 


ripen, changes to a dark brown, when they burst open chap. 
and display a rich crimson pulp, in which are contained y^J^Zll^ 
seeds that are black, like those of a grape. The use of 
this pulp I have already described, when speaking of the 
Aborigines or Indians ; and now I present the reader with 
a view of it, though from necessity on a small scale : — 
A is the leaf above ; B the same below ; C the pod before 
it is yet ripe; D the same ripe, and exposing the crim- 
son pulp ; E the black seed covered over with part of the 
pulp. Here again I must take the liberty to observe, that 
the rowcoxi) plant, exhibited by the celebrated Madam 
Merian, is very unlike thp original that I saw; and to my 
great surprize she says it grows on a large tree. 

Having crossed an arm of the ]\Iapanee Creek in the 
evening, we once more returned to our camp at Magden- 
berg ; Mr. Noot, one of our officers, and several others, 
were so ill, that they were carried in their hammocks upon 
poles by the negro slaves, and a great number were so very 
weak that they could scarcely support the weight of their 
emaciated bodies ; but to complain of sickness was to 
mutiny, till they dropped down almost ready to expire. 
During this expedition, in Avhich we still perceived nothing 
of the enemy, I was remarkably fortunate, having neither 
suifered by fatigue, nor been persecuted by extraordinary 
bad usage. The succeeding day Colonel Seyburg's column 
arrived, having, like us, seen no appearance of the rebels. 

On the 9th, my boy Quaco returned from Paramaribo; 



his master, Mr. Walter Kenned}', having, to my great joy, 
sold him to me for the sum of five hundred Dutch florins, 
amounting -with the expences to near fifty pounds, for 
Avhich Colonel Fourgeoud very civilly gave me a bill on 
his agent. The payment of this faithful servant's ran- 
som, of course revived my impatience for the long-Avished 
moment of emancipation of my poor Joanna and her 
boy ; from whose new master I had not yet received 
any answer. 

While we continued here, a negro brought me a 
beautiful butterfly, which I copied with all the correct- 
ness I was master of: and avhich I saw since in Ma- 
dam Merian's collection, where it is coloured very ill. 
This fly was a dark blue tinged Avith green, and vari- 
egated with spots like a peacock's feather, and on each 
wing it had a spot of pale yellow ; the under part of 
the wings were a charming crimson and purple; the 
body a pale red. — The caterpillar is green and yellow ; it 
is crowned with eight horns on the head, and has two 
on the tail. About the same time Captain Fredericy re- 
turned also from traversing the Avoods. He had a corporal 
drowned by slipping off" a tree in crossing over a creek ; 
Avhich accident frequently happened, but the men were 
generally picked up, except this poor fellow, who sunk to 
the bottom instantly with all his accoutrements. 

Another negro also brought me a regale of groe-groe, 

or cabbage-tree worms, as they are called in Surinam. 

5 This 

. yAr /y(j/^/e?y^ ( /-////^Jo// ^A^////»r/zy ^. >w//^, .__ 'y/^/nr/v/v/ 

O y/n; // /mi-y rcr' , (>/.z://///// ^//y:/ 'fc////. 

l.,'tuL<t,,r„blulial lircri-'h-j,^. hx .T.Johnjon . S/PauLt Chiirdi nird . 


This reptile is produced in a tree called the mountain- 
cabbage-free, which is one of the palm species. The 
worm grows to the size and thickness of a man's thumb, 
is produced from the spawn of a black beetle, and is ex- 
tremely fat. However disgusting to appearance, these 
worms are a delicious treat to many people, and they are 
regularly sold at Paramaribo. The manner of dressing 
them, is by frying them in a pan with a very little butter 
and salt, or spitting them on a wooden skewer. In taste 
they partake of all the spices of India, as mace, cinnamon, 
cloves, nutmegs, &c. Several species of these worms 

are produced, in. all tlic palm-ti-oee xvKen beginning tO rot, 

but some are larger than others. They are all of a pale 
yellow colour, with black heads. In the plate annexed 
are represented the above-mentioned fine butterfly, and 
the cabbage- tree-worm, both of the natural size, taken 
from the life. By the Indians and negroes they are 
called toecoema. 

On the 13th, a detachment departed for La Rochelle in 
Patamaca, and the following day a captain was sent with 
a few men back to the Hope, in Comcwina, to protect the 
estates in that river. 

On the same day, the miserable old negro who had cut 
his throat on the 5th day of March, but had since re- 
covered, was seen by some slaves to enter the wood 
with a knife, from which he no more returned, beino; 
soon after found stabbed to death. We were afterwards 




CHAP, informed by his master, that for some time before he had 
attempted to do the same almost regularly fr^m month to 

On the 1 7th, the detachment returned from La Rochelle, 
where the troops of the Society were all sick. 

Colonel Fourgeoud now treated me with the greatest 
politeness. And at his earnest request I presented him, 
on the 20th, with various drawings, representing himself 
and his troops struggling with the hardships annexed to 
the service they were sent on; and which drawings he 
told me were intended to shew the Prince of Orange and 
the States a specimen of whaf- Ko anH hja marines did 
undergo in the forests of Guiana. 

He now gave me leave, for fourteen days, to go to town 
to wish Mr. Kennedy a prosperous voyage to Europe. 
Availing myself therefore of his good humour, I left 
Magdenberg within one hour, and made such dispatch 
that I came to Paramaribo on the 2 2d, where I found my 
friends and little family all well, at the house of Mr. de la 
Mare, to which they were immediately sent from that of 
Mr. Lolkens, who had, during my last absence, enter- 
tained them, and treated them with the greatest attention 
and hospitality. 



New Instances of unprecedented Barbarity — Occurrences 
on Mount Magdenherg — Prices of Provisions at Para- 
maribo — Description of a new Animal — Great Morta- 
lity amongst the Troops in Tempaiee and Comewina 

THE first visit I now made was to Mi: Kennedy, to c h a p. 
bid him farewel ; I then paid five hundred florins ,^^^ 
for the blaek boy, for Mliicb hu gave me a receipt, and 
Quaco was mine. About this time I fell ill with a fever, 
which however lasted but a few days. Walking out on 
the 1 st of May, I observed a crowd of people along the 
water-side, before the house of ]\Ir. S — Ik — r, where ap- 
peared the dreadful spectacle of a beautiful young mu- 
latto girl, floating on her back, with her hands tied be- 
hind, her throat most shockingly cut, and stabbed in the 
breast with a knife in more than eight or ten different 
places. This Avas reported to have been the work of that 
infernal fiend, Mrs. S — Ik — r, from a motive of jealousy, 
suspecting that her husband might fall in love with this 
poor unfortunate female. This monster of a Avoman 
had before drowned a negro infant merely for crying, 
as I have said ; nay, she was accused of still greater bar- 
barity, were greater barbarity^ possible. Arriving one 
Vol. II. E day 


day at her estate to view some negroes newly purchased, 
her eye chanced to fall on a fine negro girl about fifteen 
years of age, who could not even speak the language of 
the country. Observing her to be a remarkably fine 
figure, with a sweet engaging countenance, her diabo- 
lical jealousy instantly prompted her to burn the girl's 
cheeks, mouth, and forehead with a red-hot iron ; she 
also cut the tendon Achilles of one of her legs, thus ren- 
dering her a monster of deformity, and a miserable object 
as long as she lived : the poor victim not knowing Avhat 
she had done to deserve so severe a punishment. 

Some of the negroes now representing lei Lliis lady 
the many cruelties she daily inflicted, and supplicating 
her to be of a milder disposition ; it was reported that 
she instantly knocked out the brains of a Quaderoon 
child, and caused the heads of two young negroes, its re- 
lations, to be chopped off for having endeavoured to 
prevent her ; these heads, when she had left the estate, 
were tied in silk handkerchiefs, and carried by the sur- 
viving relations to Paramaribo, where they were laid at 
the feet of the governor, with the following speech : 

*' This, your Excellency, is the head of my son, and 
" tfds is the head of my brother, struck off by our mis- 
" tress's command, for endeavouring to prevent her mur- 
" ders. We know our evidence is nothing in a state of 
" slavery; but, if these bloody heads be a sufficient proof 
" of what we say, we only beg that such pernicious acts 

" may 


** may be prevented in time to come ; in acknowledg- 
" ment of which we will all chearfully shed our blood for 
*' the preservation and prosperity of our master, our mis- 
" tress, and the colony." 

To this humble and pathetic remonstrance the answer 
was, that they were all liars, and should, as such, be 
flogged round the streets of Paramaribo ; and this most 
iniquitous sentence was executed with the greatest se- 

Such is the consequence of the law of the colony, that 
the testimony of a negro is never to be taken. Had any 
one white person been jjiescut at the above carnage, the 
evidence would have been good, but even then this fury 
would have escaped by paying a fine of fift}^ pounds for 
each murder. — But enough — my soul sinks within me 
while I dwell so long upon the subject. 

On the 2d of May, being again perfectly recovered, I 
took leave of Joanna and her Johnny, for thus he Avas 
named after myself, though the ceremony of baptism 
could not yet be performed; they now continued at my 
friend De la Mare's house, whilst I set out once more for 
Magdenberg in a tent-boat with six oars. 

On the 3d, I called at Egmond, on my French friend 
Monsieur Cachelieu, and next day stopped at Oranjebo or 
Ornamibo, where I was heartily entertained by my old 
adversary Captain Meyland, with whom I had fought at 
the Wana Creek. But now this gentleman declared, that 

E 2 he 


lie loved me better than any man in the colony. He 
was just returned from a twelve days cruize through the 

Among his men I recollected one Cordus, a gentleman's 
son from Hamburgh, in which character I had known 
him, and who had been trepanned into the West India 
Company's service by the ciimps or silver coopers as a 
common soldier. This corps, as I have already said, is 
composed of all nations, Christians, Gentiles, and even 
Jews; the latter, I must observe, devoured pork and 
bacon, without scruple or hesitation, as often as they 
could find it. 

On this spot, which had formerly been a plantation,, 
but was now choked with weeds, I met with some herbs 
which again I cannot pass unnoticed, though I have 
no other names for them than those given me by the 
negroes, one only excepted, which is commonly known 
by the name of the siUqua-hirsulcB, cow-edge, or cow-itch, 
and called by the black people crassy-weeree-weeree. I can 
only describe thb as a kind of pea or rather flattish 
small purple bean, growing in a pod from a slender creep- 
ing vine; these pods are covered with a kind of fine elastic 
spicula, Avhich, when touched, cause an intolerable itch- 
ing. This hairy coat scraped from the pod, and taken in 
a tea-spoon with jelly, &c. has been strongly recom-? 
mended as a vermifuge. A sort of wood was also shewn 
me here by one of the slaves, which he called crassy- 

wood i 


wood; this had the same itching effect when touched, 
but with respect to its general qualities I can say no- 
thing fm-ther. The other shrubs that we found were 
what they called consaca-wceree-xocevee ; these grow 
with lai'ge green leaves, which the negroes use for the 
cure of a disorder in the feet called co/isaca, when they 
can procure no limes or lemons, as I have already men- 
tioned : this plant also makes an excellent sallad. The 
dea-weeree-weeree is a fine wholesome herb, and very much 
esteemed ; but the cutty-zaeeree-weeree is amongst the most 
serious pests in the colony, being a kind of strong edged 

grass, wliicli 13 ill aoi«c places very plfMitiful ; aud wllCU a 

man walks through it will cut his legs like a razor. Herbs 
in general are in this country known by the name of 
weeree-weeree by the negroes. 

On the 5 til, I arrived at Magdenberg. Here Colonel 
Seyburg, and what he called his officers, seemed to form a 
distinct corps from those of Fourgeoud. They appeared 
totally destitute of politeness, and treated each other with 
the greatest rudeness, while their colonel was most cordially 
hated by the commander in chief. This state of things- 
contributed to render our situation still more disagreeable: I 
however had at this time little reason to complain, being for 
the present, at least, in the good graces of Fourgeoud, which, 
by a trifling accident, I hiid nearly again forfeited. Colonel 
Fourgeoud having purcJiUocd of some Indians a couple 
of most beautiful parrots, called here cocatoos, wliich were 



in a cage ready to be shipped oft" as a present to her royal 
highness the princess of Orange, I persuaded Monsieur 
Laurant, his valet-de-cliambre, to take one of them out, 
that I might the better examine it, but the cage-door was 
no sooner opened, than it gave a shriek, and disappeared 
in an instant, flying over the Tempatee Creek. The poor 
valet stood perfectly petrified, and could only pronounce 
-" Voyez-vous ?' whilst I took to my heels to avoid the 
approaching storm, but stopped near enough to observe 
Fourgeoud's motions through the underwood. He was no 
sooner informed of the dreadful accident, than he began 
to storm, swear, and dance like a man totally deprived of 
reason ; he next, by kicking it, killed a poor waddling 
duck belonging to one of our officers ; and at last actually 
trampled his very wig under his feet, while I stood trem- 
bling, and the rest of the spectators were laughing aloud. 
In about half an hour his passion began gradually to cool, 
and then he had recourse to a stratagem which actually 
brought the parrot back into his possession. He placed 
t}ie remaining captive on the top of its cage, tied by a small 
Gord round its claw ; this he set in the open air, putting a 
ripe banana inside, and leaving the door open, so that any 
other bird except the prisoner might come at it ; the poor 
captive at last becoming very hungry, made such a noise 
and shrieking as to be heard by his mate, who returning 
entered the cage in quest of food, and Avas once more de- 
prived of his freedom. I now ventured from my conceal- 
1 1 mentj 


ment, and was acquitted after a gentle reproof; though chap. 
poor Laurant, as may well be imagined, did not escape ,J^ZJ-L^ 
without a thundering lecture. 

The cocatoos are less than the parrots, and of a green 
colour, except the head and a few feathers in the tail, which 
are of a pale red. This bird is crowned with a panashe or 
bunch of feathers, and which generally lie backward, but 
which it erects at pleasure, when it is irritated or afraid. 

I have also seen in Surinam a parrot of a deep slate blue 
colour, though not like those that come from the coast of 
Guinea, which are rather of a lead-grey. This parrot is said 
to be very scarce, and only mhabits tlie deepest recesses of 
the forest, whence it is brought to Paramaribo by the 
Indians : this bird is less than the common parrot, but ap- 
pears very strong and lively. The most common parrots in 
Guiana are those which Marcgrave calls ajurucura. These 
birds are not so large as those that come from Africa ; they 
are green, with the breast and belly a pale yellow ; on the 
top of the head they have a blue spot, and the feet are 
gre}^ with four toes like the rest of the genus, two before 
and two behind ; in the wings they have some feathei's of a 
bright blue, and some a deep crimson ; they are more a 
nuisance than a pleasure in Surinam, where, in prodigious 
flocks, they perch amongst the cofi'ee, maize, rice, &c. and 
commit great devastations; and what makes them a still 
greater nuisance, their shrieking noise is almost insupport- 
able. They always fly in pairs, and very swift, towards the 



east, as I have 'observed, meeting the sun in the morning, 
and toward the west they follow it in the evening : they 
generally breed in remote places and lay two eggs. I 
brought down two of these parrots at a shot when I was at 
Sporksgift estate; these animals not being quite dead, 
scratched mc most terribly with their sharp claws, as they 
are A'ery strong and tenacious of life. We had them 
dressed, and they made no bad soup ; they may also do in 
a pie as rooks in England, but dressed in any other way 
they are tough and disagreeable. These green parrots 
may be taught to speak, laugh, cry, bark, whistle, or mew, 
but not near so well as those which come from Africa. It is 
said, they are often intoxicated by the seeds of the cotton 
plant. These parrots are also subje6l to fits, perhaps from 
their choleric disposition, yet longevity is peculiarly 
ascribed to them by the Indians: they have strong hooked 
bills, which assist them in climbing and cracking very hard 
nuts, and they sometimes bite very severely ; they delight 
in swinging and balancing, hanging from the branches of 
trees, and in their wild as well as domestic state use one of 
their claws as a hand to take their food. 

In Surinam there are also some beautiful paroquets, 
which are a species of parrots, but smaller though not less 
common ; the finest of these is of the size of a very small 
pigeon'; they are of a lively green on the back and tail, 
but the head and neck are auburn, the feathers on the last 
being edged Avith a gold colour, Avhich gives them the 


'/y/^r , '^/nc7.^//uh'- S(^^-'/'€€// !y'////'('/j f'/ (/'///a//// . 

Loiulon.ruhlijhtA Dr,-^i'.'f;,ii,hr .f..M,n..„n X> r,mL' (■/iimli Ihr.l 


appearance of rich scollops or scales : the breast is of a 
leaden hue, the belly lilac, the wings tipped with orange 
and azure, and the bill of a very dark blue; the eyes arc 
the colour of fire, and the feet quite black. The other 
species are perfectly green, with a white bill, and a 
crimson spot on the head ; these make an agreeable 
chattering, but are not so easily domesticated as the 

I was presented this evening by a soldier with a bird of 
a quite different kind, which he had actually caught with 
his hands. This was no other than the annamoe, or Suri- 
nam partxidge, and a. finci creature I never saw : it was 
of the size of a large duck, extremely fat, and of a dark 
brown colour on the back and wings, and on the top of 
the head, the under part of which, the breast, the belly, 
and the thighs, were of a fine cream-colour, intermixed 
with orange feathers, and very small transverse black 
bars. The body was exactly the shape of an egg, it had 
no tail, the neck was long, the bill short, but very sharp- 
pointed, and a little curved ; the eyes were bright and as 
black as jet ; the legs short, of the colour of vermilion, 
with three small toes on each foot. This bird, it is said, 
runs with amazing swiftness, hiding itself amongst the 
grass and weeds, but flies very heavily on account of its 
plumpness, which was the cause of its being tlius over- 
taken by the marine. We had it roasted, and indeed no- 

VoL. II. F thing 


tiling could be more delicious. As I took a correct draw- 
ing of it, I refer the reader to the annexed plate ; where 
he may also see the parrot of South America, as described 
above, besides a few curious nests, of which I have given 
an account in Vol. L p. 375, but where I had no oppor- 
tunity of placing them ; and which, besides their curi- 
osit}^, may serve to shew how much the public are im- 
posed upon; when, in Goldsmith's Animated Nature, 
Vol. V. p. 253, that author asserts, that they are built on 
the banana and plantain trees, where he also describes the 
monkies, and numbers of large serpents as assembling. 
AlHhis I here think it my Juty to pronounce erroneous, 
as I consider it would be unpardonable in me to let such 
absurdities pass by unnoticed. 

On the 9th, an accident had nearly befallen me, which 
must have caused me much poignant and lasting sorrow. 
My black boy, washing my cotton hammock in the Tem- 
patee Creek, was suddenly carried to the bottom by the 
rapidity of the stream, and entangled in its lashings, so 
that both the one and the other disappeared ; the boy, 
however, luckily extricated himself, though with great 
difficulty, and to my great joy, though more than half 
drowned, appeared once more on terra firma; when he 
had the presence of mind instantly to sink a large fish- 
hook, with a lead tied to a strong line, some yards below 
the spot, with which he actually brought up the ham- 
3 mock, 


mock, to our astonishment, the stream running so swift chap. 
that it rolled over the grouncl, and was liable to shift its vLI^ilj 
station every moment. 

The following day, as Captain Hamel was angling, his 
tackle got fast at the bottom of the creek, when, in divino- 
to clear it, I struck my ancle with such violence against 
a rock, that it was several months before it was perfectly 

These accidents appeared greatly to entertain Colonel 
Seyburg, while in return I could not help feeling a degree 
of indignation at what I considered as unhandsome be- 
haviour; but the most extraordhmiy circumstance was, 
that this disgust between Seyburg and myself seemed to 
gain me the favour of old Fourgeoud, almost as much as 
if I had destroyed half the rebel negroes in the colony. — 
During all this time strong patroles cruized between Mao-- 
denberg. La Rochelle, and the Jew Savannah ; and on 
the 1 7th, the commander in chief marched to Patamaca 
with nearly the half of his troops, leaving me the com- 
mand of those that remained on the mountain, for I was 
not able to accompany him, having by this time a dan- 
gerous mortification in my ancle. 

As I had now the prospect of remaining some time at 
Magdenberg, I dispatched Quaco to Paramaribo for pro- 
visions, and orders to buy me a live goat. 

Whatever may be thought of Fourgeoud's manojuvres, 
in not being able to bring the rebels to a pitched battle, 

F 2 it 


it is very certain that he exerted himself and his troops 
to the utmost ; and that by his constantly traversing the 
upper parts of the rivers, and scouring the skirts of the 
colony, he prevented many depredations on the estates, 
which was undoubtedly a very essential service to the 
inhabitants, though at a dreadful expence of blood and 

Being now the commander in chief at this post, the two 
negroes I have formerly mentioned hunting and fishing 
for mc, brought me almost every day one or two pingos, 
which are the wild boars formerly mentioned, besides a 
fish called newmata, some of which are as large as cod, 
and Avhich I shall afterwards describe. With these dain- 
ties I regaled all the officers without exception, while I 
gave to the hospital all the plantains, bananas, oranges, 
and lemons, that were occasionally sent me as presents 
from the Jacob and the plantations in Upper Comewina; 
and never was a deputy-governor more universally be- 
loved. Patroles were also daily sent out to every quarter; 
and the environs of Magdenberg were so completely 
scoured, that no invasion from the rebels could be prac- 
ticable. These precautions Avere the more necessary, as 
they had formerh/ surprised and taken by storm different 
military posts for the sake of ammunition and fire-arms, 
which are to them of the utmost value, and their seizure 
of the most pernicious consequence to the colony. Indeed, 
some posts had not only been attacked and plundered of 



their stores and ammunition, but were actually massacred chap. 


to a man. ^^w-v-*^ 

Mortified that it was not in my power to take a more 
active part at present, I availed myself of this leisure, by 
taking drawings of every animal, reptile or shrub, that I 
thought could illustrate my little collection of natural 
curiosities, which I now began to form some idea of exhi- 
biting to the public, if it should be my fate ever more to 
return to Europe. 

One of my negroes, on the 24th of this month, brought 
me two curious insects; which, though I had no op- 
portunity of drawing, 1 will endeavour to describe: — 
The one (which seemed to have some small affinity to the 
grasshopper kind) was what is here generally called 
spaanse-juffer, and is without exception the most singular 
animal I saw in the colony. The body of this surprising 
creature, though not thicker than a quill, was no less than 
seven inches and a half in length, including the tail ; it 
had no Avings, and was mounted like a spider on six legs 
that were near six inches long ; it had four antennae pro- 
jecting from its head, two being nearly five inches, and 
two much shorter; the head was small, the eyes large, 
black, and prominent, and the tail articulated like that of 
most insects : its colour Avas a brownish green, and, upon 
the whole, it seemed a monster. This creature is found 
near the marshy places, where its long legs appear de- 
signed to enable it to wade through the water, but not to 



swim, (according to Mr. Farmine's opinion) for which its 
feet are not calculated, as they terminate in two small 
claws like those of some beetles. The other was a large 
fly, which Madam Merian, who gives a drawing of it, calls 
the vielleiir, but which I have generally heard called the 
scare-sleep by the Dutch. These words being extremely 
applicable, from the noise it makes towards the evening, 
Avhich nearly resembles the sound of a cymbal or that of 
a razor-grinder when at his work. This remarkable fly, 
whose grinding noise always begins at sun-set or six 
o'clock, is also called the porte-lanterne, or lantern-bearer, 
from the light it diffuses after that time, and which is 
much stronger than that of any of the fire-fly species, 
affording sufiicient light for almost any purpose : these 
flies are above three inches long, and very thick, the body 
green, Mith four transparent wings variegated with little 
marks of all colours, particularly the under wings, on 
which are two large I'oundish spots not unlike those on 
the tail feathers of a peacock. Beneath the head of this 
insect is seen an inverted straight trump or tube like a 
needle, with which it is said to suck its food from the 
flowers. With the same instrument it is here supposed 
to produce that disagreeable, loud, and grinding noise, 
Avhich I have already noticed. But, for my own part, I 
should rather ascribe the noise to the fluttering of its 
transparent wings, as is supposed to be the case with 
some flies in England : a large proboscis or snout striped 




red and yellow, and shaped like the first joint of a man's c ii a p. 

finger, projects from the head, and makes one-third of 

the whole animal; this protuberance is vulgarly called 

its lantern, and emits that surprising light whence it 

takes its second name. I shall only add, that it is a very 

slow creeper, but flies with amazing velocity. 

On the 26th, my boy Quaco arrived from Paramaribo 
with the following list of provisions, which he had pur- 
chased forme. In order to give the curious a just idea of 
the prices in Surinam when things are cheapest, I will 
here insert some articles as charged to my account, with 
the prices in English moircy, calculating at the rate of 
eleven florins to one pound sterling. 

These articles were as follow : 

2 bacon hams, 31 lbs. at 15 J. per lb. 

1 small cag of butter, 10 lbs. at Is. lOd. per lb. 

1 small ditto of flour, 1 00 lbs. at 4f/. per lb. 

1 Dutch cheese, 1 1 lbs. at lod. per lb. 

2 quart bottles of vinegar, at l s. l Od. per quart. 
4 lbs. spermaceti candles, at 35. 8d. per lb. 
2 lbs. dried sausages, at Qs. gd. per lb. 

The prices of wine and spirits I have already mentioned 
in the twelfth chapter. 

He also brought me a goat with its kid to supply me 
with milk, for which I paid twenty florins, or near two 



pounds sterling: these prices are at least double, and some 
treble, to what they used to be in England. 

Goats are very common in all Guiana; they are not 
large, but very beautiful creatures, vith small horns, and 
very short smooth hair, mostly of a dun-colour ; they are 
as nimble as stags, and are kept on all the estates, where 
they breed fast and give much milk ; they are also deli- 
cious eating when killed young. 

I had now the disagreeable news, that all my letters for 
Europe were sunk on board Captain Visser, who was 
wrecked in the Texel Roads among the ice. I was 
also sincerely grieved to hear that mj good friend Mr. 
Kennedy, with his lady and family, had taken their final 
farewel of the colony, and sailed for Holland. This 
gentleman, Mr. Gordon, and a Mr. Gourluy, were the 
only Scotch ; a Mr, Buckland, a Mr. Townsend, and Mr. 
Halfhide, the only English; and Captain Macneal, the 
only native of Ireland, residing in this colony. 

On the 28th, Colonel Fourgeoud returned with his 
command from Patamaca, much emaciated himself, and 
his men nearly exhausted by fatigue. He had left a 
great number behind him in the hospital at La Rochelle, 
but heard no account whatever of the rebels, although he 
varied his route every time. It was therefore pretty evi- 
dent that they were routed, if latterly there had been any 
settled at all : but where to find them in this unbounded 



forest was the question. He however never despaired, chap, 
and seemed as eager to discover the haunts of the rebels v-^„>,^-^ 
as he had been formerly in springing a covey of partridges, 
or discovering a nest of black badgers. 

On the 29th, Mr. Matthew, one of our officers who had 
been out shooting, presented me with the Taibo, an ani- 
mal that is here called the wood-rat. This creature was 
the size of a young hare^ and of a reddish brown colour, 
being remarkably thin, with long limbs, a roundish head, 
and a tail not unlike that of a sucking-pig ; the claws 
were exactly like those of a conunon rat, but larger in 
proportion, and so was the head, mouth, teeth, and whis- 
kers ; the ears were short and naked, the eyes black and 
prominent, with a white iris ; it is said to run xery fast : 
we had it dressed, and ate it, having been told that it 
Avas very good, and so we found it, sweet, tender, and 
even fat, notwithstanding its lank appearance. This 
creature, on account of its size, reminds me of another 
animal, known in this country by the name of crabho- 
dago, or the crabbed dog, for its matchless ferocit\% as it 
kills and devours every thing that comes in its way, without 
exception, whether quadrupeds, fowls, or reptiles ; and 
never seeming to be glutted with blood, it murders, even 
without being hungry, all it can vanquish, which, on 
account of its courage, activity, and strength, are not 
a few, though it be not larger than a common cat. From 
what I have said, I should apprehend it much resembles 
Vol. II. G the 


the icJmcumon, but still more that animal mentioned by- 
Mr. Allemand, in the Comit de Button ; (see Vol. IV. p. 
266.) which he there calls the gr'ison or grey-weazel, though 
this that I mention was rather larger ; and he says, that 
notwithstanding its being a native of Surinam, none of the 
people coming from that country could give any account 
of it. If this be the same animal, (as I doubt not, and 
have therefore given it the name of the crahbo-dngo or 
grison) I am happy to have had it in my power to give the 
reader some account of it. I shall now literally quote 
the Count's own words, as extracted from Mr. Allemand, 
which will afford the best proof of its being the same 
animal, when compared with the annexed plate, where 
both the wood-rat, and the crahho-dago or grison, are re- 
presented ; and had I seen this account during the Count's 
life, I Avould have most assuredly taken the liberty of in- 
forming him by a letter, of what I now, though in this 
unconnected method, relate to the public. 

" I received," says Mr. Allemand, " the small animal 
" represented in the plate "*. In the catalogue it was 
" called the grey-weasel, from which circumstance I de- 
" rived the name grison, because I knew not how it is 
" denominated in the country where it is found. The 
" whole upper part of its body is covered Avitli deep 
" brown hair, having white points, Avhich gives it a greyish 
" brown colour : under the head and neck is a bright 

* The Dutch edition, Vol. XV. 

" grey. 

y/fr C rf//y^>r///^/^, (f7'^r/^^77i/9 

Lon.l..,.,rnhli^l,„i nrcrj",j,^,l,y J.Julm^on.Meaub ,7.,a^ rard. 


<«grey, because the hairs are very short, and the white 
" part is of equal lengtli with the brown. The muzzle, 
" the under part of the body, and legs, are black, v/hich 
" singularly contrasts with the grey colour on the head 
" and neck. 

" The head of this animal is very large in proportion 
" to its body, its ears almost form a semicircle, its eyes 
" are large, and its mouth is armed with strong grinders 
" and sharp tusks : it has six cutting teeth in each jaw, 
" four of them hardly rising above the gums. Both the 
" fore and hind feet have five toes, with yellowish claws ; 
" the tail is pretty long, and terminates in a point. 

" The grison has a greater resemblance to the weazel, 
" than to any other animal, but it belongs not to the 
" weazel tribe ; for its body is not long enough, and its 
" legs are too long. It is not mentioned by any author 
" or traveller. I shewed it to several persons who had 
" lived long in Surinam, but none of them knew it ; 
" hence it either must be a rare animal, even in its 
" native coimtr}^, or it must live in deserts and unfre- 
" quented places : the length of its body is about seven 
" inches ; 1 have not been able to learn anj^ thing of its 
*' history." 

To this I shall only add my surprize. — It is true that 
tliis animal is very rare in Surinam, but it probably owes 
its not being described by naturalists to its extreme fero- 

G 2 city, 


city, which is without example, it being a very uncommon 
circumstance to take a crabbo-dogo or grison ah\ e. 

Our old commander and I were now inseparable friends, 
to whose board being daily invited, he requested me to 
paint his portrait at full length in his bush equipage, 
'which was to be engraved at the expence of the town of 
Amsterdam, and where he thought himself now as great a 
man as the Duke of Cimiberland was in England after the 
battle of Culloden. 

Having provided a large sheet of paper, and some 
China ink, T began to delinpaip thi*j wonderful character 
in his OAvn hut. While I was now looking full in his face, 
to examine the features of this first of despots, and laugh- 
ing aloud, to think how he and I now sat staring at one 
another, the whole mountain Avas suddenly shook by a 
tremendous clap of thunder, Avliile the lightning actually 
scorched the Colonel's forehead ; and, what is very curi- 
ous, broke all the eggs under a hen that was sitting in a 
corner of the room where we were engaged. The hero's 
features being re-composed, I proceeded, and the picture 
was completed in a short time after, to his great satisfac- 

About this time the captive rebel, September, who was 
taken in the year 1 773, died of a dropsy. Ever since his 
capture, when his companion was shot, tliis poor fellow 
was obliged to follow Fourgeoud like a dog through all 


his expeditions; the colonel always expecting that this 
negro would, one day or other, conduct him to different 
haunts of the rebels — but he was mistaken. The other 
negro slaves, suspecting that he had actually given some 
information, attributed his dreadful death to a punish- 
ment from God, for his want of fidelity to his countrymen, 
to whom they supposed he had sworn to be true. 

The reader may remember, that I have stated it in the 
third Chapter, as an invariable article of belief among the 
African negroes, that whoever breaks his oath shall die 
miserably in this wuild, and be puuialied for ever in that 
which is to come. 

By the 2d of June, the Hope in Comewina was become 
so very unwholesome for want of cleanliness, and being 
kept free from inundations (as it was much neglected by 
the newly-arrived troops which were now stationed there,) 
that the commanding officer and most of his men were 
rendered imfit for duty by sickness, and many of them 
already buried. To this place Colonel Fourgeoud ordered 
down Captain Brant to take the command, with a fresh 
supply of men, and orders to send, not to town but to 
Magdenberg, all the invalids he should relieve. These 
orders he gave to the above officer in such a brutal man- 
ner, and dispatched him so suddenly, that he had not even 
time to pack up his cloaths; Avhile Colonel Seyburg de- 
prived him of his only servant, whom he took for himself. 
This usage so much affected Captain Brant, that he burst 



CHAP, into tears, and declared he did not wish longer to survive 
,^J^IU^ such galling treatment : he then departed to the Hope, 
truly with a broken heart. 

Upon his arrival he was informed that Captain Brough, 
the late commanding officer, was dead. This poor man 
had been on hard service in the woods, and being very 
corpulent could no longer support the fatigues and ex- 
cessive heat ; he melted down very fast, and a putrid fever 
at last occasioned his dissolution. Captain Brant was soon 
followed by Colonel Scyburg to the Hope, with orders to 
inspect the sick. — In this interval of inaction, I ihall de- 
scribe two fishes, which, though very different in size and 
colour, equally merit particular attention. 

The firfl, and indeed the only one of the kind I ever 
saw, was caught by an angler. It was about the size of 
a large anchovy, and, the dorado excepted, was certainly 
the most beautiful coloured fish I ever saw. Its back and 
sides were divided in longitudinal bars of fine yellow and 
a deep blueish black, the belly was silver, the eyes were 
black and gold, and the fins a glowing transparent vermi- 
lion ; its shape was not unlike that of a trout, and the 
whole was covered with small scales ; it had one dorsal 
fin on the middle of its back, with only the vestige of 
another near the tail, which was forked : under its belly 
were five fins, two pectoral, two ventral, and one behind 
the anus ; the under jaw proje6led before the upper jaw, 
and made its mouth appear reversed ; the gills were small. 
1 3 Having 


Having enquired concerning this little fish, the onl}'^ in- 
formation I could obtain was from a black man, who 
called it dago-fisee. 

The other is that fine large fish called by the English 
rock-cod, by the Indians baro-ketta, and new-mara by the 
negroes, which I have several times mentioned, but not 
described ; they are taken plentifully in all the upper 
parts of the rivers. This fish is the size of a large cod, 
but covered with scales, and by some compared to a 
salmon ; the back is a brown olive colour, the belly is 
white, the head is strong, with small eyes, of which the 
pupil is black and the iris grey ; the mouth is very large, 
and beset with one row of sharp teeth like those of a 
pike, and, like it, this creature is extremely voracious; 
the tail is obtuse and dark olive ; as also the fins, six in 
number, one dorsal, two pectoral, two ventral, and one 
abdominal. This fish is extremely delicious eating, and 
particularly esteemed by the white inhabitants at Para- 
maribo, where it is very scarce, though in the upper 
parts of the rivers they are taken in great abundance. 
I painted these two fishes veiy correctly, the dago-Jish as 
large as life, and the new-mara considerably less. The 
drawings Avere honoured in Surinam with the epithets of 
masterly performances. 

Several officers who kept poultry and hogs at this pe- 
riod lost all the latter in the space of two days, being poi- 
soned probably by eating duncane, or some other fatal 



weed that was unknown to us. And yet it has been a 
general observation, as I have said before, that all ani- 
mals know by instinct to distinguish their food from their 

Mr. Seyburg now returned from the Hope in triumph, 
with Lieutenant Declerlin (one of Colonel Fourgeoud's 
officers) guarded by a serjeant and six marines with fixed 
bayonets, for having been wanting in respect, as that gen- 
tleman pleased to call it. 

On the 7th, the sick officers and soldiers also arrived 
from the Hope m barges; some of the latter, behig too 
ill to bear removing, died on the passage without medi- 
cines and without assistance. One of our surgeons died 
also this day in camp, and a number of the privates died 
daily. Tliis was the consequence of having marched so 
much in the wet season, Avhich was judged however by 
our chief to be the only season in which he was likely to 
root the rebels from the forest of Guiana. 




A Tyger taken in the Camp — Fatal Rencounter of a Tarty 
with the Rebels, who killed several of the Troops, and 
forced the rest hack — Description of a Planter of Surinam 
— Contagious Distempers — Suicide — Scene of primitive 

I HAVE just mentioned that several officers kept poul- chap. 
try, numbers of which were now taken away every ,J^^1^, 
night by some unknown marauder ; when a Captain Bolts 
(suspecting the coati-mondi or crahbo-dago) made a trap of 
an empty wine-chest, only by supporting the lid with a 
stick fixed to a long cord, into which (having first secured 
all the other poultry) he put a couple of live fowls, the 
whole guarded by two negroes at some distance. They 
had not been many hours on their post, when hearing the 
fowls shriek, one negro pulled the rope, and the other 
ran to secure the invader by sitting on the lid : when this 
proved to be actually a young tyger, who Avould yet have 
cleared his way by beating against the box, but that 
it was immediately secured by strong ropes, and drawn 
along, with the prisoner in it, to the river; where, being 
held under Avater, he Avas drowned, under the most vigo- 
rous efforts, by beating against the chest to effect his 
Vol. II. H escape. 


escape. Captain Bolts ordered the skin to be taken off, 
Av hich he kept in remembrance of so very strange a cir- 

The Count de Buffon asserts, that there are no tygers 
in America, but animals much resembling them, which go 
by that name. I shall however describe them from actual 
observation, as I found them, and leave the reader to de- 
termine whether they are tygers or not. 

The first and largest is that called the jaguar of Guiana. 
This animal, which has by some been represented as a des- 
picable little creature, not larger than a greyhound, is, 
on the contrary, very fierce, strong, and dangerous ; some 
of them measuring, from the nose to the root of the tail, 
not less than six feet : and let us not forget the print of 
that enormous tyger's foot, seen by myself in the sand, 
near Patamaca; though it may be allowed, that creature 
was of an extraordinary size, and the sand very loose. — 
The jaguar is of a tawny orange colour, and the belly 
white ; on the back it is spotted with longitudinal black 
bars; on the sides with irregular rings, light-coloured in 
the center ; and all over the rest of the body, and the tail, 
the spots are smaller, and perfectly black: its shape is in 
every sense like that of the iVfrican tyger, and being all of 
the cat kind, they need no particular description ; but their 
size and strength being so much greater than that little 
domestic animal, they devour a sheep, or a goat, with 
the same facility as a cat would kill a mouse or a rat; 



nay, cows and horses are not protected from their at- 
tacks, for these they frequently kill on the plantations ; 
and though they cannot carry them off into the forest on 
account of their weight, they tear and mangle them in a 
dreadful manner, only for the sake of the blood, Avith 
which this ferocious animal is never glutted. It has even 
happened that the jaguar has carried off young negro 
women at work in the field, and too frequently their chil- 
dren. This contemptible animal, as it is called and mis- 
represented by some authors, will beat down a wild boar 
with the single stroke of its paw, and even seize by the 
throat the strongest stallion that ever was mounted in 
Guiana; while its savage nature, and thirst after blood, is 
such that it cannot be tamed : it will, on the conti'ary, 
bite the very hand that feeds it, and very often devours 
its own offspring ; still this creature is not a match for 
the ahoma-make, which, when it comes within its reach, 
has the power of crushing it to a jelly in but few mo- 

The next is the couguar, called in Surinam the red 
tyger. — This indeed may, Avith more propriety, be com- 
pared to a greyhound, for its shape, though not for its 
size; being much larger than the dog Avhich it resembles 
in make, but it is not in general so large and heavy as the 
jaguar. The colour of this animal is a reddish brown; the 
breast and belly are a dirty white, with long hair, and not 
spotted; the tail an earthy colour, the extremity black ; 

II 2 the 


the head is small, the body thin, the limbs long, with tre- 
mendous whitish claws ; the teeth are also very large, the 
eyes prominent, and sparkling like stars. This creature 
is equally ferocious with the former. 

Another of the same species is the tyger-cat, which is 
extremely beautiful. This animal is not much larger than 
I have seen some cats in England: it is of a yellow colour, 
with small annulated black spots, which are white within ; 
the belly is a light colour; the ears are black, with a 
white spot on each ; the hair is smooth, and the skin is 
very much esteemed : the shape like that of the tyger. 
The tyger-cat is a very lively animal, with its eyes emitting 
flashes like lightning ; but ferocious, mischievous, and un- 
tameable, like the rest of the kind. 

In Guiana is still another of this species, called the 
jaguaretta, of a blackish colour, Avith still blacker spots ; 
but of this last I can say very little, having never seen 
one; and, indeed, the others but very seldom. Of the 
jaguar, however, and the tyger-cat, I present the reader 
with a drawing. All these animals have long whiskers, 
like common cats; they sometimes climb trees, but ge- 
nerally lie in ambush under the verdure, whence they 
bound with uncommon agility on their helpless prey; 
which having murdered, they drink the blood warm, 
and never cease to tear and devour it till they are gorged ; 
but when no longer animated by hunger, they are cow- 
ardly, and may be put to flight by a common spaniel. 


t'l y/iO-Zixa nu /; fj/-'://.o'r/- <>/ - // r/r/ -[j /'/ 

oyne^'t^y/'- /•■(/// ^z/' ( '///r/ /u/y/fJ'^. 

Lomlon.Fi'hIi.i-licil />i;-':i":' i-;i/,-,,l'y.l..h'/i/i.mi ..f. f'liil.rCriiiri/iYMrl . 


Of fire also they are exceedingly afraid, which is the best 
guard to keep them at a distance, and as such, made use 
of every night by the Indians in Guiana. More than 
once it has been observed, that tygers had entered our 
camps for want of these precautions, but fortunately with- 
out committing any depredations. 

As I now seemed to be on a friendly intercourse with 
Colonel Fourgeoud, I one day presented the old gentleman 
with a plan and bird's-eye view of all the encampment of 
Magdeiiberg, which pleased him so much that he sent 
this (as he had done the first) to the Prince of Orange 
and the Duke of Brunswick, as a specimen of his mili- 
tary manoeuvi'es, &c. This present had the desired effect; 
for I not only became one of his favourites, but, declar- 
ing his highest esteem for the Scots and English, he even 
promised to recommend me in particular at court. I 
was so satisfied with this change in his behaviour, that I 
now took the blame of all former animosity on myself. 
His attention, however, was suddenly attracted by affairs 
of more consequence ; since, on the 14th of June, the news 
arrived that some rebel huts were discovered near the sea- 
side ; that Captain Meyland had marched in quest of the 
enemy, with one hundred and forty men of the Society 
troops, and had actually discovered them ; but in wading 
through a deep marsh, had been first attacked by the ne- 
groes, who had killetl several of his people (among whom 
his nephew, a young volunteer), wounded more, and 



c HAP. beaten back the whole detachment, after they had already 
yj^ ' ; passed the marsh, and were mounting fast on the oppo- 
site beach to storm the village. From this news it was 
evident, that our sable foes were not to be trifled with ; 
and since they were thus discovered, orders were imme- 
diately issued for all the troops that were able to march to 
keep in readiness, viz. Fourgeoud's marines, the Society re- 
giment, and my favourite rangers, who wanted no spur, 
and now could hardly be restrained till the others were 
prepared. These troops were to be aascmbled at a cer- 
tain place of rendezvous, while also a detachment marched 
to La Rochelle, to give information. In consequence of 
these orders all was activity and vigour in the camp, in 
hopes that this decisive stroke would end the war, and 
their misery together ; and this, therefore, was the time 
to lead them on to a spirited attack ; but, for reasons best 
knoAvn to himself, our connuandcr dela3'ed his movement 
till the 20th of Augvist, which was above two months. 

In the mean time the disagreeable news arrived, that 
Captain Brant was almost dead with a violent illness at 
the Hope, which was at present the place where a num- 
ber of the troops were quartered, though no better than a 
pest-house, by the inundations; and for the command at 
this place (as being one ot iiis favouiites) Fourgeoiid now 
singled me out: declaring, that I might thank my sound 
constitution for bestowing; on me this honour. From this 
conduct, I plainly discovered that all his friendship was 
3 entirely 


entirely interested ; and I felt my resentment involuntarily chap. 


rekindled against him, for thus sending me to an in- .^ ^^^ 
glorious death, when he had so fair an opportunity of 
employing me honourably on a6lual service. 

On my arrival at the Hope, my orders Avere to send 
poor Captain Brant not down to Paramaribo, but to Mag- 
denberg. This young man, however, frustrated the ty- 
rannical command ; for, j ustly suspecting it, he had set 
out with a tent-barge to town a few hours before I came, 
where he Avas no sooner carried to his lodgings than he 
expired, from the efFe(5ts of a burning fever, and a broken 
heart. No man could be more regretted than Captain 
Brant ; nor did Fourgeoud ever lose a better officer, or I 
a sincerer friend. 

This being the second commander dead in so short a 
time, I quietly took for my motto — 

Hodie tibi eras mihi. 

But I Avas happily mistaken, and continued still as Avell 
as ever I Avas in my life, folIoAving the advice of old 
Caramaca, and bathing tAvice a day in the river ; Avhile 
I despised shoes and stockings, as useless and unnecessary 

On the 20th of June, a few days after my arrival, I had 
the honour to receive a visit from the governor, Mr. Nep- 
veu, on his return from his estate Appecappe to Parama- 
ribo, Avith Avhom I condoled on the loss of his lady, Avho 



had died very lately ; I also received daily visits from 
several planters, who complimented me with refreshments 
from their plantations : and here I had an excellent op- 
portunity of acquainting myself with the customs and 
manner of living of these West-India nabobs. 

A planter in Surinam, when he lives on his estate, 
(which is but seldom, as they mostly prefer the society 
of Paramaribo) gets out of his hammock with the rising 
sun, viz. about six o'clock in the morning, when he makes 
his appearance under tlip piazza nf his house; where his 
coffee is ready waiting for him, which he generally takes 
with his pipe, instead of toast and butter ; and there he is 
attended by half a dozen of the finest young slaves, both 
male and female, of the plantation, to serve him ; at this 
sanctum-sanctorum he is next accosted by his overseer, 
who regularly every morning attends at his levee, and 
having made his bows at several yards distance, with the 
most profound respe6t informs his Greatness what work 
was done the day before ; Avhat negroes deserted, died, 
fell sick, recovered, were bought or born ; and, above all 
things, which of them neglected their work, affected sick- 
ness, or had been drunk or absent, &c.; the prisoners are 
generally present, being secured by the negro-drivers, and 
instantly tied up to the beams of the piazza, or a tree, 
without so nmch as being heard in their OAvn defence; 
when the flogging begins, with men, women, or children, 
without exception. The instruments of torture on these 



occasions arc long hempen whips, that cut round at every chap. 
lash, and crack like pistol-shot ; during which they alter- vj„_^-^ 
nately repeat, " Dankee, tnassera," (Thank you, master). 
In the mean time he stalks up and down with his overseer, 
affecting not so much as to hear their cries, till they are 
sufficiently mangled, when they are untied, and ordered 
to return to their work, without so much as a dressing. 

This ceremony being over, the dressy negro (a black 
surgeon) comes to make his report ; who being dismissed 
with a hearty curse, for allonins; any slaves to be sick, 
next makes her appearance a superannuated matron, with 
all the young negro children of the estate, over wliom 
she is governess ; these, being clean washed in the river, 
clap their hands, and cheer in chorus, when they are sent 
away to breakfast on a large platter of rice and plantains ; 
and the levee ends with a low boAv from the overseer, as 
it begun. 

His worship now saunters out in his morning dress, 
which consists of a pair of the finest Holland trowsers, 
white silk stockings, and red or yellow Morocco slippers ; 
the neck of his shirt open, and nothing over it, a loose 
flowing night-gown of the finest India chintz excepted. 
On his head is a cotton night-cap, as thin as a cobweb, 
and over that an enormous beaver hat, that protects his 
meagre visage from the sun, M'hich is already the colour 
of mahogany, while his whole carcass seldom weighs 
above eight or ten stone, being generally exhausted by 

Vol. IT. I the 


the climate and dissipation. To give a more complete 
idea of this fine gentleman, I in the annexed plate present 
him to the reader with a pipe in his mouth, which almost 
every where accompanies him, and receiving ti glass of 
Madeira wine and water, from a female quaderoon slave, 
to refresh him during his walk. 

Having loitered about his estate, or sometimes ridden on 
horseback to his fields, to view his increasing stores, he 
returns about eight o'clock, when, if he goes abroad, lie 
dresses, but if not, remains jii'^t as he is. Shoidd the 
first take place, having only exchanged his trowsers for a 
pair of thin linen or silk breeches, he sits down, and hold- 
ing out one foot after the other, like a horse going to be 
shod, a negro boy puts on his stockings and shoes, which 
lie also buckles, while another dresses his hair, his wig, 
or shaves his chin, and a third is fanning him to keep off 
the musquitoes. Having now shifted, he puts on a thin 
coat and waistcoat, all white ; '^vhen under an umbrella, 
carried by a black boy, he is conducted to his barge, which 
is in waiting for him with six or eight oars, well provided 
with fruit, wine, water, and tobacco, by his overseer, who 
no sooner has seen him depart, than he resumes the com- 
mand with all the usual insolence of office. But should 
this prince not mean to stir from his estate, he goes to 
breakfast about ten o'clock, for which a table is spread in 
the large hall, provided with a bacon ham, hung-beef, 
fowls, or pigeons broiled; plantains and sweet cassavas 
1 2 roasted ; 

/' A/r/ /u/ /// . /'/a//A /■ / // /v/,/. //<>/■///' //^y^y /vy^/ 


ri-asted ; bread, butter, cheese, &c, with which he drinks c 11 a p. 
strong beer, and a glass of Madeira, Rhenish, or Mozell ,^X!^il\ 
wine, while the cringing overseer sits at the farther end, 
keeping his proper distance, both being served by the 
most beautiful slaves that can be selected ; — ^and this is 
called breaking the poor gentleman's fast. 

After this he takes a book, plays at chess or billiards, 
entertains himself with music, &c. till the heat of the day 
forces him to return into his cotton hammock to enjoy his 
meridian nap, which lie could no more dispense with than 
a Spa!iiard with his siesta, and in which he rocks to and 
fro, like a performer on the slack-rope, till he falls asleep, 
without either bed or covering ; and during which time 
he is fanned by a couple of his black attendants, to keep 
him cool, &c. 

About three o'clock he awakes by natural instinct, 
when having washed and perfumed himself, he sits down 
to dinner, attended as at breakfast by his deputy governoi" 
and sable pages, where nothing is wanting that the world 
can afford in a western climate, of meat, fowls, venison, 
fish, vegetables, fruits, &c. and the most exquisite wines 
are often squandered in profusion; after this a cup of 
strong coffee and a liqueur finish the repast. At six o'clock 
he is again waited on by his overseer, attended as in the 
morning Ijy negro-drivers and prisoners, when the flogg- 
ing once more having continued for some time, and the 
necessary orders being given for the next day's work, the 

I 2 assembly 


assembly is dismissed, and the evening spent with weak 
punch, sangaree, cards and tobacco. — His worship gene- 
rally liegins to yawn about ten or eleven o'clock, when he 
withdraws, and is undressed by his sooty pages. He then 
retires to rest, where he passes the night in the arms of 
one or other of his sable sultanas (for he always keeps a 
seraglio) till about six in the morning, when he again 
repairs to his piazza walk, where his pipe and coffee are 
Avaiting for him ; and where, with the rising sun, he begins 
his round of dissipation, like a petty nionarch, as capri- 
cious as he is despotic and despicable. 

Such absolute power indeed cannot fail to be peculiarly 
delightful to a man, Avho, in all probability, was in his 
own country, Evn'ope, a — nothing. 

But, in this colony, this is too frequently the case, 
where plantations are sold upon credit, and left (by the 
absent proprietor) to the appraisers, who, by selling cheap, 
have generally an understanding with the buyer. 

These are the planters who are the pest of the colony ; 
such as the fine gentleman just described, who, Avhile he 
lives at the above rate, pays nobody, under pretence of 
bad crops, mortality amongst the slaves, &c. but like an 
upstart rascal massacres the negroes by double labour, 
ruins and pillages the estate of all its productions, which 
he clandestinely sells for ready money, makes a purse, 
and runs away. Exceptions, however, take place in every 
circumstance of life ; and I have known many planters 



in Surinam as good men as 1 ever would desire to be ac- 
quainted with, which I have ah'eady mentioned. 

As for the ladies, they indulge themselves just as much, 
by giving way to their unbounded passions, and especially 
to the most relentless barbarity. But while I can bear 
witness to the exalted virtues of such a woman as Mrs. 
Elizabeth Danforth, now Mrs. Godefroo}^ and a few more 
whose characters shine with treble lustre, I shall draw a 
veil over all the imperfections, too common to their sex 
in this climate. Before [ drop this subject, however, I 
must attest, that hospitality is in no country practised with 
greater cordiality or with less ceremony, a stranger being 
every where at home, and finding his table and his bed 
at whatever estate necessity or choice may occasion him 
to visit. This is the more to be regarded, as no inns are 
to be met with in the neighbourhood of any of the Suri- 
nam rivers. 

To vary the subject a little, I will now describe three 
kinds of fish, Avith which I occasionally entertained my 
friends. The sun-Jish, the snake-^sh, and the spotted-cat. 
The first frequents both the salt and fresh water, like 
the salmon : it is about eighteen or twenty inches long, 
shaped not unlike a kite ; and being covered over with 
scales of a golden colour, when it swims in clear water 
darts forth very bright beams, from which it has derived 
its name of the sun-Jish. The snake-Jish takes its name 
from its resemblance to that reptile : this is a black eel 



with a white belly, it is not large, and is very common 
in all the rivers. The spotted-cat is called so from its 
tabby colour, and long whiskers: this fish is formed not 
unlike a jjike, M'ith very sharp teeth ; it has no scales, it is 
extremely fat, weighing sometimes above seventy pounds, 
but its flesh is yellow, and not esteemed the most delicate 
food : however, here excellent fish is seldom wanting, 
such as the new-mara, passessee, warappa, jackee, and 
many others already noticed. The Hope, M'ith all this, 
was now truly a most shocking place of residence : here 
I much regretted my former cottage, and sweet com- 
panion, the one in ruins, the other at Paramaribo ; while, 
at present, not a man was to be seen without an ague or 
fever, or some other wasting complaint. The dysenterj'^ 
also began to make its appearance ; and to add to our 
distress, we had neither surgeon, medicines, nor so much 
as a light, and very little bread left. I was moved with 
the situation of the troops, and again distributed all my 
biscuits, lemons, oranges, sugar, wine, ducks and fowls, 
amongst the unhappy sufferers, with a few spermaceti 

On the 23d I sent up to the hospital at Magdenberg two 
sick officers, Orlelgh and Francen, with all the privates 
that could bear to be- transported ; and, at the same time, 
I repeated my humble entreaties to be soon relieved 
from so very disagreeable a situation (for the confine- 
ment to which there Avas not the least necessity), and 



requested to be one of the party to march against the 
rebels, but to no purpose ; while the accounts came from 
below that a fresh nest of negroes were discovered, even 
close to Paramaribo, and the news came from above that 
the troops there were daily dying away ; amongst others, 
on the 22d, expired a Captain Seyburg, brother to the 
Colonel. This was actually the third captain who died 
within the space of one month. 

On the 26th two fine young officers arrived, unfit fi)r 
service by ruptures, occasioned by the slippery state of 
the ground in the rainy season. 

This evening one of our marines named Spanknevel, 
was missing, and was not found till the 29th, when he 
was discovered suspended by a nebee to the branch of a 
tree. Not one of his comrades would cut him down, he 
having handed himself; alleging, that to touch him, ac- 
cording to their prejudices, (being Germans) would render 
them as infamous as himself. Wherefore, by my orders, 
he Avas taken down, and interred by the negroes. 

An order at last came for my relief, and I immediately 
set out for Goed-Accoord, in company with Captain Bolts ; 
where the planter, Mr. de Lange, and his lady, received 
us with great hospitality. This sugar estate being the 
farthest that is cultivated in Rio Comewina, and conse- 
quently exposed to the neighbourhood of the rebel negroes, 
Oiakes the slaves liable to their seductions ; they are there- 


fore treated with peculiar kindness and indulgence, to 
prevent their concurring in any insurrection, or being per- 
suaded to leave their present situation. 

Here we saw a great novelty indeed, the young negro 
women waiting at the table all stark naked, as they came 
into the world. I was at first startled at the unusual ap- 
pearance ; and asking the cause, ^\'as modestly answered 
by the lady of the house, that it was ordered so by their 
mothers and matrons, to prevent (by such means of de- 
tection, said they) their too eavly intercourse with the 
males, and child-bearing, which would s])oil their shapes, 
weaken their strength, and cramp their growth. Indeed 
finer made figures I never beheld than were both the 
men (witness Philander) and the women on this plan- 
tation, whose beautiful shapes, liveliness, strength, and 
activity, were inferior to no Europeans. 

Next day we departed for Magdenberg an hour before 
sun-set, against the advice of Mr. and Mrs. de Lange, in 
a small barge, covered only with a loose awning. We had 
not rowed above two miles when not only night came 
on, but we were overtaken by such a shoAver of rain, as 
had nearly sunk us, the boat's gunwale not being more 
than two inches above the water : however, by the help 
of our hats and calibashes, we kept her afloat, while a 
negro sat upon the bow, holding out a boat-hook straight 
before him to preveiit us from being overset, by inadver- 


tently running, in pitch darkness, against the roots of man- 
groves, &c. which thickly hned both the banks of the 
river all the way upwards. 

In this state of wet and obscurity, at ten o'clock at night, 
we came to the Jacob, being just afloat and no more ; for 
Bolts and I had no sooner leaped on the beach, than the 
boat sunk ^vith all that was in her, the slaves luckily swim- 
ming ashore. Alas ! amongst the wreck, was my poor 
box, with my journal, and all my paintings, which had 
cost me above two long years so much labour, care, and 
attention, t was truly distressed at this loss, when a skilful 
negro dived several times to the bottom, and at last brought 
up my little treasure, which, though thoroughly soaked, 
I was very happy to have again in my hands. Thus 
ended our shipwreck, when having drank some Marm grog 
and slung our hammocks, we all fell asleep round a good 
fire, by which I made shift to dry piyself, and, what was of 
more consequence, my papers. 

The following morning we again set out, and rowed for 
Magdenberg, but about half-way our voyage was once 
more obstructed by an enormous tree which had acci- 
dentally fallen across the Creek, so that we could neither 
drag the boat over nor under it. Thus we were again ob- 
liged to return to the Jacob, whence we now proceeded to 
Magdenberg on foot, through thorns, roots, brambles, and 
briars, and where we finally ari'ived wet and bloody ; and 
my ancle, Avhich had been nearly Avell, fresh wounded to 

Vol. II. K the 


the bone, the skm and flesh being quite torn away by the 
numberless obstructions to our steps. 

Here we were acquainted that Mr. Orleigh, one of the 
two officers that I had sent up to IMagdenberg from the 
Hope on the 23d, was no more. Thus died ahnost all our 
gentlemen, who had been during the last month upon 
the hopeless Hope, from which now scarcely one single 
private returned in health ; and this, I am firmly of opi- 
nion, was greatly owing to the dry and burning month 
of June, Avhen the sun suddenly scorched them, after 
marching and even sleeping in cold watery swamps, and 
constant heavy showers during the rainy season. How- 
ever, I hitherto escaped by the strength of my constitu- 
tion and good spirits, which I determined by every possible 
means to keep from depression, by laughing, whistling, 
singing, and (God forgive me !) sometimes swearing, while 
all the rest were sighing, bewailing, and dying around me. 



The Troops march to Barbacoeba, in thc^Biver Cottica — 
Fre7izy Fever— Gratitude in an English Sailor — Descrip- 
tion of the Government of Surinam— Some Account of 
the Emigrant Americans during the late War — Scene of 

- unprecedented Generosity, 


THE rainy season being again approaching, Colo- chap. 
nel Fourgeoud, liaving selected all the remaining v 
healthy people, ^^\\o now amounted to but one hundred 
and eighty in number, on the 3d of July, 1775, pro- 
ceeded on his march for Barbacoeba, in the river Cottica ; 
which spot he appointed for the general rendezvous, pre- 
vious to the grand attack on the rebels. Of this party 
I had the honour to be one : but on the sm'geon's declar- 
ing that I should run the hazard of losing ray foot if I 
marched in the woods, I was ordered to remain at Mag- 
denberg, with liberty, if I soon i-ecovered, to join Four- 
geoud, and make the best of my way to Barbacoeba. My 
limb, indeed, was now so swelled, and my wound so black 
with the mortification, that an amputation was dreaded 
by ]\Ir. KnoUaert, Fourgeoud's surgeon, and I could not 
even stand without excruciating pain. — I shall bear the 
mark of it as long as I live. 

K 2 During 


During this confinement I received daily presents from 
Philander and the other negroes, as I was always kind to 
them. Among these was a dish of mountain-cabbage. 
This is the most esteemed of all the various sorts which 
grow, as I have mentioned formerly, on the different spe- 
cies of palm-trees ; this tree grows sometimes near fifty 
feet high, the trunk of a brov/n colour, hard, ligneous, 
divided into short joints, and pithy within, like tlie elder: 
it is thick in proportion, straight and tapering like the 
mast of a ship ; near the top the tree assumes a fluted 
form and a green colour, occasioned by the husky tegu- 
ment that forms the branches ; which, near the summit, 
diverge in a horizontal direction, like the crown of a pine- 
apple or ananas. These branches are covered over on 
both sides with strong pinnated leaves about three feet 
long, of a deep green colour, and sharp pointed, but 
folded and confusedly intermixed, not gracefully droop- 
ing like those of the manicole or cocoa-nut trees. The 
seed is inclosed in a brownish kind of spatha, that arises 
from the center of the branches, and hanging dowuAvards 
consists of small roundish nuts, not unlike a bunch of 
dried grapes, but much longer in proportion to their cir- 
cumference. If the cabbage is wanted, the whole tree 
must be cut down, when it is divested first of its branchesy 
and next of that fluted green husky tegument that forms 
them ; after this, the heart or cabbage is taken out, white, 
and about two or three feet long : it is as thick as a man's 



aim, and round like a polished ivory cylinder ; it is com- 
posed of a kind of tender longitudinal white flakes, like 
silk ribands, ready to form the succeeding green tegu- 
ment, but so close that they form a crisp solid body. 
This, when eaten raw, is in taste something like the kernel 
of an almond, but is more tender and more delicious ; 
when cut in pieces and boiled, it eats like cauliflower : 
it may be also peeled in the above-mentioned long thin 
flakes, and then it makes an excellent sallad; but too 
much of it, whether eaten raw or dressed, is unwholesome, 
as it is apt to occasion a diarrhoea. It is in the cavity, 
after the cabbage is removed from it, that a black beetle 
deposits its spawn, from which the palm-tree worms are 
produced, which feed on the remaining tender substance 
when it begins to rot, till they acquire the size already 
mentioned ; though those in the manicole tree, and odier 
trees of the palm species, grow not so large, are less sweet, 
and are also differently shaped. 

The maureecce tree, by tlie French called latanie, is cer- 
tainly the tallest of all the palm-tree species; or, indeed, 
of any species in the forest of Guiana. And I can aver, 
that I have seen some of these trees whose lofty summits 
appeared to rise no less than a hundred feet from the sur- 
face of the earth, while the circumfereuce of their trunks 
Avas about ten or twelve feet where thickest ; the trunk of 
this tree is laro-est at about one-fourth of its height from 
the root, whence it tapers not only upwards but dow-n- 


^varcls also : this singulaiity has perhaps escaped all other 
writers. It is of a light-brown or grej-^-colour, and divided 
in joints all the way upwards to its branches, when (but 
at a great height, and near the top) it diverges hi long 
green arched branches, naked till near their extremity, 
when these again diverge or digitate in long broad leaves 
of a pale green colour, and disposed in an orbicular man- 
ner with great regularity, not unlike sun-beams, or a 
lady's fan expanded. As the young branches spring up 
from the center at the summit, the old ones fade at the 
bottom and hang downwards, shrivelled and dangling in 
the wind. From the heart of the green leaves the In- 
dians draw out long white fibres or threads, as they do 
from the silk-grass plant : these, being equally strong, 
serve as cords when twisted to string their bows, to make 
nets, or to be used as threads ; from the middle of the 
branches appears the seed, hanging down also in the form 
of a large rope of onions. I have seen many prints re- 
presenting palm-trees, but I must take the liberty to say 
that most of them are impositions on the public, having 
either been executed from fancy, or from a very bad de- 
scription ; but I can assure my readers, that all those 
which I represent were taken from nature, and on the 
spot : I speak of the cocoa-nut tree, the manicole, the 
mountain -cabbage, and the maureecee trees, whose 
branches and leaves are all extremely different from each 
other; and I have not confounded the species, as they are 
2 in 

> ^''' ' ^^^/e^^i^/^/-/^'/^^ 

London.Publirlud Di^ri-^-jgi, by J. Johnson. S' Pauls Cliurdt Tard 



in too many publications. The two first the reader has c n a p. 
alread}^ seen ; and the two others I now offer to his view, 
where A is the trunk of the mountain-cabbage-trce ; B 
one of its branches, separated from the rest, and C the 
seed or husky spatha inclosing it; J) is the trunk of the 
maureecee-tree, and E one of its branches dropping down. 
J^ is the beetle that produces the maureecee worms, G, 
which are not so large nor so delicious as those produced 
by the mountain-cabbage. Having had no opportunity 

of shewing in -vvlint mannci- the Indiano and Africans 

ascend trees, by figure H I have represented a negro 
climbing a young maureecee-tree, to which they do not 
cling with their arms and legs, but, taking the trunk be- 
tween their hands, they place the soles of their feet against 
it, and thus walk up in a most astonishing manner ; by 
this method they save their skin from the bark, but it 
must certainly require very great strength, activity, and 

Having thus far dwelt on the palm-tree species, I must 
once more return to domestic occurrences. 

I have said that a1] the officers and most of the privates 
who had lately been stationed at the Hope, had died, or 
were sent up dangerously ill, while I had escaped the con- 
tagion. But, alas ! now it became my turn, having only 
had a reprieve, and no more : for on the 9th I was seized 
with the same burning fever that had carried off the rest; 
and even my black boy Quaco was very ill. 



On the 14th, necessity forced me to give up tlie com- 
mand to another officer, and depart from this inhospitable 
spot, on my way to Paramaribo : 1 could however reach 
no farther than Goct Accooi'd, and there, on the 15th, all 
expected my death; when an old negro woman found 
means to make me partake of some butter-milk boiled 
with some barley and melasses, which was the first food 
I had tasted since I was taken ill. This certainly did me 
infinite service ; and the day following I was again able 
to be transported : the black hoy nlso was mncli better. 

The evening of the I5th I reached Fauconberg, where 
I was met by a packet of six or eight letters from diiferent 
friends, accompanied with presents of hung-beef, bullocks 
tongues, Madeira, porter, rum, and two gallons of excel- 
lent slirub, besides a fine bacon ham, and a beautiful 
pointer; both the last from the identical Charles Mac- 
donald, the English sailor, which he had brought me 
from Virginia, in return for the little civility I had for- 
merly shewn him so unexpectedly at the Hope. This 
mark of the poor fellow's gratitude and generosity, the 
true characteristics of a British tar, gave me greater plea- 
sure than all the things I received put together. But still 
I must except two letters, the one from Mr. Lude at Am- 
sterdam, and the other from Mr. de Graav, his admini- 
strator at Paramaribo, acquainting me finally, and to my 
heartfelt satisfaction, that the amiable Joanna and the 
little boy were at my disposal, but at no less a price than 



two thousand florins, amounting, with other expences, to c ii a p. 
near two hundred pounds sterhng, a sum which I was i^.^^^ 
totally unable to raise. I already owed the sum of fifty 
pounds, that I had borrowed for the black boy Quaco's 
redemption ; but Joanna was to me invaluable, and though 
appraised at one-twentieth part of the whole estate, which 
had been sold for forty thousand florins, no price could be 
too dear for a young Avoman possessing so much excel- 
lence, provided I could pay it. 

Solomon well observes, that " as cold water is to a 
" thirsty soul, so are good tidings from a distant country ;" 
and this news, on its first arrival, had indeed the most re- 
viving effect on me : but Avhen reflection taught me how 
impossible it was for me to obtain such a sum of mone}^ 
and while I was employed in giving all the presents I had 
received (except the ham and the dog) to Joanna's rela- 
tions at Fauconberg, who loaded me with adorations and 
caresses, I exclaimed, with a bitter sigh, " Oh ! that I 
" could have but found a sum suflicicnt to purchase every 
" one of their freedoms !" I now found myself, though 
exceedingly weak, however so much better, that on the 
next day I went down so far as the estate Bergshove, 
whence the administrator, a Mr. Gourlay, humanely 
caused me to be transported to Paramaribo in a decent 
tent-barge with six oars ; but relapsing, I arrived just alive 
on the evening of the 1 9th, having passed the preceding 
night on the estate called the Jalosee, apparently dead. 
Vol. II. L I cannot 


I cannot leave the river Comewina without presenting 
the reader with a view of Magdenberg, from the Tem- 
patee ; and a peep at Calais, from the Hope, at the 
mouth of the Cosaweenica Creek. 

Being now in a comfortable lodging at Mr. de la 
Mare's, and attended by so good a creature as Joanna, I 
recovered apace; and on the 25th was so well, that I was 
able to walk out for the first time, Avhen I dined with M[rs. 
Godefroy, Mr. de Graav not being in town to concert 
matters relative to the emancipation of Joanna, who had 
now once more literally saved my life. At this table there 
was never wanting all tlie wholesome and refreshing nou- 
rishment that I stood in need of, with the best of fruits, 
and wines. Among the articles conducive to the restora- 
tion of health, are reckoned in this country all the different 
kinds of pepper which it affords, and the no less effica- 
cious acid of limes. Among the first are the cica pepper, 
the lattacaca, and the dogo-peepee, as they are called in 
Surinam ; for the negroes name each thing from the re- 
semblance it bears to another : but these are known in 
Europe by the names of Cayenne, Pimento, and Capsi- 
cum. The first is properly called Cayenne from the 
French settlement of that name in Guiana; but the name 
cica or chica, is derived from its round shape and size, re- 
sembling the insect called chiga or chigoe, already de- 
scribed ; the next resembles rats excrements, &c. All the 
above species, besides some others, grow on low green 


'Kceoy^c^'^y/ta^^a^i^/^i^C^^'r^ S /yr/-. 

fy..e^x^ o/ 6y(^f^/u'^jj,<>j-t/i^> C/'ee/:- C^/.jy/'/ 

r.omion.PuNi-.rlitd Dr^-rji^ij,)! , In J Johnson. J'.' f.mL- Clmrdi l.ird. 


shrubs, they all equally excoriate the mouth, have all the chap. 
same fiery qualities, and when ripe are of a scarlet or .^j^ '^" , 
rather a blood colour. The Europeans seldom eat any 
thing without it ; but the blacks, and especially the Indians, 
swallow it I might say by handfuls, not only as a relish, 
but as a remedy in almost every disease. 

The limes grow on beautiful trees like lemons, but the 
leaf and the fruit are much smaller; they are rather a 
brighter yellow than the lemons, have a fine thin shell, 
and are extremely full of the richest acid that I know, 
which has a particularly fine flavour, and is a great bles- 
sing to the sick soldiers and sailors in tliis colony, who 
have them for the trouble of gathering; so that it is not 
uncommon to see the tars employing their leisure time in 
picking and carrying large hampers full to their vessels. 
In Surinam there are whole hedges of lime-trees, and all 
round Paramaribo they groAv wild. It is much to be la- 
mented that, among other articles of luxury, this fruit 
cannot be transported to Europe ; but whole casks of this 
juice are frequently sent over, and they are also pickled 
and preserved in large jars by the inhabitants. 

At the dessert, among many other excellent fruits, I 
observed one which is here called the mammee apple : it 
grows on a tree about the size of an orange-tree, with a 
grey-coloured bark ; the wood is Avhitish, and coarse ; the 
leaf very thick, polished, and of a triangular form, without 
fibres. This fruit is nearly round, and is about five or six 

L 2 inches 


inches in diameter, covered with a rusty coarse skin : the 
pulp has the colour and consistency of a carrot, enclosing 
two large stones with bitter kernels, but the fruit is of a de- 
licious taste, sweet mixed with acid, and a smell superior in 
fragrance to almost any other fruit in tlie colony. There 
were also nuts of tAVO species, usually called pistachios, 
and by the negroes pinda ; one kind of them resembles 
small chesnuts, and these groM' iu bunchus on a tree. The 
others are produced by a shrub, and grow under ground ; 
both have sweet oily kernels : of the last there are two 
in one pod ; they are agreeable eating raw, but still better 
when roasted in hot allies. To illustrate the above de- 
scriptions, I present the reader with the plate annexed, 
where ^ is a sprig of limes in full ripeness ; B, the Cay- 
enne or cica pepper ; C, the pimento pepper, or lattacaca ; 
D, the capsicum, called dago-peepee ; E, the mammee 
apple when it is fully ripe ; F, the leaf above, of a beauti- 
ful green ; G, the leaf below, of a yellowish green ; iJ,, 
the pistachio-nut in the husk ; I, the ground pistachio in 
its dried state ; ii, one of the kernels belonging to the 

The whole of the above Avere taken from nature, though 
upon a small scale ; yet I flatter myself they will be found, 
more perfect copies of the originals than some of Mad. 
Merian's, with all their boasted reputation. — I cannot 
dismiss this subject without a few other remarks on the 
incorrectness of this lady's drawings. For instance, her 


A^ /7? /y y / 


L,'i„l,m riihl,.<l,nl Ik.'. :•':■', 111,1.1;, .1 .Mm.,;;l ..iP,,,,!..- llu.r. 


leaf of the lime-tree is evidently too round ; and if by her 
palisade branch, in plate XI. she means the manicole-tree, 
I must declare I never discovered such a leaf among the 
many thousands I have helped to cut down. Her cotton 
twig, and especially the pod containing the cotton, are 
also no true representation of those which are produced 
in Surinam. 

In another place she declares, that grapes are common 
in Guiana — Avhicli I also must contradict ; for it is well 
known, that no thin-skinned fruit can ever come to per- 
fection in a tropical climate, such as grapes, cherries, cur- 
rants, strawberries, plums, apricots, and peaches, nor even 
common apples or pears. 

From the above observations, I take the liberty to say, 
that allowing Mad. Merian due praise for her beautiful 
and valuable performance upon the Avhole, she has still 
fallen into very notable mistakes. To correct them is a 
duty incumbent on future observers ; nor does it by any 
means im()ly a general censure on the elegant work in ques- 
tion, nor can it appear extraordinary that it should contain 
some errors, when we consider that it is above an hundred 
years ago since she presented her discoveries to the world. 
In the course of so many years therefore mankind, by 
long experience and continued investigation, have become 
more enlightened, and are more accurately informed. 

Being now once more ^'t Paramaribo, it may not be im- 
proper to divert our a':^ixaun for a while from the animiU 


and vegetable productions to the government of this fine 
colony ; a topic which, I am persuaded, some of my read- 
ers have long since expected ; but not having had a pre- 
vious opportunity of gratifying their curiosity, I will no 
longer delay the necessary information, though to some 
tj^e detail may appear dry and unentertaining. 

I have already mentioned the nature of the charter, and 
stated, that at present two-thirds of Surinam belong to the 
town of Amsterdam, and one-third to the West India 
Company : also, that the judicial power is exercised by 
several different courts of judicature. — I fliall now proceed 
to describe them in their proper order, as delivered to me 
by the governor, Mr. Nepveu. The court of policy and 
criminal justice claims the first rank in the order of pre- 
cedence — this consists of thirteen members, chosen by 
the votes of the inhabitants, and each member continues 
for life. Of this court the governor is president, and the 
commandant or deputy governor first counsellor. The 
acting officers are therefore 

The governor. 

The commandant. 

The fiscal. 

The town clerk ; and 

Nine counsellors. 
To this court belongs the decision of all criminal matters, 
the governor exercising the poAver of reprieve from death, 
and even pardoning any convict by his own authority. 
10 The 


The court of civil justice consists also of thirteen mem- 
bers, but these are chosen by the above court only, and 
are renewed every four years. The governor is also pre- 
sident here, and the officers of this court are 
The governor. 
The fiscal. 

The town-clerk ; and 
Ten counsellors. 
By this court are decided not only the most important 
law-suits, but also petty oti'ences. 

The next is the subaltern college, consisting of eleven 

members, chost-n al&u hy tho go^omor anrl court uf policy ; 

and, like the uther, renew^ed every four years, the town- 
clerk excepted, who sits for life. The members are selected 
from the late counselk)rs of justice, and are 

The deput_y president. 

The town-clerk ; and 

Nine counsellors. 
The above court superintends the public buildings, streets, 
orange-trees, canals, &c. and decides all pecuniar}^ dis- 
putes that are under twenty-five guineas ; any sum above 
which must be referred to the court of justice. 

Besides these, there is an orphan and insolvent debtors 
college, consisting of 

The commissaries. 

The town-clerk. 

The book-keeper. 



The treasurer ; and 
A sworn secretary. 

The pubhc revenue offices are : 

The office of importation and exportation duties. 
The office of excise and small imposts. 

The office for head-money, or poll-tax. 
The office for public sales and vendues. 

The office for re-taking negro deserters, &c. 
But these I shall more amply explain when I speak of the 
general revenue of this colony, and for the present shall 
only consider its government. I have formerly men- 
tioned that the governor is at the head not only of the 
civil but military departments ; the other public employ- 
ments are chiefly 

The secretary to his excellency the governor. 

The commissaries of the victualling-offices. 

Four inspectors of the exportation of sugars. 

One inspector of the melasses hogsheads. 

One supervisor of all the North American vessels. 

Two public auctioneers. 

Two Serjeants or messengers of the court. 

Tw^o sworn land-surveyors. 

Three measurers of the squared timber. 

One inspector of the black cattle, &c. 

One sworn overseer of weights and measures. 

Three Low-Dutch clergymen. 



One French clergyman. 
One Lutheran clergyman. 
Three public schoolmasters, &c. 
The militia consists of eleven companies, with one 
captain, one lieutenant, one second lieutenant, one en- 
sign, one secretary, and one cashier each. The captains 
ai'e generally the sworn appraisers of the estates for sale 
on the different rivers, where they chance to have their 

These are the principal functionaries in the govern- 
ment of Surinam ; which is not originally upon a bad 
establishment, were it not depraved by sordid avarice, to 
the great detriment of this beautiful settlement in gene- 
ral, and to that of its inhabitants in particular. The 
colony, by proper management, might be made a garden 
of Eden, not only for the European settlers, but also for 
their African domestics. It would not indeed be diffi- 
cult to suggest improvements, nor even to carry them 
into effect. What has occurred to me upon the subject, 
I will candidly state on another occasion ; and I have no 
doubt but a little attention even to one single point Mould 
be productive of the happiest consequences. Thus, if I 
cannot on the spot, like the good Samaritan, pour the balm 
into the wound of any one sufferer, at least I can leave the 
prescription, which, if properly applied, would, I am per- 
suaded, afford relief to the complaints of thousands. 
I have vmdertaken the unpleasing task of shewing how. 
Vol. II. M by 


by the desperate means of blood, the colony was fre- 
quently saved from total annihilation. How much more 
glorious would it be for those who have it in their power 
not only to save the colony of Surinam, but many other 
valuable West India settlements, by the help of a well- 

JUSTICE, and the laudable example of humanity and be- 
nevolence ! 

Thus much for the political government of Surinam ; 
which I will not leave without transcribing its motto, so 
very contrary to what they profess, being " Justitia—- 
" pietas—;fides." I'he arms are tripartite, Avhich I appre- 
hend to be some of those of the house of Somelsdyke, 
the West India Company, and the town of Amsterdam, 
crowned and supported by two lions rampant, and Avith 

these are stamped all their card money, &c. But to 

proceed with my journal. 

On the 30th I met the poor sailor, Charles Macdonaldy 
and having just bought thirty gallons of Grenada rum, 
I gave him a handsome return for his bacon ham and his 
dog, besides a fine corkscrew (mother-of-pearl set in 
silver) as a keepsake, he being to sail the day following 
for Virginia, on board the Peggy, Captain Lewis, who, 
at my recommendation, promised to make him his mate. 
As I am speaking of dogs, I must make two general re- 
marks on these animals in Guiana, viz. that in this quarter 
of the world they lose the faculty, or at least the habit, 
10 of 


of barking ; and it is a knoMn fact, that the native dogs 
never bark at all. In this country, it is observed also, 
that dogs are never seized with the hydrophobia, at least 
I never remember to have seen or heard of a mad dog in 
Surinam : and this is the more singular, as that dreadful 
<listemper is generally attributed in other countries to the 
intense heat of the Canicidares, or dog-days, as that appel- 
lation sufficiently indicates. The Indians or natives of 
Guiana all keep dogs, which they use in hunting ; they 
are of a dirty white colour, meagre, and small, with short 
hair, a sharp muzzle, ajnd erect ears : all these are very 
dexterous iu finding game ; but they possess all the mis- 
chievous qualities of the terrier. I ought not to forget 
that if the American dogs do not bark, their howl is very 
loud; on this account my Virginian dog Avas so trouble- 
some that he got his brains knocked out by the neigh- 
bours within a fortnight after he was in my possession. 

Al3out this period several American families arrived at 
Paramaribo, on account of the war which broke out be- 
tween the mother country aiid her colonies. For many 
of these I felt very much ; and must ever declare, that no 
people could have a better heart or greater friendship for 
a British individual, than they had for mc, which they 
shewed on many different occasions. 

On the 3d of August, JMr. de Graav being arrived iu 
town, having finally settled affairs with Mr. Lolkens, the 
4ate administrator of Fauconberg, I now thought proper 

M 2 to 


lo take the first opportunity of settling matters with him, 
by proposing him to give me credit till I should have it 
in my power to pay the money for which Joanna and my 
Johnny had been sold to me, and which I was deter- 
mined to save out of my pay, if I should exist on bread, 
salt, and water: though even then this debt could not be 
discharged in less lime than two or three years. Provi- 
dence however interfered, and at this moment sent that 
excellent woman, Mrs. Godefroy, to my assistance : for no 
sooner was she acquainted with my difficult and anxious 
situation, than she sent for me to dine Avith her, when she 
addressed me in the following terms : 

" I know, good Stedman, the present feelings of your 
*' heart, and the incapacity of an officer, from his income 
" only, to accomplish such a purpose as the completion 
" of your wishes. But know, that even in Surinam virtue 
" will meet with friends. Your manly sensibility for that 
*' deserving young woman and her child must claim the 
" esteem of all rational persons, in spite of malice and 
" folly : and so much has this action recommended you 
" to my attention in particular, that I should think my- 
" self culj)able in not patronizing 3'our laudable intea- 
" tions. Permit me tlien to participate in your happi-- 
" ness, and in the future prospect of the virtuous Joanna 
" and her little boy, by requesting your acceptance 
" of the sum of two thousand Jtorins, or any sum you 
" stand in need of; with which money go immediately, 

" Stedman^ 


'< Stedman, go and redeem innocence, good sense, and chap. 
" beauty from the jaws of tyranny, oppression, and in- .^^^^.^^^ 
« suit." 

Seeing me thunder-struck, and gazing upon her in a 
state of stupefaction, without the power of speaking, she 
continued, with a divine benignity : 

" Let not your dehcacy, my friend, take the alarm, 
" and interfere in this business : soldiers and sailors 
" ought ever to be the men of fewest compliments ; and 
" all I expect from 3'ou is, that you say not one word 
" more on the subject." — As soon as I recovered I replied, 
" that I was at a loss how to express my admiration of 
" such benevolence." I said, " that Joanna, who had 
" so frequently preserved my life, had certainly merited 
" my eternal affection ; but that my gratitude could not 
" be less to one who had so generously put me in the way 
" of redeeming that invaluable woman from slavery;" 
and concluded with observing, " that I could not now 
" touch a shilling of the money, but should have the ho- 
" nour to call upon her the next day;" and immediately 

I was no sooner returned home, than I acquainted 
Joanna with all that had happened ; who, bursting into 
tears, called out, " Gado sa bresse da zffoma !" — " God 
" will bless this woman!" and insisted that she herself 
should be mortgaged to Mrs. Godefroy till every far- 
thing should be paid : she indeed was very anxious to see 



the emancipation of her boy, but till that was done, she 
absolutely refused to accept of her own freedom. I shall 
not here endeavour to paint the contest whiclvl sustained 
between affection and duty, but bluntly say that I yielded 
to the Avish of this so charming creature, and whose sen- 
timents endeared her to me still more. Thus I instantly 
drew up a paper, declaring my Joanna, according to her 
desire, from this day to be the property of Mrs. Godefroy, 
till the last farthing of the money she lent me should be 
repaid ; and, on the following day, with the consent of her 
relations*, I conducted her to Mrs. Godefroy's house, 
where, throwing herself at the feet of that incomparable 
woman, Joanna herself put the paper into her hands; 
but this lady having raised her up, no sooner had read the 
contents, than she exclaimed, " Must it be so ? Then 
" come here, my Joanna, I have a spirit to accept of you 
" not as my slave but more as my companion : you shall 
" have a house built in my orange-garden, with my own 
^' slaves to attend you, till Providence shall call me away, 
" when you shall be perfectly free, as indeed you now are 
" the moment you wish to possess your manumission ; 
" and this you claim both by your extraction and your 
" conductj-." On these terms, and on no other, I accepted 

* Without the consent of parents, Joanna was by birth a gentleman's 

brothers, and sisters, no respectable daughter from Holland ; and her 

slaves are individually sold in Su- mother's family were most distin- 

rinam. guished people on the coast of 

f I have already mentioned that Africa. 



of the money on the 5th, and carrying it in m}' hat to c 11 a p. 
Mr. de Graav's,I laid it on his table, demanding a receipt ^^^^^^^..^ 
in full ; and Joanna was transferred from the wretched 
estate Fauconberg, to the protection of the first woman 
perhaps in all the Dutch West Indies, if not in the world ; 
and for which she thanked me with a look that could only 
be expressed by the countenance of an angel. 

Mr. de Graav, on counting the money, addressed me in 
the following terms : — " Stedman, two hundred florins of 
" this sum belong to me as administrator. Permit me 
" also to have a small share in this happy event, by not 
" accepting this dividend, as I shall find myself amply 
'^ paid by the pleasure of havi .g been instrumental in 
" bringing about what seems so much to contribute to 
" the enjoyment of two deserving people." 

Having thanked my disinterested friend M'ith an affec- 
tionate shake by the hand, I immediately returned the 
two hundred florins to Mrs. Godefroy, and all were 
happy. I must not omit, as a farther proof of Mrs. Gode- 
froy 's humane character, that on hearing of the dejected 
situatian of the sick at Magdenberg, she at this time sent 
them a present of a whole barge-load of fruit, vegetables, 
and refreshments of every kind that the colony could 
afford, for their relief. 

On the 7th of August, matters being thus far settled, I 
wrote a letter to Mr. Lude, at Amsterdam, to give him in- 
telligence, and to thank him for having parted with the 



CHAP, most valuable property of his estate; and my ancle being 
\^0,^~y^^ now pretty well recovered, I also wrote to Colonel Four- 
geoud, that I should have the honour to join him in a few 
daj's. This letter I directed to Barbacoeba, for there he 
still continued, while the intrepid and active militia cap- 
tain, Stoeleman, was beating up the woods with a few ran- 
gers at another quarter, and who this day sent in four 
captive rebel negroes to Paramaribo*. 

On the 10th, finding myself sufHciently recovered, and 
ready once more to enter the forest, I bade farewell to my 
sweet family and friends, leaving the first still at Mr. de la 
Mare's at their request : and cheerfully set off with a tent- 
boat on my Jlfth campaign, in the hopes of accompany- 
ing Fourgeoud ; who, having assembled all his remaining 
forces, and made the necessary arrangements to attack 
the enemy, was now determined to march in a very few 

On the 1 4th I arrived with a boat at Barbacoeba, in the 
upper part of the river Cottica, where formerly I was 
when I killed the nhoma snake. I found here the old 
gentleman (who civilly welcomed me) ready to start the 
following day. I never saw the troops in such fine spi- 
rits, or so eager for service ; which proceeded from differ- 

* It is a maxim with the rangers every one they send in alive fifty 

to chop off the right hand of every florins ; also for finding a town or vil- 

rebel negro they kill, for which they lage one thousand florins Hollands, 
receive twenty-five florins; and for 



ent motives, as I had said before, some in the hopes of chap. 
plunder, some from-revenge on the rebels, and some from »^^^^^ 
a wish to see the war at an end ; Avhile I beheve in my 
soul, that others were tired of existence by continued ill- 
ness and hard service ; and heartily wished for a glorious 
end of all their miseries — as nothing can be more wretched 
than a soldier's or a sailor's life, perpetually soaking in the 
wet or scorching in the sun, surrounded by an unbounded 
forest, and in a tropical climate. 

Vol. II. N 



A Rebel Negro described — Bush-Jighting — Sentimental 
Expressions of the African Blacks — The Town, of Gado- 
Saby taken by Colonel Four geoud — Superstition •-' Won- 
derful Expedients — Great Generalship in the Enemy. 

N the 15th of August 1775, the rebels, flushed with 
their late victoiy over Captain Meyland and his 
party, whether with a design to brave Fourgeoud, or to 
intimidate his troops, being well apprised by their spies 
that he was at Barbacoeba, had the assurance to set fire to 
all the huts in two different camps Avhich had been left 
standing by his patroles, while they continued shouting 
and hallooing the whole night within our hearing; but 
this only proved an incentive to action, and enraged our 
veteran commander so much, that he now declared he 
would have ample revenge at all hazards. During this 
night a large tiger also alarmed the camp, but did no 
damage of any kind. 

An hour before day - break next morning, Colonel 
Fourgeoud, with his troops, Avere ready to march, and 
immediately entered the woods. They now amounted 
exactly to two hundred Europeans fit for service, the rest 
being ill and unfit for service ; but no rangers Avere as 
II yet 

B^rtplrMxt SeufytJ 

^c'^c x^A'^^f/rf /■//■///f// 1\ (>// ///J /■//////// . 

ZiTuUm .e„/,li.ihf,1 IJ^,-'lf'iyii-l.hy./..l,'li>iwri. s; f.niLi (■/,;roh lim/ . 


\'et arrived, though they had been expected. The fact chap. 

. XX. 

was, they were so much disgusted with Fourgeoud's com- \,^^~.ySm^ 

mand, that they did not appear at all, which afforded 

this gentleman for once an opportunity of stigmatizing 

them as a band of pusillanimous rascals ; and 1 confess I 

was myself extremely astonished at this wilful absence of 

my black favourites, who were at other times so eager to 

rush upon the enemy, and had declared their satisfaction 

at the hopes of a decisive engagement with their sable 


This whole day our course ^vas due E. ; and after pro- 
ceeding about pight miles (which is a great distance in this 
country, where the pioneers with bill-hooks must con- 
stantly open a path), we erected huts, and encamped. 
Having frequently mentioned the rebel negroes Avith 
whom we were now certain to have a rencontre, I pre- 
sent the reader Avith the figure of one of these people, 
upon his guard, as alarmed by a rustling amongst the 
bushes. At a distance are supposed a couple of our 
rangers, Avaiting the moment to take him by sui'prize. 
This rebel negro is armed with a firelock and a hatchet ; 
his hair, though AvooUy, may be observed to be plaited 
close to his head, by way of distinction from the rangers, 
or any other straggling negroes, who are not yet accepted 
amongst them ; his beard is grown to a point, like that 
of all the Africans, Avhen they have no opportunity of 
shaving. The principal dress of this man consists of a 

N 2 cotton 


cotton sheet, negligently tied across his shoulders, which 
protects him from the weather, and serves him also to rest 
on ; while he always sleeps under cover in the most ob- 
scure places he can find, Avhen detached from his com- 
panions. The rest of his dress is a camisa, tied around 
his loins like a handkerchief ; his pouch, which is made of 
some animal's skin ; a few cotton strings for ornament 
around his ancles and wrists ; and a superstitious ohia or 
amulet tied about his neck, in which he places all his con- 
fidence. The skull and ribs are supposed to be the bones 
of his enemies, scattered upon the sandy savannah. 

The tAvo rangers who make their appearance at a dis- 
tance may be distinguished by their red caps ; and here 
I must observe, that the rebels have many times availed 
themselves of seizing one of these scarlet distinctions, 
which by clapping on their own heads in an engagement, 
lias not only saved their lives, but given thpm an oppor- 
tunity of shooting their enemies. 

Another stratagem of theirs has sometimes been dis- 
covered, viz. that fire-arms being scarce amongst them,, 
numbers have intermixed in the crowd, with a crooked 
stick shaped something like a musket ; and this appear- 
ance has more than once had the effect of preventing a 
proper defence by the plantation slaves, when the rebels 
came to ransack the estates; Avhile with this show of 
armed numbers they have often struck such a panic, and 
so damped the courage of the former, that they have been 



caJmly permitted, after burning their houses, even to carry c h a p. 
a\vay their Avives and daughters. ._^' L_, 

On the 16th we continued our march due E. upon a 
ridge or elevated ground. These ridges, if I mistake not, 
run general]}^ in tliis country E. and W. as do also most 
of the marshes and swamps. Having advanced rather a 
less distance than we did the day before, we were ordered 
early to sling our hammocks, and to sleep without any 
covering, to prevent the enemy from hearing the sound 
of cutting the trees ; nor were any fires allowed to be 
lighted, nor a word to be spoken, while a strict watch was 
kept round the camp. These, in fact, were all very ne- 
cessary precautions ; but if we were not discovered by the 
enemy, we were almost devoured by the clouds of g7iats 
or musquitoes, which arose from a neighbouring marsh : 
for my own part I suffered more here than I had even 
done on board the fatal barges in the upper Cottica, as 
we could make no smoke to drive them away. In this 
situation I saw the poor men dig holes with their bayonets 
in the earth, into which they thrust their heads, stopping 
the entry and covering their necks with their hammocks, 
while they lay with their bellies on the ground. To sleep 
in any other position was absolutely impossible. 

By the advice of a negro slave, I however enjoj^ed my 
rest. — " Climb," said he, " massera, with your hammock 
" to the top of the highest tree that is in the camp, and 
" there go sleep ; not a single musquito will disturb you, 

" the 


" the swarm will be sufficiently attracted by the smell of 
" the sweating multitude below." — This I immediately 
tried, and slept exalted near one hundred feet above my 
companions, whom I could not see for the myriads of 
musquitoes below me, nor even hear them, from the in- 
cessant buzzing of these troublesome insects. 

This Avas the principal distress of the night; while, 

during the day, we had frequently been attacked by 

whole armies of small emmets, called here Jire-ants, from 

their painful biting. These insects are black, and very 

diminutive, but live in such amazing multitudes together, 

that their hillocks have sometimes obstracted our passage 

by their size, over which, if one chances to pass, the feet 

and legs are instantly covered with innumerable of these 

creatures, which seize the skin with such violence in their 

pincers, that they will sooner suffer the head to be parted 

from their body, than let go their hold. The burning pain 

which they occasion cannot, in my opinion, proceed from 

the sharpness of their pincers only, bvit must be owing to 

some venomous fluid which they infuse, or which the 

Avound imbibes from them. I can aver that I have seen 

them make a Avhole company hop about, as if they had 

been scalded Avith boiling Avater. 

On the 1 7th Ave continued our march still due E. till nine 
o'clock, Avhen Ave altered our course to the N. and had to 
scramble through great quantities of those mataky roots, 
or trumpeters already described, which proved that Ave 



were descending into the low grounds, and indeed the soil 
soon became very marshy ; fortunately, however, though 
it was now the wet season, Ave had as yet very little rain. 

This evening we encamped about four o'clock. Colonel 
Fourgeoud being seized with a cold fit of the ague. 

As I was slinging my hammock between two large 
branches, but not so high as the preceding night, my eye 
chanced to fall upon what I conceived to be the leaf of a 
tree, but which appeared to move and crawl up the trunk. 
I called several officers to see it : when a gentleman of the 
Society exclaimed, " C'est hi feitiUe ambulanfe," That is 

the walking leaf. Uj^on closer examination it proved to be 

an insect, whose wings so perfectly represent a leaf, that 
by many it has been mistaken for a vegetable production. 
This seemed to be a species of grasshopper, but covered 
over with four wings of an oval form, and about three inches 
in length, the two uppermost so folded together as to appear 
exactly like a brown leaf, Avith all the fibres, &c. 

I noAV returned to my hammock ; Avhere, reflecting on 
all the wonders of nature, while the silver moon glittering 
through the verdure added beauty to the scene, I fell 
into a profound sleep, which I enjoyed till near midnight, 
when we were all awaked in pitch darkness and a heavy 
shower of rain, by the hallooing and shouting of the 
rebel negroes, Avho discharged several muskets; but as 
the shot did not reach our camp, we were extremely asto- 
nished, the darkness rendering it impossible to form any 



CHAP, just idea of their meaning. This disturbance continuing 
y,^^,-.^^^ till near day-break, made us expect every moment to be 
surrounded, and keep a very sharp look-out. 

In the morning early we unlashed our hammocks, and 
marched due N. towards the place whence we con- 
jectured the hallooing noise to have proceeded, being all 
much fatigued for want of rest, especially Colonel Four- 
geoud, who could hardly support himself, so much was 
he weakened by the ague. We had not marched above 
two miles, I having the van-guard, when a i^ebel negro 
sprang up at my feet from under a shrub, Avhere he had 
been asleep ; but as we had orders not to fire upon strag- 
glers, he escaped, running with almost the swiftness of a 
stag amongst the brambles. I no sooner made report to 
the old hero, than, swearing he was a spy, which I believe 
was true, he shook off' his illness, and quickened his pace 
with redoubled vigour : but our pursuit was to no pur- 
pose, at least this day ; for about one o'clock we got into 
a bog, from Avhich we could hardly extricate ourselves, 
and were forced to return to our last night's encampment, 
missing two privates of the Society troops, whom we sup- 
posed to have perished in the marsh. 

This day we saw great quantities of arnotta-trees, with 
Avhich this part of the forest abounds. In the evening a 
slave presented me with a hush-spider of such magnitude, 
that putting him into a case-bottle above eight inches high, 
he actually reached the surface with some of his hideous 



claws, whilst the others were resting upon the bottom. No 
creature can be more dreadfully ugly than this enormous 
spider, which the people of Surinam erroneously call the 
tarantula. The body is divided in two, the posterior part 
oval, and the size of an Orlean-plum ; the fore-part square, 
with a figure somewhat resembling a star upon it. This 
monster has five pair of thick legs, with four joints in each ; 
is entirely black or dark brown, and covered over, legs 
and all, with thick and long black hair, like some cater- 
pillars, Avhile each leg is armed with a crooked yellow nail, 
and from the head project two long teeth with inverted 
pincers, resembling the claw of a crnb, with which it seizes 
its prey ; while its bite, if not fatal by the venomous li- 
quid infused into the wound, always occasions a fever. 
It has eight eyes like most spiders, and feeds on insects 
of every species ; nay, it is even asserted, that young 
birds do not escape it, out of which the spider sucks the 
blood : its Aveb is small but very strong. Upon the 
whole, it is such a hideous creature, that the very sight 
of it is sufficient to occasion a tremor of abhorrence, even 
in persons most accustomed to inspect the deformities of 
nature. Innumerable indeed are the pests and dangers 
to which one is hourly exposed in the woods of this 
tropical climate ; and though it is my present business 
oftly to make mention of such as I met with in this 
march, and which must appear new to the reader, yet 
a recapitulation of the names only of our numerous 
Vol. II. O plagues 


CHAP, plagues may not be improper to refresh the memory of 


t,,— ^-»_i those who have a heart to sympathize with our suffer- 
ings. I liave aheady mentioned the miisquitoes, mon- 
pieras, patted and scrapat lice, chigoes, coch-roaches, com- 
tnon ants, Jive-ants, horse-flies, wild bees, and spiders; 
besides the prickhj heat, ring-worm, dry-gripes, putrid 
fevers, biles, consaca, hloody-flux, thorns, briars, alliga- 
tors, snakes, tigers, &c. ; but I have not yet spoken of 
the bush-worms, large ants, locusts, centipedes, scorpions, 
hats, and flying lice, the crassy-crassy, yaws, lethargy, 
leprosy, and dropsy, with a thousand other grievances that 
continually annoyed our unhappy troops ;- — a particular 
description of which I must delay till a more suitable 
opportunity occurs for introducing them into this nar- 

Such were the pests that we had to struggle M'ith in 
this baneful climate, whilft our poor men were dying in 
multitudes, without proper assistance, unpitied, and fre- 
quently without a friend to close their eyelids, neither 
coffin nor shell to receive their bones, but thrown pro- 
miscuously into one pit, like heaps of loathsome carrion. 

On the 1 9th we again left our encampment, and after 
keeping a little S. marched E. till tea o'clock, when Ave 
were overtaken and joined l)y a party of one hundred 
rangers, with their conductor, Mr. Vinsack, to my great sa- 
tisfaction. At this period we nmstered three hundred 
men ; and however little Colonel Fourgeoud affected, at 
1 other 


other times, to value these black soldiers, he was noAV not 
at all displeased with their company, upon our near ap- 
proach to an enemy ^vith Avhom the rangers were well 
acquainted, and knew how to engage much better than 
the marines : while it will ever be my opinion, that one 
of these free negroes is preferable to half a dozen white 
men in the forest of Guiana; it indeed seems their na- 
tural element, whilst it is the bane of the Europeans. 

Colonel Fourgeoud now issued orders for our little 
army to march in three lines or columns, his own regi- 
ment in the centre, the Society troops on the right, the 
rangers or black soldiers on the left, all within hearing 
of each other, with a few flankers or riflemen outside the 
whole : thus formed we advanced till about noon, when 
we changed our course from E. to N. E. and continued 
our march over a hiree-biree swamp, or quagmire : these 
are very common and dangerous in this countr}^ being a 
deep soft miry bog, covered over with a thin crust of ver- 
dure, sufficient in most places to bear the weight of a 
man, and quaking when -walked over; but should this 
crust give way, whoever breaks it is swallowed up in the 
chasm, Avhere he must inevitably perish if not immedi- 
ately extricated ; thus it has frequently happened that 
men have been seen to sink, and have never more been 
heard of. 

Quicksands are quite different, as they overwhelm by 
a gradual suction, whereas the effects of a quagmire are 

o 2 instantaneous. 


instantaneous. To avoid accidents we opened our files 
as much as possible, Avhich occasioned a very long rear; 
but even with this precaution several men sunk through 
it, as if the ice had broken under their feet, and some in 
my presence up to the arm-pits, but were fortunately, 
though with much difficulty, extricated. 

In the afternoon we passed through two old cassava 
fields, which indicated our near approach to the rebel 
settlement ; we afterwards fell in with Captain Meyland's 
path, which we knew by the marks cut upon the trees, as 
before explained. The evening being too far advanced 
to attack the enemy, we once more encamped a few miles 
from the swamp in which Captain Meyland and his party 
had been defeated. 

Having had a long march, and the men being much 
fatigued, Colonel Fourgeoud allowed, during this night, 
both huts and fires ; which surprised me greatly, being so 
near the rebels, though he had forbidden these comforts 
when we were at a very considerable distance from them. 
I however availed myself of his bounty, and having got 
some pigeon-peas from my serjeant, which he had picked 
up in the old cassava grounds, and laid hold of one of the 
kettles, I invited him, and a captain of the black corps, 
called Hannihali to a share ; who having thrown their 
salt beef and rusk-biscuit into the mess with mine, and 
stirred it round with a bayonet, we made a very excellent 
supper, though in a sad dreary night and heavy rain. 



The pigeon or Angola peas grow on a shrub about eight chap. 


or ten feet high ; five or six of these peas are contained in ._ ^- ' 
a pod; they are flat hke lentils, and of a reddish-brown 
colour : the negroes are extremely fond of them, and cul- 
tivate them in their gardens without any expence or much 

Hannibal now observing that we should certainly see 
the enemy to-morroAv, asked me if I knew in what man- 
ner negro engaged against negro ? Having answered in 
the negative, he gave me the following relation, while 
smoking his pipe under my hammock. — " Massera," said 
he, " both parties are divided in stnall companies of eight 
" or ten men, commanded by a captain, Avith a horn, 
" such as this (shewing me his) by which they do every 
" thing, and fight or run away. When they fight they 
" separate immediately, lie doMn on the ground, and fire 
" at the flash of each other's pans through the trees; 
" Avhile each warrior is supported by two negroes un- 
" armed, the one to take his place if he is killed, and the 
" other to carry away the dead body, to prevent its fall- 
" ing into the hands of their adversaries*." 

From this discourse I perfectly understood his mean- 
ing, which I have since seen put in practice ; and for the 
clearer conception of the reader, I have illustrated it with 

* The negvoes have a savage cus- even devouring part of them with 
torn of manghng and tearing the their teeth; like the Caribbee In- 
dead bodies of their enemies ; some dians, 


the following plan, where the whole engagement is exhi- 
bited at one view. 

The two columns E and F arc supposed to be first en- 
scaffed, wdiere N" l in the column E commences the at- 
tack by firing at random in the opposite bushes; and in- 
stantly retires, by shifting his place to N° l in the co- 
lumn C, where he re-loads ; while N° 2 in the column F, 
having fired at the flash of his pan, advances in the same 
manner, shifting his station to re-load at N° 2 in the co- 
lumn D ; and at the flash of whose pan N° 3 fires in £, 
and receives the fire of N° 4 in F, Sec. Sec. Thus conti- 
nuing through both lines, till N' s has fired in F, Av^hen 
the Avhole have shifted their stations ; and the same ma- 
noeuvre is continued with the columns C and D, beginning 
again with the identical numbers 1,2, 3, &c. at the top ; 
while these lines, having shifted their places, still the firing 
is repeated by the lines A and B, and thus ad irifinitwn, 
until by sounding the horn one of the parties gives way in 
flight, and the battle is over. I shall only add, that when 
the forest is thick, instead of lying on their bellies, or 
kneelino-, each negro skulks behind a thick tree, which 
serves him as a bulwark, and from which he fires at his 
adversary with more certainty and less danger, usually 
resting his piece against tlie trunk, or in the forked 
branches, like the Shcmanese and Delaware Indians. 

Captain Hannibal also informed me, that the famous 
chief Bonny was supposed to be in person amongst the 





fMr^.^^rrof^/y^^y-/^mA./^^^/^a -^u /rA^^^/^r/c/7yny^^4'sa^rr?€^. 


/y/Y/af///^^// r// , ///////r./ A'/z/vr'/'/ C)'// roAr r<',J^////r/:/ 

T.on,Lm,Pi,l,lul,r,I nrr'i-',-;,,Lj>v J. .h.lm.c.m .Strauh Church Tar.l . 


neighbouring rebels ; and that he was. born ni the forest 
amongst them, notwithstanding his being a mulatto, 
which was accounted for by his mother escaping to the 
woods from the ill treatment of her master, by Avhom she 
was then pregnant. 

Having frequently mentioned the different shades be- 
tween a black and a white, the same plate represents them 
to the reader at one view. From the above two coloure 
the mulatto is produced ; from the mulatto and black, 
the samboo ; from the mulatto and white the quaderoon, 
&c. &c. — This sable warrior made me also acquainted 
with the names of several other rebel commanders, against 
whom lie had frequently fought for the Europeans. Such 
as Quammy, who was the chief of a separate gang, and 
had no connection with the others ; Coromantyn, Cojo, 
Ai'ico, and Joli-Caiir ; the two last being celebrated cap- 
tains, whose revenge was insatiable against the whites, par- 
ticularly JoU-Ccetir's, who had I confess great reason, as 
has been already stated. The noted rebel negro Baron, 
he believed, was now serving also under the great chief 

He next proceeded to tell me the names of the prin- 
cipal rebel settlements, some of which were already de- 
stroyed, some now in view, and some of these were only 
known to us by name. These appellations were all very 
expressive indeed ; and as they may serve in some mea- 
sure to elucidate our enquiries concerning the negro na- 


CHAP, tions, I have thought proper to give them a place in this 
\,^,^~yj,^ narrative, with their meaning in an Enghsh translation; 


Boucoo - - - I shall moulder before I shall be taken. 

Gado Saby - - God only knows me, and none else. 

Cofaay - - - Come try me, if you be men. 

Tessee See - - Take a tasting, if you like it. 

Mele me - ' - Do disturb me, if you dare. 

Boosy Cray - - The woods lament for me. 

Me Salasy - - I shall be taken. 

J^ehree me - - Hide me, O thou surrounding verdure. 

The others were : 
Quammi Condre - From Quammi, the name of the chief. 
Pinenburgh - - From the pines or manicole-trees Avhich 

formerly surrounded it. 
Ca7'a Condre - From the quantity of maize it afforded. 
Beisee Co7idre - From the quantity of rice it produced. 

Such were the names of the negro waniors, and their set- 

I now shook hands with Captain Hannibal, Avhile my 
mind being occupied with the hopes of victory unstained 
by cruelty, and being very much fatigued, I soon fell pro- 
foundly asleep. 

On the 20th in the morning, no one could awake in a 




more beautiful day and better spirits than I did, until chap. 
the}^ were daiuped by observing that at so critical a time, 
and even in the moment before the conflict, instead of 
that kind treatment which it A\ould have been prudent to 
have shewn to those from whose exertions we were to ex- 
pect a happy period to our suft'erings, there was even then 
such discouragement of the subaltern officers and pri- 
vate men as involuntarily drew from me the reflection — 
That (if possible to avoid it) pr/tices and ministers should 
never invest any one individual with unlimited authoritv, 
especially in a foreign country, without being perfectly 
well acquainted with the rectitude of their moral prin- 
ciples and disposition ; no men being fit to command but 
those who are possessed of manly feelings, and whose 
valour is tempered with humanity ; since it is a truth that 
sterling bravery is incompatible with a cruel heart. 

At six o'clock we advanced N. E. by N. towards the 
marsh, my melancholy evaporating with the rising sun. 

About eight o'clock we entered this formidable swamp, 
and soon found ourselves above our middle in water, 
well prepared nevertheless for the warm reception we ex- 
pected from the opposite shore, as the former party had 
so fatally experienced. After wading above half a mile, 
our grenadiers rapidly mounted the beach with cocked 
firelocks and bayonets fixed ; the main body instantly 
followed, and also mounting the beach, the M-hole formed 
without the smallest opposition. We now beheld a spec- 

VoL. II. P tacle 


CHAP, tacle sufficient to shock the most intrepid, the ground 
,^^^1.^^^,^^ strewed with skulls, bones, and ribs still covered Avith 
human flesh, and besmeared with the blood of those 
unfortunate men Avho were killed with Captain Meyland. 
—That officer had indeed found means to bury them, 
but the rebels had dug them up for the sake of their 
clothes, and to mangle the bodies, which, like ferocious 
animals, they had torn limb from limb. x'Vmongst these, 
the fate of Meyland's nephew, a promising young man, 
was peculiarly affecting. He came from the mountains 
of Switzerland in quest of military preferment, and met 
his fate in a marsh of Surinam just after his landing. His 
bravery was equal to that of his uncle, his intrepidity, 
voluntarily exposing himself to danger, knew no bounds. 
— Such is the enthusiasm of military ambition. 

" And 'tis most true, while Time's relentless hand 

" ^V'ith sickly grasp drags others to the tomb ; 
" The soldier scorns to wait the dull- command, 
" But springs impatient to a nobler doom. 

" Tho" on the plain he lies, outstretch'd and pale, 
" "Without one friend his stedfast eyes to close, 

" Yet on his honoured corpse shall many a gale 
" Waft the moist fragrance of the weeping rose. 

" O'er the dread spot the melancholy moon 
" Shall pause awhile — a sadder beam to shed ; 

" And starry night amidst her awful noon 
" Sprinkle light dews upon liis hallowed head. 

" There 

/A/zv/ ///rr> // ./z/v//'/A^ zvv M/. ",///,/// ^/cr/'r/ -///'//,', 

I.,;,Je„. l„HM,.l/J.-e'i^,jp, fy .f-Mn^fn .i:'I',„M ty„wjil'.,rd. 


" There too the solitary bird shall swell 

" With long-drawn melody her plaintive throat ; 
" While distant echo from responsive cell 
" bhall oft with fading force return the note. 

" Such recompense be valour's due alone." 

This being the second or third heap of human bones 
we had met with in our march, I frankly acknowledge 
did not operate upon me as a stimulative to engage with 
negroes ; j^et these awful relics spurred on the common 
soldiers to take revenge for the loss of their massacred 

flaving so frequently had occasion to speak of march- 
ing through a swamp, it may not be improper to illustrate 
the description by the annexed drawing. Tlie first figure 
represents Colonel Fourgeoud (preceded by a negro slave, 
as a guide, to give notice by his swimming when the 
Avater deepens) followed by myself, some other officers 
and marines, wading through the marsh above our middle, 
and carr3ung our arms, ammunition, and accoutrements 
above our heads, to prevent their being damaged by the 

In the back-ground may be seen the manner in which 
the slaves carry all burdens whatever on the head, and 
the mode of the rebel negroes firing upon the troops from 
the tops of high palm-trees, &c. A march of this nature, 

p 2 thoug-h 


though occasionally necessary in Surinam, must be always 
very dangerous, being exposed to an attack from under 
cover of the surrounding bushes, without having the 
jiower of returning the fire more than once ; for in such 
a depth of water no soldier can re-load his musket with- 
out wetting both the lock and the priming. 

We now followed a kind of foot-path made by the 
enemy, which after a little turning led us in a westerly 
direction. Serjeant Fowler, who preceded the van-guard, 
at this time came to me pale, declaring, that the sight of 
the mangled bodies had made him extremely sick ; and 
that he felt himself completely disarmed, being that mo- 
ment, as it were, rivetted to the ground, without the 
power of advancing one single step, or knowing how to 
conceal his tremor : 1 d — n'd him for a pitiful scoun- 
drel, and had only time to order him to the rear. 

" No force, no firmness, the pale coirard shews : 
" He shifts his place, his colour comes and goes ; 
" A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part, 
" Against his bosom beats his quivering heart ; 
" Terror and death in his Mild eye-balls stare ; 
" With chattering teeth he stands, and stiflf'ning hair, 
" And looks a bloodless image of despair." 

At ten o'clock we met a small party of the rebels, with 
each a green hamper upon his back ; they fired at usj 
dropped their bundles, and taking to their heels ran 
back towards their village. These we since learned Avere 


air, >■ 



transporting rice to another settlement for their sub- chap. 
sistence, when they should be expelled from Gado-Sahy 
(the name of this settlement) which they daily expected, 
since they had been discovered by the gallant Captain 
Meyland. The green hampers, which they call warimbos, 
Avere very curiously plaited with the manicole leaves. 
And when our men cut them open with their sabres, 
there burst forth the most beautiful clean rice that I ever 
saw, which was scattered and trampled under foot, as 
we had no opportunity of carrying it along. A little 
after this we perceived an empty shed, where a picquet 
had been stationed to give notice of any danger, but they 
had precipitately deserted their post. We now vigorously 
redoubled our pace till about noon ; when two more mus- 
quet shot were fired at us by another advanced guard of 
the enemy, as a signal to the chief. Bonny, of our ap- 
proach. Major Medler and myself, with a few of the 
van-gviard, and a small party of the rangers, at this time 
rushing forward, soon came to a fine field of rice and 
Indian corn : we here made a halt for the other troops, 
particularly to give time for our rear to close up, some of 
whom were at least two miles behind us; and during 
which period Ave might have been cut to pieces, the 
enemy, unknoAvn to us, having surrounded the field in 
Avhich we Avere, as Ave Avere afterwards informed. 

In about half an hour the whole body joined us, Avhen 
we instantly proceeded by cutting through a small defile 



of the wood, into which we had no sooner entered, than 
a heavy fire commenced from every side, the rebels re- 
tiring, and we advancing, imtil we arrived in the most 
beautiful field of ripe rice, in the form of an oblong 
square, from which the rebel tozcm appeared at a distance, 
in the form of an amphitheatre, sheltered from the sun 
by the foliage of a few lofty trees, the whole presenting a 
coiqj-d'ceil romantic and enchanting beyond conception. 
In this field the firing v,^as kept up like one continued 
peal of thunder, for above forty minutes, during which 
time our black warriors behaved with wonderful intrepidity 
and skill. The white soldiers were too eager, and fired 
over one another at random, yet I could perceive a 
few of them ac^t with the utmost coolness, and imitate 
the rangers with great effecSl : amongst these was now 
the once daunted Fowler, who being roused from his 
tremor by the firing at the beginning of the onset, had 
rushed to the front, and fully re-established his character, 
by fighting like a brave fellow, by my side, until the 
muzzle of his musket was split by a shot from the enemy, 
which rendered it useless ; a ball passed through my shirt, 
and grazed the skin of my shoulder ; ]\Ir. Decabancs, my 
lieutenant, had the sling of his fusee shot awa}"^ : several 
others Avere wounded, some mortally, but I did not, to 
my surprize, observe one instance of immediate death — 
for which seeming miracle, however, I shall presently 



This whole field of rice was surrounded and inter- 
spersed by the enemy with the large trunks and roots of 
heavy trees, in order to make our approach both diffi- 
cult and dangerous ; behind these temporary fortifications 
the rebels lay lurking, and firing upon us with deliberate 
aim, wJiilst their bulwarks certainly protected them in 
some measure from the effects of our fire, Ave having vast 
numbers of these fallen trees to scramble over before we 
could reach the town : but \\c still advanced, in defiance 
of every obstacle, and while I admired the masterly ma- 
noeuvres of their general, I could not help pitying them 
for their superstition. One poor fellow, in particular, 
trusting to his amulet or charm, fancied himself invulner- 
able; he mounted frequently upon one of the trees that 
lay near us, discharged his piece, descended to re-load, 
and then with equal confidence and the greatest deliber- 
ation returned to the charge in my full view ; till at last 
a shot from one of my marines, named Valet, broke the 
bone of his thigh, and he fell crawling for shelter under 
the very same tree Avhich had supported him just before; 
but the soldier instantly advancing, and putting the 
muzzle of his musket to the rebel's ear, blew out his brains, 
while several of his countrymen, in spite of their spells 
and charms, shared the same fate. 

Being now about to enter the town, a rebel captain, 
wearing a tarnished gold-laced hat, and bearing in his 
hand a torch of tlaming straw, seeing their ruin inevita- 

ble, had the resolution to stay and set the town on fire 
in our presence, which, by the dryness of the houses, in- 
stantly produced a general conflagration, when the tiring 
from the woods began gradually to cease. This bold and 
masterly manoeuvre not only prevented that carnage to 
which the common soldiers in the heat of victor}'^ are but 
too pi'one, but also afforded the enemy an opportunity of 
retreating with their wives and children, and carrying otf 
their most useful effects ; whilst our pursuit, and seizing 
the spoil, were at once frustrated both by the ascending 
flames and the unfathomable marsh, which we soon dis- 
covered on all sides to surround us, as in the Maccabees : 

" Behold the battle is before us, and behind us, and the 
" xcater of Jordan on this side, and that side, and the marsh 
" zx\A forest, so that there is no place for us to turn aside." 

I must indeed confess that Avithin this last hour the 
continued noise of the firing, shouting, swearing, and 
hallooing of black and white men mixed together ; the 
groans of the wounded and the dying, all As^eltering in 
blood and in dust ; the shrill sound of the negro horns 
from every quarter, and the crackling of the burning 
village ; to which if we add the clouds of smoke that every 
where surrounded us, the ascending flames, &c. &c. formed 
on the Avhole, such an uncommon scene as I cannot de- 
scribe, and would perhaps not have been unworthy of the 
pencil of Hogarth : this scene 1 have, however, faintly en- 
1 deavoured 


deavoured to represent in the front //piece — Avhere I may he 
seen, after the heat of the action, fatigued, and dejectedly 
looking on the body of an unfortunate rebel negro, who, 
with his musket in his hand, Hes prostrate at my feet. 

In short, having washed off the dust, sweat, and blood, 
and having refreshed ourselves with a dram and a bit of 
bread till the flames subsided, we next went to inspect 
the smoking ruins ; and found the above tow^n to have 
consisted of about one hundred houses or huts, some of 
which were two stories high. Among the glowing ashes 
Ave picked up several trifles that had escaped the flames, 
such as silver spoons and forks, which we supposed, by 
the marks BW. to have been pillaged from the Brunswick 
estate in Rio Cottica. We found also some knives, broken 
china and earthen pots; amongst the latter one filled 
with rice and palm-tree worms fell to my share : as tliis 
wanted no fire to dress the contents, and as my appetite 
was very keen, I emptied it in a few minutes, and made 
a very hearty meal. Some were afraid this mess had been 
left behind with a view to poison us; but this suspi- 
cion proved, however, fortunately for me, to be without 

The silver plate I also purchased from the men that 
picked it up, determined to carry it off as a trophy, and 
I have used it ever since. Here we likewise found three 
skulls fixed upon stakes, the mournful relics of some of 
our own brave people, who had been formerly killed ; but 

Vol. IL Q what 


CHAP, what surprised us most, were the heads of two young 

t_^-^-l^^ negroes, which seemed as if fresh cut off, these we since 

learned had been executed during the night of the 1 7th, 

when we heard the hallooing and the firing, for speaking 

in our favour. 

Having buried all these remains promiscuously in one 
pit, we returned to sling our hammocks, under those 
beautiful and lofty trees which I have already mentioned ; 
but here I am sorry to add, we found the rangers shock- 
ingly employed, in playing at bowls with those very heads 
they had just chopped off from their enemies ; who, deaf 
to all remonstrance, 

" Resistless drove the batter d skulls before, 

" And dash'd and mangled all the brains with gore." 

They related that upon reconnoitring the skirts of the 
surrounding forest, they had found quantities of human 
blood in different places, which had flowed from the dead 
and wounded bodies the rebels had carried away during 
the action. 

To reprimand them for this inhuman diversion would 
have been useless, as they assured us it was " Condre 
" fassee," the custom of their country ; and concluded 
the horrid sport by kicking and mangling the heads, 
cutting of the lips, cheeks, cars, and noses ; they even 
took out the jaw-bones, which they smoke-dried, together 
with the right hands, to carry home, as tropuies of their 
3 victory, 


victory, to their wives and relations. That this barbarous 
custom prevails amongst savages is a well-known fact, 
which originates from a motive of insatiable revenge. And 
though Colonel Fourgeoud might have prevented their 
inhumanity by his authority, in my opinion he wisely 
declined it ; observing, that as he could not do it by per- 
suasion, to do it by power might break their native spirit, 
and produce no other effect than alienating them from 
the service, so necessary were they to us, though so 
savagely revengeful, and so bloody. 

About three o'clock, whilst we were restino; from our fa- 
tigue, we were once more surprised by an attack from a 
party of the enemy ; but after exchanging a few shots they 
Mere repulsed. This unexpected visit, however, put us more 
upon our guard during the night, so that no fires wei'e 
allowed to be lighted, and double sentinels were placed 
around the camp. Thus situated, being overcome by ex- 
cessive toil and heat, I after sun-set leaped into my ham- 
mock, and soon fell fast asleep ; but in less than two hours 
my faithful black boy Quaco roused me, in the midst of 
pitch darkness, crying, " Massera, tnassera ! boosee negro, 
boosee negro !" — "Master, master ! the enemy, the enemy !" 
Hearing, at the same moment, a brisk firing, with the 
balls whistling through the branches, I fully concluded 
that the rebels were in the very midst of our camp. 
Surprised, and not perfectly awake, I suddenly started up 
with my/usee cocked ; and (without knowing where I ran) 

Q 2 fii-st 


first threw down Quaco, and next fell down myself, over 
two or three bodies that lay upon the ground, and which 
I iilmgined to be killed. When one of them, " d — ning 
" me for a son of a b — eh, told me, if I moved I was a 
" dead man ; Colonel Fourgeoud having issued orders 
" for the troops to lie flat on their bellies all the night, 
" and not to fire, as most of their ammunition had been 
" expended the preceding day." I took his advice, and 
soon discovered him by his voice to be one of our own 
grenadiers, named Thomson. In this situation Ave lay pros- 
trate on our arms until sun-rise, during which time a most 
abusive dialogue indeed was carried on between the rebels 
and the rangers, each party cursing and menacing the 
other at a very terrible rate ; the former " reproaching the 
" rangers as poltrons and traitors to their countrymen, 
" and challenging them next day to single combat ; sAvear- 
" ing they only wished to lave their hands in the blood of 
" such scoundrels, who had been the principal agents in 
" destroying their flourishing settlement." The rangers 
" d — n' d the rebels for a parcel of pitiful skulking ras- 
" cals, whom they would fight one to two in the open 
" field, if they dared but to shew their ugly faces; swear- 
" ing they had only deserted their masters because they 
" were too lazy to work." After this they insulted each 
other by a kind of war-whoop, sung victorious songs on 
both sides, and sounded their horns as signals of defiance; 
when the firing commenced once more from the rebel 



negroes, and continued during the night, accompanied by 
their martial voices, at intermissions resounding through the 
woods, which echo seemed to answer with redoubled force. 
At length poor Fourgeoud took a part in the conversa- 
tion, myself and Serjeant Fowler acting as his interpreters, 
by hallooing, which created more mirth than I had been 
witness to for some time : he promised them life, liberty, 
victuals, drink, and all they wanted. They replied, with a 
loud laugh, that they wanted nothing from him ; charac- 
terised him as a half-starved Frenchman, who had run 
away from his own country ; and assured him that if he 
would venture to pay them a visit, he should return un- 
hurt, and not with an empty belly. They told us, that we 
were to be pitied more than they ; that we were white 
slaves, hired to be shot at and starved for fourpence a 
day ; that they scorned to expend much more of their 
powder upon such scarecrows ; but should the planters 
or overseers dare to enter the woods, not a soul of them 
should ever return, any more than the perfidious rangers, 
some of Avhom might depend upon being massacred that 
day, or the next; and concluded by declaring that Bonny 
should soon be the governor of the colony. 

After this they tinkled their bill-hooks, fired a volley, 
and gave three cheers ; which being answered by the 
rangers, the clamour ended, and the rebels dispersed with 
the rising sun. 

Our fatigue was great ; yet, notwithstanding the length 



of the contest, our loss by the enemy's fire was very incon- 
siderable, for Avhich I promised to account ; and this mys- 
tery was now explained, when the surgeons, dressing the 
wounded, extracted very few leaden bullets, but many 
pebbles, coat-buttons, and pieces of silver coin, which 
could do us little mischief, by penetrating scarcely more 
than skin deep. We also observed, that several of the 
poor rebel negroes who were shot, had only the shards of 
Spa-water cans, instead of flints, which could seldom do 
execution; and it was certainly owing to these circum- 
stances that we came off so well, as I have mentioned 
before ; yet we Mere nevertheless not without a number 
of very dangerous scars and contusions. 

Inconceivable are the many expedients which these 
people employ in the woods, where in a state of tranquil- 
lity they seemed, as they boasted, to want for nothing, 
being plump and fat, at least such as Ave had an oppor- 
tunity of observing. It should be noticed, that game and 
Jish they catch in great abundance, by artificial traps and 
springs, and preserve them by barbacuing ; while their 
fields are even overstocked with rice, cassava, yams, plan- 
tains, &c. They make salt from the palm-tree ashes, as 
the Gentoos do in the Eaft Indies, or frequently supply 
the want of it with red pepper. 

We here found concealed near the trunk of an old tree 
a case-bottle filled with excellent butter, which the rangers 
told me they made by melting and clarifying the fat of 



the palm-tree worms : this fully answers all the purposes 
of European butter, and I found it in fact even move de- 
licious to my taste. The pistachio or pinda nuts they also 
convert into butter, by their oily substance, and frequently 
use them in their broths. The palm-tree wine they have 
always in plenty ; they procure it by making deep inci- 
sions of a foot square in the fallen trunk, M-hcre the juice 
being collected, it soon ferments by the heat of the sun; 
it is not only a cool and agreeable beverage, but suffici- 
ently strong to intoxicate. The manicole or pine tree 
affords them materials for building ; they fabricate pots 
from clay found near their dwellings ; the gourd or calle- 
basse tree procures them cups; the silk-grass plant and 
maurecee-tree supplies materials for their hammocks, and 
even a kind of cap grows naturally upon the palm-trees, as 
well as brooms; the various kinds of nebee supply the 
want of ropes ; fuel they have for cutting ; and a wood 
called bee-bee serves for tinder, by rubbing two pieces on 
each other; it is also elastic, and makes excellent corks ; 
candles they can make, having plenty of fat and oil ; and 
the wild bees afford them wax, as well as excellent honey. 

Clothes they scorn to Avear, preferring to go naked in 
a climate where the Avarmth of the Aveather renders every 
kind of covering an useless incumbrance. 

They might breed hogs and poultry, and keep -dogs for 
hunting and Avatching them, but this they decline, from 
the apprehension of being discovered by their noise, as 



c H A P. even the crowing of a cock may be heard in the forest at 
a considerable distance. 1 shall now once more pro- 

The rebels of this settlement being apparently subdued 
and dispersed, Colonel Fourgeoud made it his next busi- 
ness to destroy the surrounding harvest; and I received 
orders to begin the devastation, with eighty marines and 
twenty rangers. Thus I cut down all the rice that was 
growing plentifully in the tM'o above-mentioned fields; 
this being done, I discovered a third field south of the 
first, which I also demolished, and made my report to 
Fourgeoud, with which he appeared highly satisfied. In 
the afternoon Captain Hamel was detached, with fifty 
marines and thirty rangers, to reconnoitre behind the vil- 
lage, and to discover, if possible, how the rebels could 
pass to and fro through an unfathomable marsh, whilst 
we were unable to pursue them. This oflficer at length 
perceived a kind of floating bridge amongst the reeds, 
made of maurecee-trees, but so constructed, that only one 
man abreast could pass it. On this were seated astride a 
few rebels to defend the communication, who instantly 
fired upon the party, but were soon repulsed by the 
rangers, who shot one of them dead, but he was carried 
away by his companions. 

On the morning of the 22d, our commander ordered a 
detachment to cross the bridge and go on discovery at all 
hazards. Of this party I led the van. We now took the 



pass Avithout opposition ; and having all marched, or ra- 
ther scrambled over this defile of floating trees, we found 
ourselves in a large oblong field of cassava and yams, in 
which were about thirty houses, now deserted, being the 
remains of the old settlement called Cofaay. In this field 
we separated into three divisions, the better to reconnoitre, 
one marching north, one north-west, and the third west. 
And here, to our astonishment, we discovered that the 
reason of the rebels shouting, singing, and firing, on the 
night of the 20th, was not only to cover the retreat of 
their friends, by cutting off the pass, but by their unre- 
mitting noise to prevent us from discovering that they 
were employed, men, women, and children, in preparing 
warimboes or hampers filled with the finest rice, yams, 
and cassava, for subsistence during their escape, of which 
they had only left the chaff and refuse for our contem- 

This was certainly such a masterly trait of generalship 
in a savage people, whom we aftected to despise, as would 
have done honour to any European commander, and has 
perhaps been seldom equalled by more civilized nations. 

Vol. II. R 



Spirited Conduct of the dangers and Rebels— -A Skirmish^-' 
Scene of Brotherly Affection— ^The Troops return to Bar- 
hacoeha — Blan of the Field of Action — A Slave killed by 
the Oroocookoo Snake. 

CHAP. ^^OLONEL Fourgeoud, on finding himself thus foiled 
^_r-"^-^i ^^ bj a naked negro, was unable any longer to restrain 
his resentment, and swore aloud he would pursue Bonny 
to the world's end. His ammunition and provisions were 
however expended, and if they had not, it Avould have 
been in vain now to think of overtaking the enemy. — To 
the surprise of most persons, our hero however persevered 
in this impracticable project, and dispatched Captain 
Belts, with one hundred men and thirty rangers, besides a 
number of slaves, to transport a quantity of shot, and a 
week's provisions from Barbacoeba, and at the same time 
issued orders for the troops to subsist upon half allow- 
ance, desiring the men to supply the deficiency by pick- 
ing rice, peas, and cassava, and prepare them in the best 
way they could for their subsistence, and this was also my 
lot, as well as most of the officers ; while it was no bad 
scene to see ten or twenty of us with heavy wooden pes- 
tles, like so many apothecaries, beating the rice in a spe- 
1 1 cies 


cies of mortars, cut all along in the hard trunk of a le- 
velled 'purper-heart-tree by the rebel negroes (being the 
only contrivance used by them to separate the rice fi'om 
the husk) ; this was however for us a most laborious busi- 
ness, the sweat running down our bodies as if we had 
been bathing, while water was at this time the only beve- 
rage in the camp. 

Among other vegetables we had the good fortune to 
find here great quantities of wild purslane, which only dif- 
fers from the common, by growing nearer the ground, the 
ieaves being less, and more of a blackish green ; this vege- 
table grows wild in the woods of Guiana, and may be 
either eaten as a salad, or stewed, without reserve, being, 
not only a cooling and agreeable food, but reckoned an 
excellent antidote against the scurvy. 

Here were also great quantities of gourd or calehasse 
trees, Avhich are very useful to the natives of the country. 
This tree grows to the height of a common apple-tree, 
with large thick pointed leaves ; the gourds it produces 
are of different forms and dimensions, some being oval, 
some conical, and some round, growing often to the size 
of ten or twelve inches in diameter ; the shell is hard and 
very smooth, covered over with a shining skin or epi- 
dermis, which becomes brown when the gourd is dry and 
fit for use : the heart or pulp is a pithy substance, which 
is easily extricated by the help of a crooked knife. The 
■uses are various to which these gourds are applied, they 

R Si furnish 


farnisli bottles, powder-flasks, cups, basons, and dishes : 
I seldom travelled without one, which served me as a 
bason, plate, &c. in the forest. The negroes generally 
adorn them by carving on the outer skin many fantastical 
figures, and filling up the vacancies with chalk-dust, 
which sometimes has a very pretty efFe6l. 

The rangers having been out to reconnoitre, returned 
on the afternoon of the 23d, and reported that they had 
discovered and destroyed another field of rice to the N. E. 
This pleased Colonel Fourg€oud very well; but when in 
the dusk of the evening I observed to him, that I saw 
several armed negroes advancing at a distance, he turned 
pale, exclaiming " Nous sommes perclus !" and ordered the 
whole camp immediately under arms. In a few seconds 
these negroes were near enough to be discerned, and we 
now saw that several of them Avere carried upon poles, in 
hammocks. Eourgeoud then said, " We still are ruined, 
" though not the enemy : 'tis Captain Bolts beaten back, 
" with all his party ;" and this proved literally to be the 
fact, when that unfortunate officer (having delivered the 
wounded to the surgeons) made his report, that having 
entered the fatal swamp where Captain Meyland had 
been defeated, he was attacked by the enemy from the 
opposite shore, who, Avithout hurting a single European, 
had made a dreadful havock amongst his rmigers ; that 
Captain Valentine, a brave young fellow, belonging to 
that corps, whilst sounding his horn to animate his coun- 


trymen, had it shot away, with his pouch also, and Avas 
himself most desperately wounded in^ue different parts of 
the body. In this situation he was raet by his brother, 
named Captain Avantage, who, vipon seeing his mortal 
condition, a scene of such real fraternal affection ensued 
as is seldom to be observed in a civilized country : — 
kneeling at his side, and bending over the mangled Valen- 
tine, he sucked the blood and gore from his shattered 
breast and sides ; then cherished him with the manly pro- 
mise to revenge his death upon his foes, and the hopes 
that when he himself was killed he should meet him 
again in a better place. 

Colonel Fourgcoud now found that the rebels had 
kept their promise of massacring the rangers ; while Cap- 
tain Bolts reported that some had fired upon his party 
from the tops of the palm-trees, and then sliding down 
Avith surprising agility, disappeared, whilst the rangers 
were foaming for revenge on their active adversaries, and 
could hardly be restrained from an immediate pursuit 
through the verdure. 

Our mighty leader now found his absurd scheme of 
pursuing the enemy completely frustrated, and himself 
in danger of total destruction ; being cut off from every 
supply, and having neither ammunition nor provisions 
left in his camp, with very few men, excejit the sick and 
wounded, to defend it. Thus he at last began most seri- 
ously to consider how to secure a safe retreat ; to which 



he Avas urged likewise by the general and incessant miir- 
murings of the troops, who Avere not only almost starved, 
but indeed dreadfully harassed by daily fatigues and 
jiightly watchings : 

" They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way, 
" they found no city to dwell in. 

" Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted within thera." 

On the 24th, a detachment of one hundred and forty 
men, commanded by two field officers, were still ordered 
to destroy the fields, and the old settlement called Cofaay; 
of this party I had the honour again to be one. We soon 
performed the service we were sent upon, and also picked 
up, out of the marsh, several utensils, such as tea-kettles, 
iron pots and pans, &c. that the rebels had formerly pil- 
laged from the estates, and had thrown into the water to 
conceal them from us, with an intention , no doubt, of re- 
turning to fish them up, as soon as we were gone from 

Upon the return of the detachment in the afternoon, 
we immediately decamped, and began to retreat for Bar- 
bacoeba. Here I must remark in Colonel Fourgeoud an 
instance of had policy, at least, though many have not he- 
sitated to bestow upon it a harsher epithet. This evening, 
upon our return, when we entered the ominous swamp, 
he suddenly caught up one of the empty bread-boxes, 
and having stuffed a hammock into it, he carried it before 



Iiim as a shield, crying aloud to his men, " Sauve qui 
" pent!" At this moment a Walloon named Mattow 
stepped up to him, and said, " Mon Colonel, but few 
" can, and I hope fewer still Avill, follow your example. 
*' Drop your shield, and do not intimidate your soldiers : 
" one brave man creates others, then follow thy Mattow, 
" and fear for nothing." Upon which he instantly threw 
open his bosom, and, charging his bayonet, was the first 
that mounted the opposite beach: this intrepidity in- 
spired the rest, and they passed the marshy swamp without 
opposition ; for Avhich act of heroism this private marine 
was since made a serjeant. I should think myself defi- 
cient if I did not observe, that the Walloons in general 
behaved with great spirit, and were in every respect ex- 
cellent soldiers. This evening we encamped upon the 
same ground where Me had passed the night before the 
engagement, with excessive bad weather and very heavy 

Early on the morning of the 25th, we again marched, 
and proceeded on our return, having now a beaten path 
before us. It will suffice to say, that we readied our 
place of general rendezvous, Barbacoeba, on the after- 
noon of the following da}', but in a most shocking condi- 
tion ; the whole of the detachment being mostly spent 
and wore out with fatigue, some nearly starved, others 
mortally wounded ; whilst all the slaves were employed 
in carrying the sick and lame in their hammocks, on long 



CHAP, poles, though these poor wretches were scarcely able to 
,^__^^^^ support themselves. — Such was the concluding scene of 
the taking of Gado-Saby. However, if during this ex- 
pedition we neither captured any of the rebels, nor 
gained booty, we nevertheless rendered the colony a very 
essential service, by rooting out this concealed nest of 
enemies, Avho being thus discovered and driven away from 
their capital settlements, never think (as I have already 
observed) of returning to live near the same spot. I 
might, indeed, pronounce our victory almost decisive ; I 
say almost, for if we except the demolishing a few planta- 
tions for immediate subsistence, and from a spirit of re- 
venge, the rebels were, b}^ being driven fiom this settle- 
ment, so disconcerted and panic-struck, that from the 
present period their depredations w ere certainly less, as 
they soon afterwards retired to an inaccessible depth in 
the forest, where they neither could do auy material in- 
jury, nor be joined by negro deserters. 

To shew the masterly manoeuvres of our sable foes to 
more advantage, I here present the reader with a plan of 
this extraordinary settlement, together with our different 
stages, after leaving our encampment on the borders of 
the Cottica River, viz. 

N" 1 , 2, and 3, are supposed to be the general rendezvous 

atBarbacoeba, and the two succeeding nights encampment. 

N° 4. The spot where mc heard the firing and shout- 

ing of the rebels on the night of the 1 7th. 


J^/e/// y//r\'r\IU-\]K\\ FIKLHoI' Action /r/«vr// //' /itr'rrx CoTTtrAand J\IAIt1MtrAi n>t/4''rt''//(r/r-// f^'///r /,/„„>tr> r;/ Em'!im|)Ulg' /// ///' W«M>I>N of 

.y/i/'^^y^/'r^i// -///f//^/'.'^/^j/t ry////'^ _^/^aa^':^yj^J^y'- 

^ym'yJ^loz:A> Coil,^'/-, hv/'/ 

f.,u,d,'i,.j;,i'l,:./,„l 0.,',-^ij,)i,hs J..l„liii.r,;, .lyi' lluirc/i r.ird . 


N" 5. The latitude where the troops were joined by the 
black corps or rangers, 

N' 6. The night's encampment previous to the engage- 

N° 7. The beach on the opposite side of the marsh, 
where Captain Meyland with his troops had been de- 

N° 8. The advanced post of the rebels, whence the first 
shot was fired at the troops. 

N° 9. The field with rice and Indian com, entered with- 
out opposition. 

N* 10. The pass or defile in which the firing com- 

N" 1 1 . The beautiful rice-field in which the action con- 
tinued above forty minutes. 

N* 12. The town of Gado-Saby in flames at a distance. 

N" 13. The spot whence the rebels fired on the camp, 
and held the conversation on the night of the 20th. 

N" 14. The ground of the old settlement Cofaay, with 
the floating bridge that covered the retreat of the rebels. 

N° 15. The fields with cassava, yams, and plantains, 
that were at difterent times destroyed. 

N" 16. The field of rice discovered and demolished by 
Captain Stedman on the 21st. 

N" 17. A field demolished by the rangers on the 23d. 

N" 18. The swamp or marsh which surrounded the set- 

Vol. II. S N' 19. 


N" 19. The quagmire, or biree-biree, adjoining it. 

N" 20. The forest. 

Having formerly described the manner in which we 
erected our huts, I shall here also add a small plan of 
the mode of arranging them during our encampment in 
the woods of Guiana, which camps were generally of a 
triangular form, as being most secure in case of a surprise, 
and the easiest to defend our provisions and ammunition ; 
but the situation of the ground would not always permit 
this, and then we encamped in any form, square, oblong, 
or circular, &c. — In the annexed plan, 

N° 1. Is the hut or shed of Colonel Fourgeoud,. 
or the commanding officer, in the center, with a sen- 

N° 2. The huts of all the other officers, in a small tri- 
angle, surrounding that of the commander in chief. 

N° 3. The angles of the outer triangle formed by the 
huts of the privates in three divisions, viz. the main body, 
the van, and the rear guards, with sentinels at proper dis- 
tances, to cover the front of each. 

N° 4. Powder-chests, provisions, and medicines, with a. 

N° 5. The fires in the rear of each division to dress the 
victuals, and round Avhich the negro slaves are lodged 
upon the ground. 

N" 6. A coppice of manicole-trees to erect the huts or 



N° 7. A rivulet or creek to provide the troops :\\ith chap. 
fresh Avater. And, N° 8. The surround hig forest. v,,^-^^.il>> 

I must now return once more to my narrative, and ob- 
serve, that Barbacoeba, instead of being in a state of send- 
ing provisions to Gado-Saby, as our chief had expected, 
could scarcely afford daily subsistence to his emaciated 
troops on their arrival ; who having for many days lived on 
rice, yams, peas, and Indian corn, were now most violently 
attacked by the flux ; for although that kind of nourishment 
will keep the Indians and negroes strong as horses, the Eu- 
ropeans cannot long subsist without animal food, Avhich 
was at this time so very scarce, that even the Jew soldiers 
of the Society troops devoured salt pork as fast as they 
could catch it. 

I nevertheless continued among the few that still were 
healthy ; which was almost a miracle, as I had fared very 
hard indeed for Avant of my private stores, which I had 
left at the neighbouring estate Mocha : however, expect- 
ing leave now to bring them in person from that plan- 
tation, I Avas in good spirits also. But here I Avas dis- 
appointed, by Colonel Fourgeoud's declaring he could 
not spare me one moment, while I Avas able to stand upon 
my feet. I therefore Avaited patiently for an opportunity 
of sending for them ; in the mean time sharing Avith my 
black boy the scanty alloAvance of a private soldier, Avith 
the casual addition of some mountain-cabbage, or palm- 
tree Avorms, and perhaps a few Avarrappa fish. 

s 2 As 


As for the miserable slaves, they were so starved, that 
having killed a Coata monkey, they broiled it, with skin, 
hair, intestines and all, then tore it to pieces with their 
teeth, and devoured it like so many cannibals, before it 
was even half dressed. Of this animal they offered me 
a limb ; but, hungry as I was, my stomach could not 
relish this kind of venison. 

A good constitution, sterling health and spirits, now 
supported me, or I must have sunk under the load of 
piisery and hardships, which were at this time become so 
intolerable, that the rangers again forsook the camp ; and 
Mr.Vinsack, their conductor, as brave and active a man 
as ever entered the wood, threw up his commission, as 
Mr. Mongol had done before, during Colonel Fourgeoud's 
first campaign at the Wana. 

In the beginning of September, the bloody flux raged 
in the camp to such a degree, that the colonel saw him- 
self obliged to send off all the sick officers and privates, 
without exception, not to Paramaribo for recovery in the 
grand hospital that is there, but to linger and die on the 
banks of the rivers, where they relieved others to be en- 
camped, and undergo a similar wretchedness; the sick 
of his own regiment being dispatched to Magdenberg in 
the Tempatee Creek, and those of tlie Society troops to 
Vreedenberg in Cottica. 

Colonel Fourgeoud's inhumanity to the officers was now 

actually become such, that he would not even permit those 

10 Avho 


who were past recovery a marine to attend them, what- 
ever price they offered ; some of whom I have seen ex- 
panded between two trees, Avhile the very fikh, for want 
of assistance, was dropping through their hammocks. Of 
this number Avas Ensign Strozc^s, who, in this dreadful 
situation, Avas ordered to be transported in an open boat 
to Devil's HarAvar, where he died. At length Colonel 
Fourgeoud himself Avas seized Avith this dreadful malady, 
and his beloved ptisan proved to be of no more avail ; 
yet he soon recovered, by the plentiful use of claret and 
spices, Avhich he seldom wanted, and Avhich his colleague 
Seyburg also employed as a preservative of his health, 
though by sAvalloAving too copious doses he frequently 
lost the use of his reason. In such a situation, and in such 
a despicable encampment, our commander in chief had 
the vanity to expect a deputation from the court at Para- 
maribo, Avith congratvilations on his victory : in conse- 
quence of Avhich he had built an elegant shed, and sent 
for sheep and hogs to entertain them — but the expected 
deputies never arrived. 

On the 5 th, therefore, the hogs and sheep Avere slaugh- 
tered, and, for the Jirst time in his life, he ordered one 
pound per man, bones and all, to be distributed among 
the poor emaciated soldiers : indeed the number able to 
partake of this bounty Avas at present very small. 

On the folloAving day a reinforcement of one hundred 
men arrived from jVIagdenberg, in Comewina; and from 



the Society post Vreedenberg, in Cottica, nearly as many. 
These confirmed the death of Enfign StroAvs, besides of a 
great number of privates, who had assisted at the taking 
of Gado-Sabij, and Avho had expired in the boats during 
their removal from Barbacoeba. 

Intelhgence arrived at the same time that the defeated 
rebels had actually crossed the river Cottica below Patta- 
maca, intent on immediate mischief, and that they were 
marching to the westward. In consequence of this in- 
formation, a captain and fifty men M^ere immediately 
detached, by water, to reconnoitre the banks near the 
Pinenburg Creek. This party returned upon the 8th, 
and confirmed the intelligence. Our indefatigable chief 
now again determined to pursue them; but the slaves 
who were to carry the ammunition and provisions had 
been sent home to their masters, nothing but skin and 
bones, to be exchanged for others, not yet arrived, and 
to be starved in their turn. I shall therefore relate what 
happened the two following days, until the arrival of these 
unfortunate beasts of burden ; for so they might Avith pro- 
priety be called. 

On the 9th Avere sold upon credit, and to the highest 
bidder, the effects of the deceased Ensign Strows, when 
the poor soldiers, regardless of price, and only wishing to 
obtain some clothes and refreshments to keep (in the 
vulgar phrase) soul and body together, actually paid at 
the rate of 700 per cent, and this infamous debt Avas ac- 


cordingly stated in their accounts. I have seen, for in- 
stance, a private marine pay five shilHngs for a pound of 
mouldered tobacco, that might be worth sixpence, and 
double the prime value for a pair of old stockings or shoes. 
A sick man paid one guinea for a couple of meagre 
chickens ; and for a broken bottle-case to hold his lumber, 
another paid a similar sum. Thus were these poor dying 
half-starved Avretches deprived of the little property they 
had earned at the expence of their blood and sweat, while 
this miserable necessity might have been easily prevented 
by only supplying them with what was their due. A private 
marine, of the name of Sem, at this time, swore, in the 
heat of his resentment, that he would certainly shoot 
Fourgeoud, whenever he had an opportunity ; which 
being overheard, upon condition of repentance, I bribed 
the evidence not to inform against him, and so literally 
saved this poor rash fellow from dying on the gallows. 

Fortunately, all the world did not possess this chief- 
tain's insensibility, for this day the good Mrs. Godefroy 
once more sent up a flat-bottomed barge, with a fat ox, 
oranges, and plantains for the private soldiers, which 
was accordingly distributed amongst them. The same 
evening a small supply of provisions also arrived for me, 
from Joanna, with a few bottles of port wine ; and though 
part was stolen, and part was damaged by the way, it 
made me very happy, and I gave nothing to Fourgeoud. 

When we speak of provisions in the MOods, v.e only 



mean sugar, tea, coffee, Boston biscuit, cheese, rum, ham, 
or a keg of sausages, since Uttle else can be carried through 
the forest by a single slave, and we were now allowed no 
more. Shirts, shoes, and stockings were also usually ac- 
counted among the necessaries, but the last two articles I 
did not use, being accustomed to walk bare-footed, which 
I had now practised for more than two years, and with 
great advantage to my limbs, when I compared them with 
the diseased and ulcerated shanks of my ghastly-looking 

On the 1 2th, the fresh supply of slaves being arrived, 
the necessary preparations were made to pursue the rebels 
the next day, directing our first course towards the spot 
formerly called Jerusalem, mentioned in 1773, when I 
commanded the fatal expedition in Upper Cottica; and 
on the 1 3th, the baggage and provisions being sent before 
us by water to Jerusalem, escorted by the sick officers and 
privates, we at last decamped to follow them, and bidding 
a final farewell to Barbacoeba, re-entered the woods, 
marching S. and S. E. the whole day, then passed the 
night on the opposite bank of the Cassiporee Creek, Avhere 
we encamped. 

Nothing could be more diabolically cruel than the per- 
secution of the new slaves during this march ; not only 
overloaded and starved, but beat like mules or asses by 
every ill-tempered individual — for instance, I saw Four- 
geoud's black favourite, Gousary, knock down a ])oor 



negro slave for not taking up his load — and the chief him- 
self knock him down for taking it up too soon ; when the 
wretch, not knowing what to do, exclaimed, in hopes 
of pity, " massera, Jesus Christus !" and was actually 
knocked down a third time by an enthusiast, for daring to 
utter a name with Avhich he was so little acquainted. 

During the last day's march, a large drove of Warrc 
hogs or wild boars broke through our line; several of 
them were cut down by our sabres, and stabbed Avith the 
bayonets, the men having orders from the commander in 
chief not to fire at any game whatever. The animals that 
were killed were cut in pieces, and distributed among the 
troops, which proved, though small, a very seasonable 
dainty. It is certainly very remarkable, that if the first 
wild boar or leader passes through any danger, all the 
others stupidly follow, in hopes of a similar escape, which 
on the contrary, as I liave said, frequently proves the cause 
of their destruction. 

On the 14th we marched S. W. till about noon, and 
arrived at Jerusalem, which the van had reached about 
an hour before us, all thoroughly soaked with mud and 
heavy rains, and several men unhappily with ruptures in 
the groin, by falling over the roots of trees, large stones, 
&c. Here just arrived, Ave found again, to my astonish- 
ment, the identical Mr. Vinsack, Avith one hundred fresh 
rangers : he had heard it seems of the rebels passing 

Vol. II. T Upper 


Upper Cottica, and had been prevailed upon to resume 
his command by the Governor ; thus he now once more 
offered his service to Colonel Fourgeoud, Avho was very 
happy indeed to accept it. 

Here, our camp being mostly overgrown with long 
coarse grass, one of the slaves M'as unfortunately bitten in 
the foot by a small serpent, called in Surinam the * Oroo- 
coolcoo snake, from its colour, which resembles an owl. 
In less than a minute the man's leg began to swell, when 
he was seized with excruciating pains, and soon fell into 
convulsions. One of his companions having killed the 
snake, made the patient drink its gall, mixed with half a 
glass of spirits, Avhich I gave him. He seemed now (per- 
haps from imagination) to bear his misfortune better ; but 
the fits soon returned with increasing violence, and he 
was instantly sent to his master's plantation, where he 
expired. That the gall of adders, externally applied, is 
efficacious, I have often heard. In the Grand Magazine 
for April 1758, may be seen a letter, signed J. H. and 
dated 24th March, which treats systematically of the ap- 
plication of gall. But these investigations I must leave 
to the learned of the medical profession; and only ob- 
serve, in general, that the smaller the snake, at least in 

* This, I apprehend, is the snake having killed a negro in less than 
which Dr. Bancroft calls the small five minutes when he was at Deme- 
Labora, and which he mentions as rara. 

5 Guiana, 


Guiana, the more fatal the poison ; as is justly and beau- 
tifully observed by Thomson : 

" • But still more direful he 

" The small, close-lurking minister of fate, 

" Whose high concocted venom through the veins 

" A rapid lightning darts, arresting swift 

" The vital current." 

In this grassy wilderness one of the rangers also killed a 
snake, called the Avhip-snake, from its resemblance to 
that instrument ; it Avas above five feet long, and not 
very much thicker than a swan's quill ; the belly Avhite 
and the back a lead colour : concerning its bite, I can 
say nothing. I was informed by the negroes, but I 
cannot speak from my own observation, that it has the 
power of giving a very severe stroke Avith its tail, hke the 
lash of a Avhip, AA'hich it so much resembles. 

I must also notice an amphibious animal Avhich some 
of the negroes killed this evening, called by them the 
Cabiai; it is a species of Avater hog, and about the or- 
dinary size of the land animal Avhich goes under that 
name ; it is covered Avith grey bristles, and armed Avith a 
number of very strong teeth ; it has no tail ; on each foot 
it has three toes, Avebbed like those of a duck. This ani- 
mal, it is said, goes ashore only during the night, Avhere 
it feeds on young grass, and other vegetables. I have 
been told it is good food, but never tasted it myself. 

On tlie 1 6th, having rested one day at this place, Co- 
T 2 lonel 


lonel Fourgeoud detached two strong parties to recon- 
noitre, viz. Lieutenant Colonel de Borgnes, with 100 
men, was sent to the AVana Creek in Upper Cornioetibo ; 
and Colonel Seyburg, -with an equal number, Avas ordered 
to the Creek Pinenburg, in Upper Cottica. The latter 
returned about midnight with two canoes, which he had 
found hauled ashore, on the opposite side of the river, a 
little below the mouth of the Claas Creek. This con- 
vinced us that the rebels were gone westward to plunder, 
and had brought their empty canoes doAvn the Claas 
Creek, from the rice country, in order to send them back 
loaded with booty from the estates they intended to pil- 
lage. In consequence, therefore, of this information, the 
proper preparations Avere immediately made to pursue 
them with alacrity. Never did the old warrior display 
more vigour than on this occasion, swearing aloud that he 
now would be revenged of them all, coute qui coute. 

" Though they dig into hell, thence shall mine hand 
" take them; though they climb up to heaven, thence 
" will I bring them down." 

But how far his generalship on this occasion proved to 
be a match for that of Bonny, I must beg leave to reserve 
for the succeeding chapter. 



Alarm in the Pirica River — A Detachment marches to its 
Relief — Ambuscade — Wonderful Ejfect from the Biting of 
a Bat — Scene in a 'Quagmire — Sketch of the Inquisition, 
and Return of the Troops to Cormoetibo Creek. 

/^N the morning of the 19th of September 1775, just c ha p^ 
before sun-rise, Colonel Sey burg marched with one ,,^^^' 
hundred marines and forty rangers, who did me the ho- 
nour to fix upon me as one of the party, and was upon 
the whole so polite, and his behaviour so contrary to 
what it had lately been, that I knew not at all in what 
manner to account for it. 

Having crossed the Cormoetibo Creek, we kept course 
S. W. and by S. till we approached the river Cottica, where 
we encamped, having met with nothing on our first day's 
march worth describing, except a species of ants, which 
were no less than one inch in length, and perfectly black. 
These insects pillage a tree of all its leaves in a short time, 
which they cut in small pieces the size of a sixpence, and 
carry under ground. It was indeed entertaining to see a 
whole army of these creatures crawling perpetually the 
same way, each with his green leaf in a perpendicular di- 
rection. So general is the propensity to the marvellous, 



that some have imagined that this devastation was to feed 
a bhnd serpent under ground : but the truth is, that it 
serves for nourishment to their young brood, who cannot 
help themselves, and are sometimes lodged to the depth 
of eight feet in the earth. Madam Merian says, the}' 
form themselves in chains from one branch to another, 
while all the others pass over these temporary bridges ; 
and that once a year these foimidable armies travel from 
house to house, killing all the vermin, &c. that come in 
their way ; neither of which facts ever came within the li- 
mits of my observation : but that they can bite confound- 
edly I have found by experience, though their attack is 
not nearly so painful as the bite of that diminutive insect 
the fire-ant already described. 

The folloAving day we proceeded along the banks of the 
river Cottica, till we came near the Claas Creek, (where I 
formerly swam across with my sabre in my teeth) and early 
slung our hammocks ; from whence I Avas detached, with 
a few rangers, to lay in ambuscade in the mouth of the 
creek till it was dark. Here, however, I discovered no- 
thing, except that the rangers were possessed of the same 
superstition as the rebels, with regard to their amulets or 
obias making them invulnerable. They told me that the 
latter mentioned procured them from their priest, and that 
they themselves bought theirs from Graman Qwacy, a cele- 
brated and cunning old negro, whom I shall in a proper 
place circumstantially describe. — When I asked them, 

" How 



" How came any of you, or of your invulnerable adversa- chap. 
" ries, to be shot ?" I was answered, " Because, like you, ^ 
" Massera, they had no faith in the amulet or ohla." This 
piece of policy in Mr. Qwacy, however, had the effect of 
making all his free countrymen so undauntedly brave, that 
I must confess their valour had often surprised me. Hoav- 
ever, this imposition, as shall be shewn hereafter, besides 
respect and veneration, procured this dealer in magic 
both considerable ease and wealth, which for a black man 
in Surinam was indeed not very common. 

In the mouth of this creek I again saw a quantity of 
nuts floating on the surface of the water, such as I have 
before mentioned, when I was informed that they were the 
real acajoze or cashew nuts, Avhich I have partly described : 
to which I shall now add, that they grow on the edge of a 
pulpy substance like a very large pear, which is produced 
on a middle-sized tree, with a grey bark and large thick 
leaves. This excellent nut will bear to be transported to 
any part of the globe, and keep good for a considerable 
time; it is by some called i\\c Anacardium Occidentalis. 
From the tree exiidcs a transparent gum, Avhich when dis- 
solved in water has the consistency of glue. 

I also tasted here the eta-tree apple, of which the ne- 
groes seemed extremely fond. This tree is of the palm 
kind, with large leaves, but is less in size than the mau- 
recee or the mountain cabbage-tree. The fruit or apples 
are round, and grow in large clusters resembling grape- 


shot. In the middle of each apple is a hard nut, in which 
is a kernel, and this is covered near half an inch thick 
with an orange-coloured pulp, that has a most agreeable 
acid taste. They are seldom used till the apples by ripe- 
ness drop from the tree, when the Indians steep them in 
water, and by maceration convert them into a most healthy 
and aoreeable beverage. 

An express on the 2 1 st arriving by water from Colonel 
Tourgeoud, informing us that the alarm-guns* had been 
fired in the river Pirica, we instantly crossed to the oppo- 
site or west shore of the river Cottica, where the rangers, 
with a party of marines, were again ordered to lie in am- 
buscade or under cover, in hopes of cutting off the rebels 
on their retreat, when they returned to cross the Cottica 
river with their booty. And this very afternoon a rebel 
negro was seen with a green hamper, who, startled by the 
smell of tobacco (for some of the rangers were smoking) 
stopt short of his own accord. He was instantly fired at 
by me and one ranger: when the Avarimbo or hamper 
dropped to the ground, but he himself escaped. This 
bundle we found stuffed with a dozen of the finest table 
linen, a cocked gold-laced hat, and a couple of superb 
India chintz petticoats, &c. the bulk of which I gave to 

* By this is meant minute-guns, tations, soon alarm the whole river, 

which are fired on the estates when and bring assistance from every 

in danger. These being regularly quarter, 
answered by the neighbouring plan- 



my black companion, reserving on]\- the chintzes for an- 
other friend at Paramaribo. 

The free negroes now rushing forwards with unrestrained 
valour, I asked Colonel Seyburg liberty to follow them ; 
and calling for volunteers, a great number presented 
themselves, which, however, the Colonel thought proper 
to reduce to four onJij, with whom he sent me off; and hav- 
ing scrambled through thorns and briars woven together 
like a net or a mat, which tore one of my feet in a terrible 
manner, I overtook them at one mile's distance from the 
camp : shortly after we discovered thirteen fresh huts, 
where the rebels, we conjectured, had slept but a few 
nights before. In consequence of this, I now dispatched 
a ranger back to Colonel Seyburg, to give him intelligence, 
and ask permission for tiie rangers and myself to march 
forAvard to Pirica without delay, in hopes to meet the 
enemy : but the answer was a peremptory order instantly 
to rejoin him with all hands. We now returned disgusted 
back to the camp ; my sable companions in particular ex- 
tremely discontented, and making man}' shrewd and sar- 
castic remarks. 

Here we found a reinforcement just arrived from Jeru^ 
salem, consisting of sixty-men, black and white, with po- 
sitive orders for us to break up and march early the next 
morning for Pirica river, while this whole night a strong 
party lay once more in ambush. 

Accordingly, at six o'clock, with the rising sun, all was 
Vol. IL U in 


c It A p. in readiness, but b}' some unaccountable delay it was very 

,^_^^,^ late before we left the camp ; during which time we Avere 

informed that a canoe was seen crossing the river with one 

single negro in it, who was no doubt the poor fellow at 

whom the ranger and I had fired the preceding day. 

I cannot here forbear relating a singular circumstance 
respecting myself, viz. that on waking about four o'clock 
this morning in my hammock, I was extremely alarmed at 
finding myself weltering in congealed blood, and without 
feeling any pain whatever. Having started up, and run 
for the surgeon, with a firebrand in one hand, and all over 
besmeared with gore ; to which if added my pale face,, 
short hair, and tattered apparel, he might well ask the 

" Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damn'd, 

" Bring with thee airs of Heavn or blasts from Hell !" 

The mystery however was, that I had been bitten by 
the vampire or spectre of Guiana, which is also called the 
flying-dog of New Spain, and by the Spaniards perrovo- 
lador; this is no other than a bat of a monstrous size, that 
sucks the blood from men and cattle when they are fast 
asleep, even sometimes till they die ; and as tlie manner 
in which they proceed is truly wonderful, I shall endea- 
vour to give a distinct account of it. — Knowing by instinct 
that the person they intend to attack is in a sound slum- 
ber, they generally alight near the feet, where, while the 


■S^/iey^^'ca^rfz/wy C>^Yuj^^yy/-/'/yo/ i%^/v<^- 'l^^yr^/^ufjP. 

/{///////y/Y. o/ • '>//u'r//y (p/ u^^/^fr/M./^. 

<Xyn€- /r//i/////y/Y. O/' 


l..'njL'n.rid<luhcd Da-rifi-; ,u . />,■ .lJ,'hn.nn.S.'Paulj ('iMn-h r.u;!. 


creature continues fanning with his enormous wings, chap. 
which keeps one cool, he bites a piece out of the tip of v««.~y--i^ 
the great toe, so very small indeed that the head of a pin 
could scarcely be received into the wound, which is con- 
sequently not painful; yet througli this orifice he conti- 
nues to suck the blood, until he is obliged to disgorge. He 
then begins again, and thus continues sucking and dis- 
gorging till he is scarcely able to fly, and the sufferer has 
often been known to sleep from time into eternity. Cattle 
they generally bite in the ear, but always in such places 
where the blood flows spontaneously, perhaps in an artery 
— but this is entering rather on the province of the medi- 
cal faculty. Having applied tobacco-ashes as the best 
remedy, and washed the gore from myself and from my 
hammock, I observed several small heaps of congealed 
blood all round the place where I had lain, upon the 
ground: upon examining which, the surgeon judged that 
I had lost at least twelve or fourteen ounces durino; the 

As I have since had an opportunity of killing one of 
these bats, I cut off his head, which I here present to the 
reader in its natural size, and as a great curiosity, with 
the whole figure flying above it on a smaller scale. Having 
measured this creature I found it to be between the tips 
of the wings thirty-two inches and a half; it is said 
that some are above three feet, though nothing like in size 
to the bats of Madagascar. The colour was a dark brown, 

u 2 nearly 


CHAP, nearly black, but lighter under the belly. Its aspect was 
yj^^^l^ truly hideous upon the whole, but particularly the head, 
which has an erect shining membrane above the nose, ter- 
minating in a shrivelled point : the ears are long, rounded, 
• and transparent : the cutting teeth were four above and 
six below. 1 saw no tail, but a skin, in the middle of 
Avhich was a tendon. It had four toes on each Aving, with 
sharp nails, divided like the web foot of a duck *; and on 
the extremity of each pinion, Avhere the toes are joined, 
was a nail or claw to assist it in crawling, like those of its 
hinder feet, by which it hangs suspended when asleep to 
trees, rocks, roofs, &c. 

One of the marines having this morning taken a murine 
or mouse opposswn, I shall also take the opportunity of de- 
scribing it, and present it to the reader as I designed it 
from the life. This animal differs widely in some particu- 
lars from the description of the Count de Buffoji : — For 
instance, it Avas much swifter than any of the oppossums 
that he speaks of, and had the Avhole tail covered over Avith 
hair instead of scales, to the best of my remembrance; if, 
hoAvever, my sight deceived me, I am not the only erro- 
neous Avriteron the subject of this animal. Linnaus, Seba, 
and Mr. Vormeer, Avith the last of whom I am acquainted, 
consider it as common to both the old and new continent; 
whereas all ils species are most assuredly inhabitants of 

* III Vol. IV. pl;ite the 83cl, by the Count tie Buflbii^ a bat is reprefented 
with only tliree toes on each wing. 



America only. Linnaeus is also mistaken when he asserts, 
that all bats have four cutting teeth in each jaw. — (See 
Buffon, Vol. V. page 282. j 

This murine oppossum was not more than the size of a 
very large mouse. It was perfectly black, except the 
belly, the feet, and the extremity of the tail, which were 
all buff-coloured, Avith a buff spot above each eye, Av^hich 
resembled those of a rat : the ears were long, rounded, 
and transparent : its toes were twenty in number, one on 
each foot being placed behind, and serving as a thumb. 
It had ten or twelve paps, to which the young ones stick 
fast, it is said, as soon as produced, when they are not 
larger than small beetles ; but it wanted that pouch which 
is common to all other oppossums; in place of this there 
were two longitudinal folds on the inside of each thigh, 
equally adapted to preserve its offspring from every injury, 
which no tortures whatever, not even fire, will make it 
forsake. I have only to add, that it burrows in the 
ground, and often climbs trees; but it feeds like a mouse 
on grain, fi'uits, and roots. Of the other species, I shall 
defer the description till chance aflbrds me an oppor- 

Madam Merian mentions one kind of them, which, in 
time of danger, carries its young ones upon its back : but 
this animal, I confess, I never heard of in Surinam, and 
am persuaded of its non-existence. 

I have already stated that, from some unaccountable 



delay, it was very late this morning before we left the 
cainp ; we, nevertheless, all started at last ; I having the 
van-guard with the rangers, and the poor marines loaded 
each man with vine days provisions on his back. In this 
condition we had not proceeded long, when one of the 
rangers sounding his horn, they spread, and I among 
them, all instantly falling flat upon the ground, with our 
firelocks cocked, and ready to engage : but this, however, 
proving to be a false alarm, by a stag rushing out through 
the foliage, we soon rose, and after marching the whole 
day through water and mire, at three in the afternoon 
encamped on a high ridge, where not a drop of water 
was to be found till we had dug a hole for that purpose, 
and this was so very thick and mudd}^ that we were 
obliged to strain it through our neckcloths or shirt-sleeves 
before we could drink it. Here I was once more accosted 
by the Lieutenant Colonel, who invited me to some sup- 
per in his hut, and treated me upon the whole with such 
very great civility as I could not account for after his for- 
mer behaviour. 

On the succeeding day we marched again, keeping 
course W. and N. W. with very heavy rain, Avhiie I had 
the rear-guard ; and once more entered on a quagmire, 
which cost me three hours time to bring up the rear to 
the beach, this march being particularly distressing, as the 
negro slaves with their buidens broke through the surface 
every moment, while the loaded marines had enough to 



do to mind themselves, and I too weak by my late loss of c n a p. 


blood to afford them any assistance whatever. At last, ^.^^,1-^-^^ 
approaching the beach, I perceived the dead bodies of 
several rebel negroes scattered on the ground, with their 
heads and right-hands chopped off. These bodies being 
fresh, induced me to conclude, that they must have been 
very lately killed in some engagement with the troops and 
rangers stationed on the Pirica river. — And here I must 
again remark, that had I been allowed to pursue, on the 
21st, with the rangers, when I was ordered to march back, 
the enemy would have been between two fires; in which 
case few could have escaped, and all the plundered spoil 
must have been retaken. The reader will probably re- 
collect a similar instance Avhich occurred two years before, 
when I was stationed at Devil's Harwar. Had I at that 
time been provided with men and ammunition to march, 
I might have rendered the colony a material service. 
These two capital blunders I am sorry to relate, but a re- 
gard to truth and impartiality obliges me to do it. Let 
not these remarks, however, fix a stigma of cruelty on me 
in the eyes of the world, since no man could more strongly 
feel at the sight of such manly youths stretched dead 
amona; the surroundino; foliage ; and finer bodies than two 
of them were in particular I never beheld in all my life. 

" So two young mountain lions, nurs'd with blood, 
" In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, 

" Rusfi 


'• Ilush fearless to the plains, and uncontrourd 
" Depopulate the stalls, and waste the fold ; 
" Till pierc"d at distance from their native den, 
" 0"erj)0wer"d they fall beneath the force of men ; 
" Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, 
" Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they." 

While my mind was engaged b}' these and similar re- 
marks, many of my loaded slaves still remained entangled 
and struggling in the quagmire, while the commanding 
officer, with all the other troops, having got on a dry 
ridge, were qtiite out of sight and out of hearing, by which 
separation the rear-guard not only ran the hazard of 
losing all the provisions and the baggage, but of being 
cut to pieces, such was their critical situation. 

Having not a single European that had sufficient 
strength remaining to overtake the party which had pro- 
ceeded, I resigned the command to my lieutenant, a Mr. 
de Losrios, and ventured forward alone through the forest, 
till, greatly fatigued, I overtook them; when reporting 
the situation of the rear-guard to Colonel Seyburg, I re- 
quested " he would slacken his pace till they were able to 
*' extricate themselves and come up from the bog, with- 
" out which I could not be accountable for the conse- 
" quences." To this the reply was, " That he would 
" form his camp when he met with good water ;" and I 
instantly retvtrned to the rear, where having struggled 
until it was quite dark in a most distressed and dangerous 
1 situation. 


situation, the last man was dragged out of the mud at 
seven o'clock at night, when we slowly proceeded on till 
we entered the camp. 

My solicitude for the people, powder, and provisions, 
instead of procuring me commendation from the person 
under whose command I then happened to be, and who 
had lately been so very polite, brought me noAV into such 
difficulties, and produced a misunderstanding of such a 
serious nature, and so very distressing to my feelings, that 
it had nearly terminated my existence. The reader may 
judge of my mortification, when I inform him, that, in- 
stead of receiving the approbation of my commander, as 
I certainly deserved, I was immediately on my arrival in 
camp put under an arrest, to be tried by a court-martial 
for disobedience of orders. Colonel Seyburg and I had 
never been on amicable terms; and thouo;h durins; the 
former part of this march he had treated me with appa- 
rent civility, yet from this step it was evident that he was 
my mortal enemy. I must not omit, that though a pri- 
soner (strange to tell !) I was ordered to carry my own 
arms and accoutrements, till further orders. 

On the 24th, we took our departure very early, and 
directed our course S. and S. by W. when we passed close 
by Pinenburg, a forsaken rebel village formerly mentioned 
— I still a prisoner, in the most dejected spirits. 

On the following day our course was S.W. through a 

Kiataky or trumpeter morass, which was very deep, and 

Vol. II. X which 


which we entered when we were all in a violent sweat 
by advancing too fast Avhile upon the hard ground : but 
the health of our men was not made an object during 
this expedition, though so much wanted to succeed. 

Having got again upon a ridge, an accident had now 
nearly befallen me incomparably greater than all my for- 
mer misfortunes put together ; this was no less than, hav- 
ing fallen into a deep reverie, while I followed the rear- 
guard, I imperceptibly wandered away from the troops, till 
I was entirely lost and by myself in an unbounded wilder- 
ness. Quaco no sooner had missed me, than, poor fellow, 
at every hazard he rushed through the wood to recover 
his master, and by a miracle saw me as I was sitting 
under a tree, in the most dejected state of mind that it 
is possible to conceive, immersed in grief and abandoned 
to despair. I had this morning thought myself perfectly 
unhappy, but now would have given the world once more 
to have been in the same situation. Good God ! entirely 
cut off from society, in a forest, surrounded by relentless 
savages ! while a deluge of rain poured from the heavens, 
and tigers, famine, with every woe and every danger, 
stared me in the face. Farewell, for ever, Joanna! — Such 
was the picture of my mind, when, on discovering the 
boy, I started up from the ground, and a new life in- 
stantly diifused itself through my whole frame. Having 
now straggled backwards and forwards together for some 
time, I called to the lad that I saw a pool through which 
3 the 


the troops seemed to have passed, the water being chap, 
fresh clouded with mud ; but to my utter disappoint- ij^5^^ 
ment, he observed, that this puddle was only occasioned 
by a Tapira*, and shewed me the print of the animal's 
foot in the surrounding mire. At this time the boy shed 
tears, crying, " Massera, we deade^ we deade !" In the 
midst, however, of this distress, recollecting that, by the 
map, the river Pirica was due west from us, I determined 
to lose no more time, but to set forwards without delay. 
Thus having fresh primed my fusee, I ordered Quaco to 
follow me ; but again to no purpose, my compass being 
with the troops, and not a glimpse of sunshine, owing to 
the heavy rain ; till the black boy put me in mind that 
on the south side the bark of the trees Avas usually most 
smooth. This in fact was a fortunate hint, and Me pro- 
ceeded through thick and thin, till, overcome by fatigue 
and hunger, we both sat dowTi, and looked at each other, 
exactly like two victims doomed to execution. During 
this last mournful silence, we heard a sound like cougli- 
ing and the rustling of arms, Avhich, thank Heaven ! soon 
proved to be our own troops, luckily for us resting near 
an old encampment, where the pursuing party from the 
river Pirica had lately lodged. At this moment, notwith- 
standing my present situation, I enjoyed an extraordinary 
degree of mental happiness ; which proves how much all 

* By some called the Hippopotamus of South America, which I will de- 
scribe in a proper place. 

X 2 good 


good and evil are only of a relative nature. Having no\y 
been heartily welcomed by the other officers, I partook 
of some cold beef and bread, and a gom'd full of grog, as^ 
did also my poor Ijoy. After this regale the party rose, 
and pursuing our march, Ave once more entered a quag- 
mire, or rather a mud-pool, the surface being too thin to- 
carry us ; through which having waded till it was pitch 
dark, we were obliged to encamp in the very middle of 
it, the troops by slinging their hammocks in the trees, 
one above another, and the slaves on temporary rafts made 
above the surface of the Avater, on Avhich were also placed 
the powder, the victuals, &c. 

On the Q€th, the good Colonel having now drank his 
coffee in his hammock, while he kept the troops standing 
round it in water above their middle, a whole hour be- 
fore day-light, we again scrambled forward, keeping our 
course, first W. and afterwards N. W. when the road 
was so excessively bad, that many slaves let fall their 
burdens, breaking, wetting, and spoiling every thing that 
Avas in them. At last, having passed through a second 
deserted camp, we halted on the old cordon, or path of 
communication on Avhich I formerly discovered the track 
of the rebels, when I commanded in Cottica river; and 
here, having erected slight sheds, Ave passed the night — 
I still a prisoner. 

At this time a small quadruped running through the 
camp Avith incredible swiftness, it Avas cut doAvn by one 


■ ////■ . ' /<yo////.^ o/- 'J//^///^///. Oo/tr u. 

y//f^ y/^/r/'f^ o7- (jy/^r^/Yi'Y/ ('/■//*/'//. 

l..;„h;,.i;,hlM,„l Hf,rf^,;^i.l>, J..I,.hn.ron, S! l:,lll> Oua-.Ji hinl. 


of the rangers with his sabre. This proved to be the c 11 a p. 
Paca or Spotted Cavey, called in Surinam the Aquatic ^J^^^\l^ 
Hare. This animal is the size of a sucking pig, and ex- 
tremely fat. The under jaw is short, the noftrils large, 
the eyes black, and the ears small and naked. It has 
five toes on each foot, a tail like the first joint of a man's^ 
thumb, and whiskers like a cat ; the colour is an earthen 
brown, with longitudinal rows of buff-coloured spots ; the 
belly is a dirty white, the hair all over coarse and short. 
The Paca is an amphibious animal. On land it digs up 
the earth like a hog in quest of food, and when in danger 
flies to the water for its safety ; notwithstanding this 
animal is so very plump and heavy, it runs swifter than 
most other animals of its size in South America, con- 
trary to the account given of it in the supplement tc^ 
the Count de Bufl'on's description*, where it is said " not 
" to be nimble, to run but seldom, and then with a bad 
" grace ;" which may all be the case in a domestic state (for 
the Paca is capable of being tamed) but he is not sluggish 
in a state of nature. This I know to be true, having 
seen him run like a hare. We had this animal dressed 
for supper, and found him even more delicious than the 
wood-rat, or even the warra-bocerra : indeed, nothing cari 
be better eating than the Paca of spotted Cavey. 

The long-nosed Cavey, better known by the name of the 
Agouti Pacarara, or Indian Coney, is also very common in 

* Sec Buffon's Natural History, Vol.V. page 39. 



Surinam : this is the size of a large rabbit, its colour is an 
orange brown, the belly yellow ; the legs black and slen- 
der, with four toes on the fore-feet, and three on the 
hindermost ; the ears small, the eyes a blight black, the 
upper lip divided; it has whiskers, and its tail is like 
that of the Paca. This animal breeds very fast, and suckles 
its young, which are three or four in number, in concealed 
holes of old trees, &c. where it also retires for shelter if 
pursued ; but it does not seek its food in the earth, like 
the former. The Agouti is easily tamed, and feeds on 
fruits, roots, nuts, &c. But its flesh, though very good, 
is not so delicious as that of the Paca. 

In Surinam I have been told there is still another species 
of the Agouti, called the Indian Kat -Coney, on account of 
its having a long tail. This I never saw, unless it is the 
same animal (which I apprehend it to be) that I have 
described under the name of the bush-rat. 

On the 27th we again broke up, and finally arrived in 
the forenoon, and in a forlorn condition, at the estate 
Soribo, on the river Pirica, to defend the plantations 
against Bonny and his rebel negroes. 

The river Pirica by its many windings is thought to 
extend about threescore miles. It is very deep but nar- 
row, and has its banks, like all the others, lined with fine 
coffee and sugar plantations ; its general course is from 
S.E. to N.W. We were scarcely arrived at this post, than 
J. was accosted by several deputies from Colonel Seyburg, 



who earnestly intreated that I would only acknowledge chap. 


myself to have been in fault, assuring me that I should v,,,^-.^-^ 
then be set at liberty, and all would be forgotten. As I 
was conscious, however, of my own innocence, I could 
not in common justice criminate myself in an instance, 
where even my alleged crime amounted to no more than 
an anxious solicitude for the poor men and the provisions 
who were entrusted to my care. I was, therefore, placed 
under the guard of a sentinel, for what my commander 
was pleased to term unpliant stubbornness, atid disarmed. 
In the meantime the marines caused me fresh uneasi- 
ness, and of the most poignant kind, by loudly threat- 
ening to mutiny in my behalf; nor could any thing have 
prevented them, but my decisive declaration, that as no 
cause could justify military disobedience and rebellion, I 
should be under the necessity myself (however injurious 
to my feelings) of taking an active part against them, and 
seeing the ringleaders brought to condign punishment. 
I felt that at this time I could war with all the world, and 
nearly with myself — my heart was breaking apace — my 
life became a burden : 

" Dependants, friends, relations, Love himself, 
" Savag'd by woe, forget the tender tie, 
" The sweet engagements of the feeling heart." 

The day after our arrival in this station, we received 
the particulars of the Pirica news, which were, that on 



the 20th the estates Schoonhove and Altona had been pil- 
laged by the rebels whom we had routed at Gado-Saby, 
but that at the plantation Poelwyk they had been beaten 
back by the slaves : that the rangers stationed at an estate 
called Hagenhos had pursued them on the 21st, over- 
taken them on the 23d, killed several, and brought back 
most of the booty : that on the same day another party 
of the rebels had made an attempt to seize the powder 
magazine at Hagenbos (which was no bad plan) but that 
(while the rangers were in pursuit of their associates) they 
had been repulsed by the manly behaviour of a few armed 
slaves, one of whom, belonging to the estate Timotibo, 
took an armed rebel himself, and next discovered their 
camp at the back of his master's plantations ; for which 
he was handsomely rcAvarded. Prom all which intelli- 
gence, there was now no doubt remaining tliat if Seyburg's 
detached party on the 1 6th had marched forwards instead 
of backwards, by his orders, the above mischief might 
have been prevented, and the enterprize of the rebels 
entirely frustrated. It was also evident from this narra- 
tive, that the man whom we fired at on the 21st was 
certainly one of the plunderers on the 20th, and that the 
bodies found dead on the 23d had been shot the very 
same day. 

On the 29th, among other fruits, some dates Avere sent 
to me by a Society officer. This tree is also of the Pal- 
ipeto species, but not extremely high ; its leaves diverge 



from its summit, very thick, hanging down in the form 
of an umbrella. The dates appear in lai'ge clusters, being 
an oblong thin fruit like a man's thumb, of a yellow co- 
lour, and the pulp, which is fat, firm, and sweet, adheres 
to a hard greyish-coloured stone, with longitudinal fur- 
rows. — I ought not to omit mentioning, that this day 
sixty rangers going to reconnoitre, discovered the old 
rebel camp at the back of Timotibo, which seemed to 
have contained about fixty armed men. 

On the morning of the 30th of September, having no- 
thing more to do in the neighbourhood of the Pirica 
River, we left it, and on the 1st of October came to Devils 
Harwar much fatigued, nothing remarkable having hap- 
pened on our march. I had written on the preceding- 
day to Colonel Fourgeoud, informing him, that I was 
weary of existence in my present state, and requesting 
that a court-martial might be immediately called ; and 
this letter I had sent by a slave to the commander in 
chief. On our arrival at this station, I indeed found every 
hard means employed to bring me to terms ; and such was 
the severe usage I experienced, that one of the rangers, 
called Captain Quad, exclaimed, " If in this manner these 
" Europeans treat one another, is it to be wondered at 
" that they should take a pleasure in torturing us poor 
" Africans .''" 

At Devil's Ilarwar, however, my stormy voyage drew 
to a conclusion. Colonel Seyburg was evidently con- 

VoL. II. Y vinced 


vinced that he was wrong, and knowing what must fol- 
low, now only Avishcd for a handsome opportunity of ex- 
tricating himself from the effects of his unmanly passion. 
On the 2d of October, therefore, he asked me with a 
smile, " If I had a heart to forget and forgive ?" To which 
I sternly answered, " No !" — He repeated the question. — 
I then said, " I venerated truth, and would never confess 
" myself in an error, unless my heart coincided in the 
" acknowledgment — that this was a concession I would 
" make to no man living, and least of all to him." — He 
here grasped my hand, begged me to be pacified, and 
declared, " That he would make peace on any terms;" — 
but I again drew back Avith contempt, and decidedly 
avowed, " That I could not agree to any compromise, un- 
" less he owned his fault in the presence of all the officers, 
" with his own hands tearing from his journal every sen- 
" tence that could reflect upon my character." The Jour- 
nals were immediately produced, my arms were returned 
me, and my triumph was attended Avith every circum- 
stance that could add to my fuU satisfaction. I then 
frankly and sincerely gave my hand to Colonel Seyburo-, 
Avho gave a feast in honour of our reconciliation ; and 
after dinner, to my utter surprise, produced the letter 
Avhich I had written to Colonel Fourgeoud, Avhich he ac- 
knoAvledged he had intercepted to prevent the affair pro- 
ceeding to extremities : at the same time he acquainted 
me, that Fourgeoud Avas encamped at the Wana Creek, 



instead of Lieutenant Colonel de Borgnes, Avho had fallen 
sick, and was gone to Paramaribo. A perfect reconcilia- 
tion having taken place, and every thing being now ad- 
justed, while the troops having had some rest, we set out 
once more on the 4th for the head quarters at Jerusalem ; 
but I was obliged to leave poor Quaeo, who was very ill, 
at Devil's Harwar, under care of the surgeon; and that 
evening we encamped opposite the mouth of the Cormoe- 
tibo Creek. 

On the following morning early, having crossed the 
River Cottica, the troops marched back to Jerusalem ; 
where I now had leisure to reflect on the various evils 
Avhich befal poor mortals, as well those who are innocent 
of the difficulties they are brought into, as those (which 
are the greater part) who have brought themselves into 
distress and even despair by their own indiscretions. 
These reflections arose from finding here, among others, 
a newly-arrived acquaintance, a Mr. P — t — r, who hav- 
ing squandered away in Europe above thirty thousand 
pounds, and lost a beautiful wife by elopement, Avas now 
reduced to the income of an ensign in the Society troops. 
This gentleman having formerly possessed considerable 
property in this very colony, his present situation could 
not but be assuredly the more galling on that account. — 
Alas ! unhappy young fellow : well might you exclaim — 

" Priv6 de tout mes biens, 

" Dans un climat funeste, 

y 2 «' Je 


" Je t'adore & te perds, 
" Le poignard seul me reste. 
" Mais, Oh ! je suis P — t— r, 
" Reserv6 pour souftVir ; 
" Je sifaurois vivre encore, 
" Et faire plus que mourir." 

These are the words which he spouted with a sigh, 
throwing the last silver he had left among the slaves ; and 
indeed nothing could be more applicable to himself than 
the lines he quoted, or more lamentable than this poor 
devil's forlorn condition ; which, however, created in me, 
during my present humour, no other effect — than a loud 
and immoderate fit of laughter. 



Second March to Gado-Saby — Account of a living Skeleton 
— Beautiful Landscapes — The Commander in Chief falls 
sick, and leaves the Camp — Some Rebels taken — Discourse 
on the Existence of Mermaids — Heavy Rains — Disease — 
Famine — Misery. 

ON the 9tli of Odober, 1775, Colonel Fourgeoud chap. 
broke up the encampment at the Wana Creek to y^_J^^^' 
join us at Jerusalem, having sent down the half of his 
party sick in barges ; and their number being greatly 
augmented by the invalids from this place, they were all 
together transported to receive the coup-dc-gracc in the 
hospital at Devil's Harwar. The rangers also took their 
leave, and marched Avith Mr. Vinsack their conductor, 
to guard the Pirica river. 

Fourgeoud, during his last cruise, had discovered a 
hundred empty houses, and seen some straggling I'ebels, 
but he had taken none. He had also found a scalp fixed 
to the branch of a tree, which we justly conjectured to be 
the remains of the unfortunate Schmidt, who was lost*. 

* This was the more surprising, as we were at peace with all the Indians, 
and scalping was never practised by the nrgroes. 



On the 13tli my black boy, Quaco, being perfectly re- 
covered, arrived, to my great satisfaction, as his fidelity to 
me was so steady and unshaken. At the same time avo 
received an account that Captain Stoelman, with some 
rangers, had discovered a fresh settlement of the rebels 
by a great smoke appearing at a distance in the forest, but 
had not yet attacked them ; that Captain Fredericy, with 
a party of black volunteers, was scouring the sea-side 
below Paramaribo ; that the two men we had lost on the 
ISth of August had miraculously escaped, and found 
their wa}' to the post at the river Marawina ; and that no 
less than twelve fine negro slaves had just deserted from 
the Gold Mine estate to join the rebels. 

This news so much exasperated Colonel Fourgeoud, 
tliat the indefatigable man again determined to perse- 
vere in pursuing his enemies. We accordingly entered 
the woods very early on the morning of the 1 5th, although 
he and his little army were at this time greatly reduced. 
He buried but the evening before one of his countrymen, 
a volunteer, called Matthezc; and brother to the ensign: 
but death was now become so familiar to us, that upon 
losing a friend or relation, the first question generally was, 
" Has he left any brandy, rum, or tobacco ?" — " Pauvre 
" Laurant !" said I, to his shrivelled valet-de-chambre, 
" the brave Fourgeoud is like fire ; he is to the colony an 
" excellent servant indeed ; but I think to both you and 
" myself but a roughish master." The poor fellow, shrug- 
1 ging 


ging up his shoulders, repUed witli a grin and a heavy 
sigh, " Old, par ma foi !" and then treated me with a pinch 
of his snufF, I must not omit that, a httle before our de- 
parture, seven more of our negro slaves did desert us, 
who went home to their masters perfectly broken-hearted, 
emaciated, and nearly starved ; however, we proceeded, 
and marched directly N. E. during which nothing hap- 
pened, except my box with all my bottles being dashed to 
pieces ; and in the evening we encamped, though tlicn un- 
known to us, near the Cassipore Creek, where the dry sea- 
son having commenced, we dug a pit for water. Orders 
were also issued to the troops no more to build huts, 
sheds, &c. as the rains were now less violent. 

On the l6th we continued our route, marching N. E. 
as before, and towards the evening arrived at the houses 
which Colonel Fourgeoud had lately discovered, which 
proved since to be only a temporary settlement, erected by 
the rebels as a shelter or asylum in their expected retreat, 
before they were dislodged from Gado-Saby ; and to this 
little settlement they had given the name of Boossi/ Cri/, 
that is, " the woods lament." Here we encamped, and 
took much notice of Bonny 's house in particular, which 
was built like a watering machine, being elevated from 
the ground, with two doors, so that he might the better 
observe all around him, and prevent his being taken by 
surprise : it also had more air, and, of course, was better 
calculated for his health, he having in some late action 



received a very dangerous wound in the groin, as we af- 
terwards learned from a rebel negro prisoner. Near to 
Bonnj's house were the private baths, where his Avomen 
washed themselves morning and evening, there being no 
river near this settlement. 

In this encampment one of our slaves presented me 
with a land-turtle, -which indeed we had met Avith several 
times before ; but as I have never described this animal, 
I will now endeavour to give some account of it. — The 
land-turtle of Surinam is not more than eighteen or twenty 
inches in lensth, and of an oval form ; the shell is more 
convex than that of the sea-turtle, and marked with thir- 
teen elevated hexangular shields, dark broAvn and yelloAv, 
so hard that it will bear almost any weight Avithout break- 
ing; the under shell is a little concave, and of a light 
j^clloAv : the head of this animal resembles that of other 
turtles ; the tail is naked and short, but instead of fins or 
SAvimmers it has four feet covered Avith scales, and armed 
Avith sharp claAvs to assist it in crawling over the ground. 
When this poor creature sees any danger, it instantly 
shrinks Avithin its shell. In this situation the Indians put 
it on the fire, Avliere they broil it until it is drest, Avhich 
is knoAvn by the under shell sei)arating from the upper, 
which serves for a dish to hold the contents. A less bar- 
barous way, and the Avay Avhich I ahvays folloAved, is only 
to provoke the animal by the heat of the embers to run 
aAvay ; when stretching out its head and neck, they are 



easily chopped off, and the food extracted without addi- 
tional torture. I have known Mr. de Graaf keep three 
or four of these land-turtles for above four months for 
transportation, during which time they lived without any 
apparent nourishment whatever, yet still remained vigorous, 
and even prone to copulation. 

Another kind of land-turtle, called here the arlacacxa^ 
I have often seen ; this is less in circumference, very flat, 
of a disagreeable greenish colour, and nothing like so 
good as the former. 

On the 1 7th we continued our march N. and N. E. iil 
hopes of more discoveries, but without success. We this 
day passed some ant-hillocks above six feet high, and, 
without exaggeration, above one hundred feet in circum- 
ference. We also saw great quantities of valuable timber, 
and, among the rest, the black-cabbage tree, the wood 
of which is of a deep brown, and is in high estimation 
among carpenters and joiners. The sand-hooker tree was 
likewise shewn me, which receives its name from the 
fruit, which being divested of its seed, is used as a sand- 
box by writers. It is of the shape of a large onion, with 
small holes in the surface; the seed is both laxative 
and emetic, but the juice of the pulp is a fatal poison. 
More than this I cannot sa}^ having had neither the time 
nor the power of examining it with the accuracy of a 
professed botanist. 

On the 18th -vre continued the same course for a few 
Vol. II. Z hours 


CHAP, liours longer, when we fjimd a beaten path, which, 
y^^,^..^^-^ though circuitous, seemed to be a communication be- 
tween Gado-Sabj and Boossy-Cry. We followed this 
path, which led us due W. for a few hours, when a poor 
rebel negro was found by me covered with branches of 
the manicole-tree, and indeed barely alive, being in ap- 
pearance nothing but skin and bone, with one of his eyes 
almost beaten out of the socket. I put my bottle to his 
mouth, he swallowed a few drops of rum and water, and 
said with a faint voice which we could scarcely hear, 
" Dank ye, me Massera !" but could articulate nothing 
more. Fourgeoud ordered this man to be carried with 
us in a hammock ; and we soon afterwards encamped 
near a biree-biree swamp or quagmire. I ought not to 
forget that this day we saw some very fine locust-trees, 
being eighty or a hundred feet high, and prodigiously 
thick ; the trunk is grey and very straight, with no 
branches till near the top, on which the leaves are disposed 
two to each stem : this is justly called the king of the 
forest, for a finer tree cannot be found. The timber is 
of a beautiful cinnamon-colour, and possesses every de- 
sirable quality of gravity, polish, grain, and durability. — 
But Avhat particularly attj'acted our notice was its seed, 
like beans, three or four in number, enclosed in a broad 
light-brown pod, that lay scattered in quantities at the 
root of the tree, upon the ground, and tasted like some 
kinds of gingerbread. From the root of this tree a gum 




exudes, •which, properly prepared, affords a vai"iiish hitherto 
unequalled for transparency and effect. 

Innumerable indeed are the various fine trees that this 
country produces, and which may be had for the cutting; 
yet, when we consider the distance they usually grow 
from navigable rivers, the great labour in felling and 
working them, the vast number of slaves required to drag 
them through the forest, where no horses can be employed, 
besides the danger and loss of time, we may easily account 
for the enormous price generally paid for the best timber 
in Guiana. 

This march undoubtedly afforded us the most enchant- 
ing prospects that can be imagined, in a luxuriant and 
ever-green forest, while the dry season contributed greatly 
to beautify the scene ; and simple nature by far outshone 
the most strenuous endeavours of art. Here we met with 
immense savannas of the most lovely verdure, interspersed 
with meandring brooks of water, cool and clear as rock 
crystal ; their borders adorned with tlowers of every lively 
hue and fragrance. In some places we observed small 
clumps of elegant shrubs, or perhaps a single tree, whose 
beauty would almost induce one to think they had been 
designedly left growing to enrich the scene. The whole 
surrounded by a vast wood of lofty palm-trees, waving 
their sea-green foliage above the variegated copse of never- 
fading verdure, blossom, and fruit, as if to invite the pant- 
ing wanderer under its cooling shade, till in the later 

z 2 hours 


hours he might enjoy the bracing pleasures of the hmpid 
flood, and contemplate nature's beauties undisturbed. — 
When universal silence reigned every where around, hov*^ 
often have I thought on my dear friend, and Avished with 
her to glide through life in these Elysian fields ! — But I 
must wave the pleasing recollection. 

On the 19th we again marched, and fell in with our 
old path, Avhicli we followed, leading directly to the fields 
of Gado-Saby, where quantities of rice once more ap- 
peared in full bloom, which we cut down and burned to 
ashes. Here, perceiving the poor rebel negro hopeless 
of recovery, not absolutely to bury him alive, he was 
overspread with moss, leaves, and green boughs; after 
which Ave slung our hammocks, being almost choaked 
with smoke. 

In these fields I saAV a lizard above tAVO feet long, Avhich 
the negro slaves killed and ate : they called it sapagala, it 
Avas of a broAvnish green colour, but did not resemble 
the iguana. Among the ruins of the consumed toAvn 
Ave discovered some scolopendras, or centipedes, no less 
than eight or ten inches in length ; this odious reptile is 
of a yellowish-brown colour, walks very fast backAvards 
or forwards, and bites so severely, that the venom it in- 
fuses, though not deemed fatal, generally produces a fever. 
Some Avriters assign this reptile tAventy pair of legs, others 
forty ; I never reckoned them, and can only observe, that 
they appeared to me exactly to resemble the centipedes 
13 in 


in Europe. Some of our gentlemen formed large collec- 
tions of these curiosities, which were very valuable, whilst 
I contented myself with the drawings aud dcsci'iptions 
only of those I thought most uncommon. 

On the 20th, we marched to visit Cofacn/, when I per- 
ceiving the unhappy negro captive still alive, after re- 
moving the branches, he was, at my earnest intercession, 
once more carried along with us ; but the slaves, being 
discontented with such a load, took every opportunity, in 
my absence, of torturing him, by knocking him against 
roots and stones, and dragging him through mud and 
water as they went along. Different patroles were now 
ordered out to reconnoitre the grounds, while the re- 
mainder of the troops encamped in the west part of Co- 
faay ; and these patroles discovered no less than four 
beautiful fields in one chain, situated due west from 
Cofaay, w^ell stocked with cassava, yams, plantains, pista- 
chio nuts, with maize and pigeon peas: also were seen 
several human carcases, the relics of our late engagements 
in August. We found here a species of medlars of a crim- 
son colour, and of a taste ver^^ much like that of straw- 
berries. This fruit grows on a large green shrul>, and is 
cultivated in many gardens at Paramaribo. We also met 
with a kind of wild ])lum-tree called nioupc : the fruit is 
yellow, oblong, and small ; the stone is large, the pulp 
thin, and though of a sharp acid has an agreeable fla- 



On the morning of the 2 1 st, all these and every useful 
vegetable were cut down, and again destroyed by fire ; 
after which, returning to our last night's camp, we found 
it also in flames, and were obliged to sling our hammocks 
in the east skirts of the woods. Here, recollecting that 
the poor disabled rebel was left alone, 1 ran back west to 
the burning camp to afford him assistance ; but after 
seeking him in vain through clouds of smoke and darkness, 
I was forced to consult my OAvn safety, by hastily return- 
ing to my companions ; some blaming me much for my 
temerity, others damning the skeleton, whether dead or 

The devastation being now completed, we marched 
back to Jerusalem, Avhere on the 24th wc arrived per- 
fectly exhausted, and Fourgeoud at last so ill with a 
phrenzy fever, that he was confined to his hammock, 
with small hopes of surviving the night. But he how- 
ever still continued to command, and the next morning 
ordered a marine to be bastinadoed, for asking shoes, 
although he was bare-footed, and his feet torn to pieces ; 
while another was flogged for coughing, who liad a severe 
cold ; a captain was dismissed iron) actual service, and 
confined in Fort Zealandia, for having dared to marry 
without his consent. — Sickness and death now raged 
through the camp, and every thing Mas in the utmost 

To complete the whole, on the Istof November, twenty- 


five more negro slaves ran away ; and on the 3d we re- c n a p.. 
ceived intelligence that no less than fifty armed rebels i^^^]^* 
had been seen swimming across the River Cottica, about 
a musket-shot above Barbacoeba. 

In consequence of this information, Colonel Seyburo- 
was detached with the few men that remained able to 
carry arms, who through distress and famine were noAv 
almost ready to attack their own officers: and who beino- 
unsupplied with their favourite luxury, tobacco*, sat 
smoking grey paper, and chewing leaves and leather as 
a substitute for the want of it. Few men, however, were 
worse off than I was at this time ; since, having neither 
provisions nor clothes, I was almost naked as well as 
starved, with a running ulcer in my left foot, ever since 
the ambuscade and march to Pirica ; nor had I a friend 
in the camp who could give me the smallest assistance. 
To complete my misery, the little blood I had remaining 
was in two successive nights again nearly sucked away 
by the vampire-bat, or spectre : thus I fainted away in 
my hammock, and was almost sorry to recover, particu- 
larly upon being informed by a letter that Joanna and 
her boy were dying with a putrid fever at Paramaribo. 

At last, on the 12th, Serjeant Fowler arrived from JSIocha^ 
with one of my boxes; when this poor fellow, notwith- 

* All sailors, soldiers, and ne- they say, and some almost prefer il to- 
groes are particularly miserable with- bread, 
out tobacco: it keeps up their spirits, 




G H A p. standing my situation, made me laugli aloud by producing 
a letter from his mother in Europe, which made him ex- 
tremely happy ; and which I must beg leave verbatim to 

" Dair Shonny, 

" I have relayed your girl from tlie Bridevail — and 
" your shits from the panbroker — the baby is died — blessed 
" be Goat, while I hop yow be living. I am your laffing 
" mother tell death, Maggy Fowler." 

The same evening Colonel Seyburg's party returned, 
without having obtained any further intelligence. 

On the 14th Colonel Fourgeoud was so dangerously ill, 
that he at length was obliged to relinquish his command, 
and proceed to town for his recovery. Accordingly on the 
15th, he set out by water for Paramaribo : thus, after hav- 
ing sacrificed all his troops, he became himself finally a 
victim to his unbounded ambition and obstinate perse- 
verance in this worst of all climates, m liile by toiling less 
and living better, both he and his soldiers might have 
rendered the colony, if not superior, at least an equal ser- 
vice. A barge loaded with sick and dying Avas at the 
same time once more sent to the hospital at Devil's 

The command of the remaining scarecrows now de- 
volved upon the Lieutenant Colonel, who (strange to tell !) 
that very evening inherited the same distemper, as well 



as the chief command ; the barge that rowed oft' the old 
hero having but just disappeared, when this gentleman 
Avas attacked also bj the phrenzy fever ; the above com- 
plaint was indeed at this time very common amongst all 
ranks and degrees who -were broiling under a burning sun 
at Jerusalem ; it being the dry season, when we ought to 
have been in the woods — but for those expeditions, as E 
have stated before, the rainy seasons were most unhajopiiy 
preferred. Several officers would have before now thrown 
up their military commissions, could they with decency 
have taken such a measure, during an expedition on ac- 
tual service; nor, in my opinion, ought such to be granted, 
cases of the very greatest necessity excepted. I could 
myself have wished to go for some time to Paramaribo, 
but as this favour Avas not offered me, while all the others, 
and even the slaves, were relieved, I scorned to petition 
for it while I was able to stand. 

On the 19th, however, my foot became so bad, that the 
surgeon reported me unfit for duty ; yet I still remained 
in the camp, where I could be to none of any service. 

A supply of fresh troops, slaves, and provisions being 
arrived on the 20th, Major Medlar, with 150 men, was de- 
tached to make new discoveries. 

Among other plagues, the whole camp at this time 
swarmed with locusts, which appeared every where in moft 
formidable troops, devouring every thing that lay in their 
way. Indeed the curse of Heaven seemed to visit us here 

Vol. II. A a in 


c H A PJ in various shapes, and every vermin -were so plent}' at this 
^^_^^ time, that no exertion could keep us perfectly free. These 
locusts were brown, t^vo inches in length, and shaped like 
a grasshopper ; they did not fly, but crawled by millions 
on the very tables and seats as we sat at dinner, and at 
night they tormented us by crawling over our faces by 

Tlie only desirable article we found at Jerusalem was 
fish, of which we seldom wanted plenty, particularly new' 
mara and warrappa, also the patahee, and the old wifee, 
both very excellent ; the former of which is about two 
feet long, shaped like a whiting, the other is the size of a 
large perch. A kind of needle-fish, called naaynaayjisee, 
was found here in great abundance, these w^ere very thin, 
and alDout one foot in length ; also a kind of dimg-Jishy 
about the size of a small herring, but these two last Avere 
only used by the negroes. 

On the 3d of December, Major Medlar's party returned, 
after fourteen days absence, with a captive rebel woman 
and her boy about eight years old, taken in a small field 
of bitter cassava. The poor woman was pregnant, and 
under great alarms, but was tenderly treated by Medlar, 
who was always a humane and well-disposed gentleman. 
He had, however, unluckily lost two of liis best men, one 
Schoelar, a corporal, the other called P/«7/p Van den Bos, a 
private marine, who having inadvertently eaten a fcAv 
roots of the above hitter camiva, were poisoned, and died 
6 during 


durins; the same night with the most excruciating pain 
and convulsions: the antidote is said to be Cayenne pep- 
per and spirits, neither of which were at that time to be 

The black woman confirmed the account that Bonny 
had been wounded; she also told us the poor starved ne- 
gro we had found was called Isaac, and had been left for 
dead. That one captain Arico had formed a new settle- 
ment near the sea, called Fissy -Hollo ; while Bonny, she 
assured us, maintained the strictest discipline amongst 
his troops : he was, she said, absolutely despotic, and had 
executed two of his men but three days before we took 
Gado-Saby, viz. during the night of the 1 7th August, Avhen 
Ave heard the firing and shouting, only upon suspicion of 
having hinted some few words in favour of the Europeans, 
and Avere the heads Avhich Ave found stuck on the stakes. 
She further assured us, that none of his people Avere 
trusted Avith arms, until they had first served him some 
years as slaA'es, and given him unquestionable proofs of 
fidelity and resolution. But these, she observed, Avere but 
few in number, Avhcn compared to his numerous vassals, 
Avho Avere bound to do Avithout murmuring Avhatever he 
thought proper to command them ; yet that he still Avas 
more beloved than he was feared, on account of his 
inflexible justice and manly courage. 

On the 4th December, this poor Avoman and her boy 
Avere sent to Paramaribo, Avith Ensign de Cabanus, Avho 

A a 2 had 



CHAP, liad taken them: he had at the same thue nearly seized a 
young girl about fifteen, who by her great agility, and 
being stark naked, slipped out of his hands : 

" Fusiit ocior aura. 

" Ilia levi : neque acl htEc revocantis verba resislit : 

" Nympha, precor, Peneia, mane : non inscqiior hostis. 

" Nyinpha, mane." Ovid. 

It being proved at the court that the above woman had 
been forcibly carried oft' by the rebels, though many years 
before, the poor creature was pardoned, and joyfully re- 
turned with her child to her master's plantation. It is re- 
markable, that when the boy saw the first cow or horse he 
almost fell into convulsions with terror; nor could he 
bear to be touched by any white person, Avhom he never 
had seen before, and whom he constantly called Vorica, 
which in his language signifies the devil. 

About this time a dead sea-coAv, or manatee, by the 
Prench called Lamantin, floating past Jerusalem, the ne- 
gro slaves fell upon it, like so many crows upon a carrion,, 
swimming round it, some with a rusty knife, some with a 
bill-hook, and each carrying off" a slice for his dinner; at 
last they dragged the stinking animal on shore, of which I 
instantly took a drawing. This manatee was exactly six- 
teen feet long, almost shapeless, being an enormous lump 
of fat, tapering backAvards to a fleshy, broad, horizontal 
tail. It had a thick round head, a flattish snout, large 



nostrils, with strong bristles both on its nose and chin, 
small eyes, and auditory holes instead of ears. Instead of 
feet, it had two excrescences or tleshy fins, like those of 
tlie sea-turtle, projecting near its head ; with these it 
swims, and moves awkwardly to eat the grass on the banks 
of the rivers, being an amphibious animal. The colour 
was a greenish black; the skin was hard and uneven, co- 
vered with large knobs, circular wrinkles, and with a very 
few stiff hairs thinly- scattered. It had grinders, but no 
fore-teeth, and a very short tongue. The sea-cow or ma- 
natee is, like the whale, a viviparous animal, the female 
suckling its young by the help of its swimmers. They arc 
very numerous in the river Amazons; their flesh, it is said,, 
resembles veal, and is very good food. This was, however, 
too far advanced in a state of putridit\', for mc to taste it. 
It had the marks of being twice shot, which must have 
been by the rebels on the 27tli, when we heard the report 
of two muskets at a distance. 

As I am once more on the subject of natural history, 
I shall describe another amphibious animal, called the 
tapira, which bears some distant resemblance to the hip- 
popotamus of the old continent, but it is a great deal less.. 
This creature is about the size of a small ass, but much 
more clumsy. The head is not unlike that of a horse, but 
the upper lip much longer, projecting something like the 
proboscis of an elephant, and is also moveable, but too 
short to be of use, as is the trunk of that animal ; the cars- 


are short, the tusks strong, and sometimes visible, the 
mane is bristly and erect, the limbs are low and strong, 
with a kind of hoof divided into four claws, and the tail 
is thick and short like that of the elephant. The skin of 
this creature is excessively thick, of a. brown colour, and 
\vhen young it is marked with white spots, like those of 
the stag or paca, proceeding in longitudinal row^s. It 
feeds on grass, and other herbs that grow in watery places, 
and is so shy, that when alarmed by the smallest noise it 
plunges underwater, also hke the paca, for security, where 
it remains for a considerable time. I'he flesh of the tapira 
is delicate, being accounted superior to the best ox-beef. — 
See both the above animals in the annexed plate. 

A Mr. Selefelder, of the Society service, at this time 
assured me, that he saw quite a different river-horse in the 
river Marawina; and ^l-c\]or Ahercromhij, of the same ser- 
vice, declared, that a mermaid was lately seen in the river 
Surinam. Lord Monhoddo also positively affirms the ex- 
istence of sea-Avomen and sea-men, while he asserts that 
they Avere seen so late as 1 720. But, however respectable 
his lordship's judgment and authority may be on other 
subjects, I can no more agree with him, as to men and 
women having fins and scales, than to their having tails. 

The plain fact, in my humble opinion, is this, that in 
many rivers between the Tropics, both on the coast of 
Africa and South America, a fish sometimes appears half 
above the water, that bears a distant resemblance of the 


£/A^^/e^r,o7- Ci'//if/fA/'/t/'/^/ //^f/.i f'/ ■ //'/////. T//f/-rf(v/ . 









L,,ulon,riil,li..tu;l r>c<-r,-'.'i-jg,,bv ■l..l„hn.'on S! ('/ihivIi I'.ml. 


human species, but is smaller, nearly such as in 1794 was 
exhibited in London. The colour is of a blackish green; 
the head is round, with a deformed kind of a face ; a 
strong fin runs from near the eyes to the middle of the 
back, which something resembles flowing hair : and the 
two supposed arms and hands, are two fleshy fins, or 
rather digitated swimmers ; the female has breasts assur- 
edly like a woman's, being a viviparous animal; Avhile 
the tail is exactly that of a fish, in most of which proper- 
ties it agrees with the seal, but this last has no fin along 
the back, and is considerably larger, while it never ap- 
pears erect above the water, like the former. The above 
information I had from several old negroes and Indians, 
who all agreed perfectly in the description ; some added, 
that they sang, which 1 apprehend to be no other than a 
grunting noise which they emit like most other tropical 
fish and amphibious animals. 

They concluded by assuring me, that though they were 
scarce, nothing was more dreaded by their wives and 
children, than the JVatra Mama, which signifies the mother 
of the waters ; and by -which name, strange to tell, they 
distinguish their Sibyls. — So much for the monsters of the^ 
deep ; and now I shall once more return to those infesting 
Terra Firma. 

I have just mentioned, that, on account of a very bad 
foot, I had been returned unfit for duty by the surgeon^ 
on the 19th of November; yet this daj'^, December 5th, 



c H A P. another surgeon, with two captains, and the adjutant, 
,^J^^^V^^ Avere sent to inspect both me and Ca})tain Pa-rcf, who Avas 
also sick. The surgeon gave his declaration upon oath, 
that Ave were incaj)able of walking without danger, much 
more of undergoing fatigue; but Seyburg, who was slill 
in his phrenzy fever, declared we should instantly enter 
the woods, though he should see us carried in two wheel- 
harrows. Poor Captain Ferret complied to turn out, 
tho'igh he looked like a ghost, and could scarcely stand ; 
but I solemnly swore that I would blow out the first man's 
brains who dared disrespectfully to touch me: in conse- 
quence of which I was close guarded by a sentinel ; Avhile 
the Avhole camp, upon my soul, now seemed to be com- 
posed of none but madmen. 

On the llth we received intelligence that a number of 
armed rebels had been just seen opposite to Devil's Har- 
war, and afterwards informed they were upon their re- 
treat from the Comewina river, where on the 5 th they 
had burnt to ashes the dwelling-house of the estate Kil- 
lestyn Nova, with Mr. Slighter the oveiseer in it, ransacked 
the whole plantation, killed and carried off thirty-three 
women, and chopped off the limb of a male mulatto child, 
to be revenged of its father ; and that the Firica rangers 
were in pursuit of them. Captain Fredericy also arrived 
this day, who had exchanged fi'om the Society troops into 
Colonel Fourgeoud's regiment of marines, and confirmed 
t.o us the above unhappy news. ' 



About this time, after having starved four months, my 
remaining stores arrived at last from Mocha, but three- 
fourths rotted and destroyed by the hlata or cockroaches : 
the remaining part I distributed among tlie sick people. 
But what proved truly acceptable, was the cheering ac- 
count that Joanna and Johnny were past danger, and re- 
covering at Paramaribo. This intelligence indeed so ele- 
vated my spirits, that the next morning I reported myself 
fit for duty, though God knows that I was not ; and to 
this I was the more induced by the Avant of fresh air, of 
which I was perfectly debarred in my confinement, and 
stood so much in need. The same evening a boat full 
of Caribbee Indians rowed up Cormoetibo, for the river 
Marawina, by the communication of the Wana Creek. 

In eight days more, Avhich was the 20th of December, 
being actually recovered of the wound in my foot, and 
Seyburg of his phrenetic fever, another officer and I 
played him the following trick, for his bad usage. Having 
invited this gentleman, with his adjutant, and a few more, 
to see us act a farce by candle-light, Ave affected to quar- 
rel, and beating out the candle, the door being well se- 
cured, laid on in the dark with such success upon a certain 
somebody's shoulders, that, calling out Murder ! he leaped 
out at the window. Nothing ever gave me greater enter- 
tainment than to perceive his agility ; but Colonel Sey- 
burg declared he would never more to our play be a spec- 
tator. * 

Vol. II. B b At 


At this time orders arrived from Colonel Fourgeoud, 
who was also better, to break up our camp at Jerusalem, 
^nd march once more to the Wana Creek. In conse- 
quence the sick were again sent down in barges to the 
Hospital at Devil's Harwar, which was nearly full, while 
several were labouring under a disease something like the 
ti/mpantf, called here the kook, being a prodigious hard- 
ness and SAvelling in the belly, occasioned, it is said, by 
drinking muddy water without spirits, which was indeed 
our daily and general beverage. 

On the 22d, at six o'clock in the morning, we all de- 
camped, and scrambled up along the banks of the Cor- 
moetibo Creek, through a perfect bog, while one poor 
negro, who had his head fractured, was left behind, and 
another knocked over-board one of the barges, who was 

We this day again saw great numbers of pingoes or 
warree-hogs, Avhich as usual breaking through our line, 
were cut down by sabres and stabbed, ^vhile some ran off 
with the bayonets stickmg in their hams. 

This march was peculiarly disagreeable, upon account 
of the heavy rains, which noAv began to fall down in tor- 
rents,, overflowing the banks of all the rivers; and so cold 
were the damps in the morning, contrasted Avith the late 
warm days, that we frequently lay shivering in our ham- 
mocks as, in frost, especially when sleeping in wet clothes. 
This inconvenience, however, I obviated to-day by march- 


ino- half naked, like the rangers, and putting my shirt in 
one of the reversed kettles, during the rain — thus my skin 
soon drying, after a shower, I again put on my linen, and 
found myself much more comfortable than any of ray 
trembling ghastly looking companions. 

On the evening of the 23d, we encamped near a rivulet 
called the Caipnans or Alligator Creek; where a tree 
called Monbiara afforded some excellent fruit, but this was 
entirely stripped by the slaves before I could either taste 
or even see it in perfection. 

The rains continuing to pour down in a deluge, I again 
marched stripped on the 24th, and we slung our hammocks 
in the evening, near a brook called Yorica, or the Devil's 
Creek, Avhere Ave made huts or sheds to cover us, and 
stoAved the provisions upon rafters. 

On the folloAving day Ave once more laboured through 
deep mud and Avater, in very heavy rains, and encamped 
at another small brook, called the Java Creek, three miles 
below the Wana. 

On the 26th I Avas selected, Avith a small party, to re- 
connoitre the old camps at Wana Creek. In the evening 
Ave returned, half sAvimming through mud and Avater, and 
having literally seen nothing except some birds and cu- 
rious trees, Avhich I cannot pass unnoticed. The birds 
Avere called the Cromback, the Camawarry, and the Crocro. 
The first is a kind of large snipe, the size of a Avoodcock, 
Avith a crooked bill. The second is also a Avatcr-fowl, but 

B b 2 three 


three times as large as the first : on account of thek swift- 
ness, and disappearing in a moment, I can give but a very 
imperfect description of them. The Crocro is something 
less than our ravens, and I beheve of the same species, 
being one of the most voracious birds of the carnivorous 
tribe ; in Guiana it is of a dark blue colour, has a remark- 
ably strong bill and limbs, and croaks excessively loud 
and disagreeably, especially by night. The trees were 
what the negroes called the Matakee, and the Markoory. 
The first is remarkable for its roots, which spread above 
the ground in such a manner, that they will conceal a score 
of men from each other ; nay so large are they sometimes, 
that a horseman may ride through between the interstices, 
and one single piece is sufficient to make a table large 
enough to hold twelve people. 

For a better idea of this wonderful tree, I refer the 
reader to the annexed plate ; where I have jjlaced it upon 
the opposite shore of the encampment at Jerusalem. In 
the same plate he is also presented with a fair-weather 
view of the camp at Java Creek. 

The other tree, called the Markoory, is truly formidable 
on account of its poisonous qualities, Avhich are of such a 
subtle nature that the very smoke of this wood, when on 
fire, is fatal to those animals that receive it into their lungs; 
this is always seen to grow by itself, as it infallibly kills 
every thing around it, nay even the slaves refuse to cut it 
down on the plantations, so much are they afraid of touch- 
1 ins* 

//^//' ^'/ ///^ //////// ^// /A/^i ._/u/yu 6/yj^./: 

/^/^Y/^ /■'/ ///r ( //rf/ ////////r/^/^ /'/^ J// /'//.Jt'///' /// 

L,.iul„„,ruhli.rl,r,i O.rff'.'ijffijH J. ./.hiiy.m. J\'r.i,.h aurch lard. 


ing, or of even coming near to it. The Markoory is low, 
ugly, and uneven, with very few branches, and a pale ver- 
dure. I have been told that some of the Indians render 
their arrows fatal by dipping the barbs of them in its 

On the 27th, another patrol was sent out, but to no 
better purpose than the first. I have mentioned that my 
foot was recovered, and so it was, but I had now ex- 
tracted out of my right arm two dreadful insects, which 
left behind them very deep ulcers. These are called in 
Surinam the bush-worms, and are the shape and size of the 
aurelia of the common butterfly, Avith a pointed tail and 
black head. They stuck extremely fast in the flesh, and 
were extracted with a lancet. They breed naturally in 
stagnated Avaters, in marching constantly through which 
they had attached themselves to my flesh. 

My heart now began to sink with accumulated disas- 
ters; my mind was agitated and depressed with a con- 
stant train of tortures, to which I could see no end, and I 
became weary of life. In this dreadful situation I fell 
upon my naked knees, and invoked the malediction of 
Heaven to fall on me, if I did not separate myself from 
my present commanders and this service, the first honour- 
able opportunity that should offer itself; — how religiously 
I have persevered in observing this vow, shall be seen in 
the sequel of these pages, before I take my final farewell 
of my readers. 



The place of our present encampment was now intole- 
rable beyond every description, being constantly over- 
flowed, so that the ammunition and provisions were 
stowed for preservation on wooden rafts ; nor could we 
step out of our hammocks without being up to the knees 
in mud and water, where it was most shallow, while the 
gnats and other insects devoured us alive. The conse- 
quence of all which was, that another barge full of dying 
wretches was sent down the Cormoetibo Creek, bound 
for the hospital at Devil's Harwar ; among whom the poor 
old negro Avith his fractured skull, who had only yesterday 
rejoined us in his shocking condition. This floating cJiar- 
vel-house weighed anchor on the last day of the year 
1775 — with which I shall beg leave to conclude this 
gloomy chapter. 



Two Volunteer Companies raised, of free Midattoes and Ne- 
groes — Description of the Arrowouka Indian Nation — 
Colonel Fotirgeoud's Kegiment receives orders to sail for 
Europe — Countermanded — Re-enter the Woods — Trade of 
the Colony — Description of a Cacao Estate — Sample of 
Sable Heroism. 

TO what good star I Avas obliged, in the midst of all 
our confusion and distress, I know not, but certain 
it is, that Colonel Seyburg having sent for me on the first 
day of the new year, not only solicited my future friend- 
ship, but declared he Avas sorry for all the ill-treatment he 
had ever occasioned me, for which he principally blamed 
Mr. Gibhart, his adjutant and spy; then taking me by 
the hand as a proof of his real regard, permitted me from 
that moment to go to Paramaribo, or wherever I pleased, 
to refresh and refi;t until further orders ; Avhich had such 
an effect on me, that having instantly converted every 
drop of my rum into grog, we sat down, together with two 
other oflicers, and drowned all former animosity in obli- 
vion, till we could hardly see each other. In this condi- 
tion I took my leave that very evening of my 7iew friend 



and the camp at Java Creek, and rowed down in the best 
spirits for Paramaribo. 

Next morning, having slept during most of the passage, 
I breakfasted at Devil's Harwar, where I found that the 
unfortunate Gibhart had Just set sail for the other world. 
In the evening we arrived at the estate Beekvlied, as my 
negroes had made extraordinary (}i\?,\)7iic\\,fummingwattra*' 
all the time to encourage each other. 

On the 3d I arrived at the fortress Amsterdam, where I 
was entertained with an excellent fish dinner, and where I 
must again intreat the reader's patience, while I attempt 
to describe the different species, viz. the passessij, prai'c- 
prare, provost, and curenia. The passessy is above two 
feet long, and weighs sometimes twenty pounds ; the head 
is broad and flat ; it has two long barbs, and no scales, 
and is very delicate eating. The prare-prare is about the 
same size, and equally good. The provost is large, often 
five feet, and of a yellowish colour ; the flesh of this is less 
agreeable, but the oil it produces comes to good account. 
As for the curcma, this is a species of mullet, sometimes 
above two feet in length, Avith large silvery eyes, and the 
under jaw longer than the upper. Near this place are 
also found a kind of sea-snails, of which Madam Merian 
makes mention ; and the fore part of which exactly resem- 
bles those of a shrimp. 

* That is, one of the rowers beat- sounds different from the rest, to 
jng the water with his oar at every which the others sing a chorus, 
stroke, in such a manner that it 



In the evening at six o'clock I arrived once more at Pa- G n a p. 
ramaribo, and found Joanna with her httle boy perfectly ^_^^-^ 
well, after having both been blind for above three weeks ; 
with whom being now invited to lodge, at the house of 
my friend Mr. De Graaf, I was completely happ3\ 

The following day I dined with Colonel Fourgcoud, 
who now also was as sound as ever, and who gave me a 
very indiiferent meal of salt provisions*, but an imcom-' 
monlij hearty welcome. He acquainted me that two new 
companies of free mulattoes, and two of free negroes, all 
volunteers, had just been raised; that the Seramica and 
Owca negroes encouraged and favoured the rebels, and 
w^ere deceitful rascals ; that a few rebels had been killed 
in the Cassiwinica Creek; and that he was in hopes of 
rooting out Fissj/ Hollo ; that Bonni/, with his people, w^ere 
almost starving in the forest, notwithstanding their late 
depredations, Avhich could not last much longer; and that 
he was fully determined, if he should lose his last man, to 
make this rebel surrender, or harass him till he and his 
gang, through hunger and distress, shorJd be obliged to 
quit the colon}-. 1 learnt further from him, that a French- 
man had just escaped hanging for betraying the state of 
the fortifications, &c. to the Governor of Cayenne; that he 
had pardoned Captain Tulling for his clandestine mar- 
riage ; and that Lieutenant Colonel de Borgnes was just 

* This he absolutely held ;is the best regimen for health, nQtwkhstauding 
lie had brought three cooks liom Europe. 

Vol. II. C c entered 


entered into niatiiinony Avith a rich widow, a Mrs. Craw- 

Tiie Colonel, in a word, was now quite the reverse of 
what he had been before, and upon the whole so very 
agreeable in his manners, that I would never wish to 
spend my time in better company ; but how I should be- 
come at once the favourite of both these rival comman- 
ders, w^as a secret I covild never yet discover, unless it 
might proceed from a desire of gaining me from each 
other, as they still continued mutual enemies : be that as 
it may, I resolved to preserve the most inflexible neutra- 
lity, as I also did between them and the Governor, where 
I was invited next day, and dined not on salt-beef, but 
found as usual a truly magnificent entertainment. 

Thus I continued daily visiting my friends, viz. Mrs. 
Codefroy, the Demellys, the Gordons, the Mac Neyls, 
kc. I also spent a very agreeable day with the black 
Mrs. Sampson, or Zubly, Avho was now a Avidow. 

I was present too at a mulatto ball, composed however 
not of slaves, but of free independant settlers. Here the 
music, the lights, the country dances, the supper, and, 
above all, the dresses were so superb, and their behaviour 
so decent and genteel, that the whole luight serve as a 
model for decorum and etiquette to some of the fairer and 
more polished inhabitants. 

On the SOth, observing a number of Indians and black 

people of both sexes swimming at the back of Fort Ze- 

-v landia. 


landia, young Donald Mac Nevl and myself completed c ii a v. 


the group, by stripping and getting in among them ; and v.^„i,-y-^ 
I must confess I never beheld more surprising feats of ac- 
tivity in the water, than ^vere performed by the negroes, 
who fought a sham battle, by plunging or rather tumblisig 
like porpoises, when they struck each other with their 
legs, as they never used their hands ; while the Indians, 
who were of the Arrowouka nation, swam and dived like 
amphibious animals. 

Being sufficiently refreshed, we sat down upon the 
beach, near the twenty-one gun battery, where I had an 
opportunity of examining the features and figure of one 
of their young females, as she approached us, like Venus 
rising out of the sea. These people being very different 
from all the other Indian nations that I have already de- 
scribed, I shall embrace the opportunity of fulfilling my 
promise, and giving a particular account of them. — In the 
first place, the skin of the young woman who was now 
emerging clean from the river, and divested of arnotta- 
paint, appeared much fairer than the copper-colour of 
the other Indians; neither were her limbs deformed by 
those strait-laced bracelets or cotton bands so much in use 
with the rest; nor did her hair hang down, but was neatly 
plaited close round the crown of her head, and fastened 
in the center with a broad silver plate*. Her only dress 

* This, at otlier times, tliey supply by a shell, a fish-bone, or the tooth of 
a tiger, &c. 

^ c c 2 consisted, 

consisted, both during tlie time she bathed and after, of a 
small square apron made of beads, as T have mentioned 
before : in every other respect she was perfectly naked : 
nor could a finer figure be imagined — erect, vigorous, ac- 
tive, young, and health}', Avhich convinced me that Avhen 
the body is exposed, as it certainly Avas ordained by na- 
ture, the face is but little noticed. 

" Such as Arcadian song 

" Transmits from ancient uncorrupted Time ; 
" Wlien tyrant Custom had not shackled Man, 
" But free to follow Nalure M'as the mode." 

In her features was displayed that beautiful simplicity, 
that native unsuspecting innocence, which cannot be put 
on where there is the slightes^t consciousness of guilt. Nor 
is the olive-colour incompatible with beauty, it is certainly 
the standard complexion of the human race, while the 
black and white are supposed to be only gradations, pro- 
duced probably by the extremes of heat and cold. As 
this Indian girl was perfectly handsome, so she seemed to 
])c perfectly happ}'. — " Happiness," as the Abbe Reynal 
Aviscly observes, " is more frequently found in a pure state 
" of nature, than in that of the most refined civilization." 
To be sure an European woman would blush to her fin- 
gers ends at the very idea of appearing publicly stark 
naked ; but education and prejudice are every thing, since 
it is an axiom, that where there is no feelino; of self- 
reproach, there can assuredly be no shame. 

I «imcmber 




///a/I'/// ./'/'///a/r t'/ u/f' . ///■f//>a///v/ • ia///>. 


l.,'H,l,m.r,Mi.iJir.l ]JnU:"j;j-i, In .I.Jolin.fon ,,(!JUiiU lliwji Yanl. 



I remember to have seen an Indian 3'outh, whose name chap. 
•was JJeckcc, at Bergen-op-Zoom, M'here he was brovight 
over iVom the colony Berbicc with General Desahe, who 
clothed and partly civilized him : amongst other things, he 
karned cookery, and to be something of a tailor, at his 
own request, that he might be enabled to provide both for 
his back and his belly. After some time however, ex- 
pressing a desire to return to the colony, he no sooner 
touched American ground, than stripping himself of his 
lumber, he launched naked into his native woods, where 
he ended his days as he had begun them, amongst his be- 
loved countrymen and companions ; like the Hottentot 
mentioned by Rousseau, in his celebrated Discoiirs sio' 
rinegalite <^' Conditions, cj-c. — — But to return to the girl: 
— She had with her a live parrot, Avhich she had stunned 
with a blunt arrow from her bow, and for which I gave her 
a double-bladed knife ''•'. So wonderfully expert are the 
Arrowouka Indians at this exercise, that they frequently 
bring down a macaw in full flight, or even a pigeon. 

I cannot conclude these remarks without adding a few 
words concerning the unspotted moral character of these 

* The general tiaffick carried on and varnillas, canoes, hammocks, 

between all the Indian nations and slaves, raonkics, parrots, and paro- 

the Europeans consists in balsam- quels ; for which they receive fire- 

capivi, arrococerra, oil of carrabba, arms, knives, hatchets, fish-hooks, 

arnotta, and bees-wax, besides pieces combs, coral and glass beads, blue 

of Brazil and ebony ; the roots hiarec cotton, looking-glasses. Sec. 



c II A P. people, uho net only live in peace with most of the other 
fc^,^,^,.,^ Indian nations, but are peculiarly attached to the Euro- 
peans, while these in return profess for them the strongest 

As a proof of their gratitude, I will only relate one in- 
stance : — Some years ago an Indian woman being at Pa- 
ramaribo, and far advanced in a state of pregnancy, a 
Mr. Van der Mey humanely ordered his servants to conduct 
her and her husband into his house, where, giving them 
a private apartment, and every other conveniency, he 
wished them good night. Before the next morning the 
woman was delivered ; but when the servants went in to 
renew their offers of friendship, neither man, wife, nor 
child were to be found, as they had before day-break 
quietly marched into the forest*. Va'ious were at this 
time the conjectures concerning the boasted integrity of 
the Arrowoiika Indians, until, no less than eighteen months 
after, the same Indian returned to Mr. Van der Mey, with 
a charming captive boy of the Accawau nation, that he 
had taken in battlef; and whom presenting to his bene- 
factor, he only said, " That's yours,^' and without waiting 
for any answer disappeared, — For this slave the above gen- 

* I have mentioned before that the Indians are exempt from pain in 

t This is however extremely uncommon, as a more peaceable people does 
notexistin the universe. 



tlcman was oflered £. £.'00, Mhich he refused, and treated chap. 
him as well as if he had been free. v,.*^L^ 

The education these people receive in their infancy 
being according to the dictates only of simple nature, 
their minds or their bodies are very seldom deformed, 
while a too nice attention to either is possibly as detri- 
mental as a total neglect. The ingenious Dr. Bancroft is 
of the same opinion, which he supports (I think need- 
lessly) by a quotation from Quintilian. 

Though the Arrowonka Indians live in perfect friend- 
ship and harmony with us, and indeed with most of their 
neighbours, they yet sometimes go to war when pro- 
voked, as I have just observed ; in these combats they 
use bows and arrows, and the club called abowtow *; 
but they do not eat their prisoners like the Caribbee In- 
dians, A\ho even devoured the negroes whom they killed 
at the insurrection in Berbice. Notwithstanding these 
people live at a greater distance from the sea than the 
JFarrorcs, &c, yet they have canoes, sometimes fourscore 
feet in length, in which they paddle down the rivers. 
The Arrowouka Indians particularly are great herbalists, 
and for all external accidents have recourse to simples, 

with which the woods of all Terra Firma abound. 

But to proceed : 

On the 25th I was seized with a fever, and blooded in 

* Tlie Kew Zealanders call their clubs pato-patoo ; which affinity is re- 
markable, on account of their very great distance. 



the foot, in which tlie orifice being struck too deep, foi' 
struck it was as they bleed the horses, I again became 
lame; during Avhich time Colonel Seyburg arrived from 
the Java Creek to recover, he being at last also taken 
very ill. 

In the mean time Colonel Fourgeoud, while he was 
just ready to renew his operations, having already sent a 
small detachment to the Jew Savannah for intelligence, 
received letters from the Hague, with express orders to 
abandon the expedition immediately, and with his few 
remaining troops to sail for Holland without delay. 

In consequence of these commands on the 27th, the 
transport ships Avere put in commission, and all the officers 
and privates received their clearance, which made them 
very happy ; and indeed all Paramaribo were alive with 
joy, except some of the inhabitants and myself 

On the 1 4th of February, ill as I was with a bad foot, 
a sore arm, the prickly heat, and all my teeth loose with 
the scurvy, I found means to scramble out on crutches, 
with a thousand florins in my pocket, which having di- 
vided between Fourgeoud and Mrs. Godefroy for the 
redemption of the black boy Quaco, and my mulatto, I 
returned home without a shilling in my pui'se ; yet for 
this small sum of 500 florins, so inadequate to ] 800 which 
I owed that lady, she was induced generously to renew 
her persuasions of carrying Joanna and the boy with me 
to Holland. This, however, Joanna as nobly as firmly 



refused, declaring, " that, independant of all other consi- chap. 


" derations, she could never think of sacrificing one bene- 1^-^,-^-^ 
" factor to the interest of another; and that her own 
" happiness or even mine, which was dearer to her than 
" life, should never have any weight, till the debt of her 
" liberty M'as paid by me, or by her own industry, to the 
" utmost fraction, and which she did not despair to see 
" one day completed." She added, " our separation 
" should only be for a time, and that the greatest proof I 
" could ever shew her of my real esteem, was now to un- 
" dergo this little trial of fortune like a man, without 
" so much as heaving a sigh in her presence ;" which last 
she spoke with a smile, next embraced her infant, tlicn 
turned suddenly round, and wept most bitterly. —At this 
moment I Avas called to ]\Ir. de la JMare's, who was just 
dead, where my melancholy having surpassed all descrip- 
tion, I at last determined to weather one or two painful 
years in her absence ; and in the afternoon went to dissi- 
pate my mind at a Mr. Boiix's cabinet of Indian curiosi- 
ties ; where, as my eye chanced to fall on a rattle-snake, 
I will before I leave the colony describe this dangerous 

The rattlesnake of Surinam is sometimes eight or 
nine feet long, and very thick about the middle, tapering 
towards the neck and tail. The head is dreadfully de- 
formed, being fiat and broad, with two large nostrils 

Vol. II. D d near 


near the snout, and a large scale or knob like the alligator 
above his ej^es, which are jet-black and sparkling ; at the 
extremity of the tail are several thin horny shells joined 
together, which are very dr}^ and Avhich, Avhen irritated, 
the animal shakes, sounding much like a rattle, from 
which it derives its name. These shells augment, it is 
said, in the proportion of one every year, by Avhich it is 
supposed its age may be ascertained. This whole snake 
is covered over with scales, which on the ridge of the 
back it erects. The colour is a dirty orange mixed with 
dark-brown and black spots, which last are also on its 
head, appearing like velvet, and marked in a very conspi- 
cuous manner ; the belly is ash-coloured, with transverse 
scales like most other serpents. When this animal is in- 
tent on mischief, it lies coiled like a rope, with the tail a 
little in motion, which having rattled, it launches forth 
upon its prey, making no farther reach than its own 
length ; this done, it coils a second time^ and again pro- 
jects itself. The bite of the rattle-snake is accounted 
fatal, at least is thought very dangerous over all America; 
but with regard to the fascinating qualities of its eyes, such 
as the story of its causing mice, squirrels, and birds to run 
into its mouth, I reject them as fables; the supposed 
charm consisting in nothing more than this, that the poor 
animals, finding themselves surprised by the impending 
danger, are seized Avith such a trepidation and fear, thai 
1 1 even 

f^At Or^y'/i. /^///A-zy/u 0^ '/^^y/^/r . //// //■//// . 

•3^(y^a/f/eyc4uy/-^y^^y/?,^^ o/'//'^/ 

Li'iuLm.-TuHiVluA Drc-ri-^^jmi./'i ./,<n. .r.U\i„ly tjuu-.h Y.ini. 


even the use of their limbs forsakes them, and they are 
rivetted to the place till they die, or in the act of leaping 
they are seized by their enemy *. 

In this cabinet I also saw the blue dipsas of Surinam, 
which had almost the colour of ultramarine on the back ; 
its sides were lighter, and the belly nearly white. I did 
not learn that the bite of this reptile was fatal, but that 
it occasions immoderate thirst in the patient, from which 
it took its name ; the word dipsa signifying thirst in the 
Greek language. Another snake I also observed here, 
about three feet long, being annulated with different co- 
lours, and called amphisboena, from the supposition of its 
having two heads ; but the truth is, that from its cylindri- 
cal form the head and tail so much resemble each other, 
that the error is almost pardonable : besides which, the 
eyes are nearly imperceptible. This is the snake which, 
being supposed blind, and vulgarly said to be fed by the 
large ants already described, is in this country honoured 
with the name of King of the Emmets f-. 

Amongst Mr. Roux's numerous collection of fine but- 
terflies, one of a middle size I thought peculiarly beau- 
tiful ; all its wings, both above and below, being elegantly 
streaked with transverse bars of velvet, black, and a varie- 
gated bright green. The amazing height to which they 

* See a letter to the editors of the New Universal Magazine for 
October 1787. 

t How Madam Merian should call this reptile an oviparous viper, sur- 
passes m^' comprehension. 

D d 2 ascend. 


ascend, and the great velocity with which these insects fly, 
make them so rai-e, being, for these reasons, but very 
seldom caught. The caterpillar is a sea-green, and al 
covered over with hard feelers, not unlike feathers. — For 
a better idea of the above snakes, and this fly, see the 
plate annexed, where the last was improved from Madam 
Merian's collection. 

I have just said that v/e Avere ordered to leave the 
colony, and that all were overjoyed with the news, myself 
excepted. But on the 15th, by letters from Holland to 
our chief, otir return was again countermanded for six 
months. ]\Iy companions were therefore suddenly cast 
down with disappointment, while I was as suddenly re- 
vived, and now determined to save all my pay until Jo- 
anna's redemption fliould he fully accomplished : but Avhat 
grieved me very much was the other nev/s from Europe, 
mz. that the Scots Brigade had been invited to England 
by his Britannic Majesty, while 1 was lamenting that I 
could not possibly be one of the number*. I at the same 
time had the ofter of an American company under Ge- 
neral Washington, but this I refused Avithout any hesita- 
tion, as may be supposed. 

In short, on the 18th of February, the poor dispirited 
men were again sent up to Magdeuberg, a large party 
still remaining at the Java Creek ; -whilst the temper of 
the officers Avas noAV so ruflied, that a Mr. Fisher of our 

* The King's demand was negatived by the States of Holland. 



corps fought no less than two duels in two succeeding chap. 
days, dangerously wounding both his antagonists, who ^_^^ll^ 
were both officers of the Society regiment. 

As I was not yet recovered, I staid some time longer at 
Paramaribo, where at the house of a Mr. Reynsdorp, I 
saw a Portuguese Jew teaching his children the Christian 
religion, while the pious mother of the cliarity-house kept 
flogging the poor slaves daily, because they were, as she 
said, unbelievers. To one black woman in particular, she 
wantonly gave four hundred lashes, who bore them with- 
out a complaint. 

But to change the disagreeable subject; — while I have 
the leisure and the opportunity, I feel the inclination to 
state to the public a short account of the trade and intrin- 
sic value of this blood-spilling colony ; which still might 
be richer, did they not follow the example of the woman 
in the fable Avith her golden eggs. 

In the first place, in Surinam are computed to be about 
six or eight hundred plantations, producing sugar, coffee, 
cacao, and cotton, besides some indigo, and valuable tim.- 
bers, &c. — The exportation of which four first articles 
only, and their value, may be seen at one view in the fol- 
lowing table for four successive years. 







Barrels of 

lbs. of 

lbs. of 

lbs. of 









Total - 





69,606 barrels of sugar, at 60 florins per 

barrel, make 
49,846,082 lbs. of coffee, at 8~d. per lb. 

make _ _ . - 

1,610,595 lbs. of cacao, at 6^. per lb. 
make . _ . . 

534,153 lbs, of cotton, at 8(1. per lb. make 
Sum total 

Which makes in one year exactly 

But this average produce was shipped 
off for the town of Amsterdam only. 
Carried forward 

/. 4,176,360 

21,184,584 17 — 

523,443 7 8 
212,661 4 — 

/. 26,097,049 8 8 
/. 6,524,262 7 2 

/ 6, 524; 262 7 2 



Brought forward 
If I now add what goes to Rotter- 
dam and to Zealand, besides the home 
consumption, and tlie return of the rum 
and molasses, the indigo at 4f. per lb. 
and the timber from 5r/. to five florins per 
cubic foot, it will amount to as much more 

Thus altosrether 

/. 0,524,262 

6,524,262 7 2 

f. 13,048,524 14 4 

Which, supposing it was but 1 1,000,000/". makes a yearly income 
of one million neat in sterling money. 

How the above sum is divided between the republic of Holland 
and this colony, shall be my business to state in the second place. 

The town of Amsterdam affords about fifty 
ships, at an average of 400 tons burthen 
each, which receive, for importation 
freight of various commodities, the sum 
of - - - f. 6,000 

For exportation freight of the" 

above productions, which ^ .32,000 
grow in the colony* 

Thus each vessel gets for freight/". 3S,000 
Which,multiplied by the N" of vessels 50 

ISIakes exactly 
For Rotterdam and Zealand I calculate 
together about 30 vessels more of dif- 
ferent burthens : thus 

Carried forward 

/. 1,900,000 


/. 3,100,000 

* Sugar pays about 3/. per barrel, and coffee abcut as much per thousand; 
other commodities in proportion.— iV. jB. This I insert unauthenticated, thus er- 
rors excepted. 




Brought forward 
And for the brick that serves for ballast, 

passengers, &c. 
Each Guinea ship importing 

yearly from 250 to 300 ne- > f. 120,000 

groes, lowest value at 
Thus supposing the number of 

vessels * - - fi 

-|/. 120,( 

Amounts to - 
To all these I shall add the mercliandise 
imported from Holland, such as wine, spi- 
rits, beer, salt-beef, pork, and Hour, silk, 
cotton, and linen-manufactures ; clothes, 
hats, shoes; gold, silver, and steel orna- 
ments; arms and ammunition; even ma- 
sons and carpenters tools, &c. &c. at an 
average of about 50per ce;;? profit. Besides 
correspondents charges, insurance, duty, 
store-house expcnces, porters fees, wharf- 
age and package, which last articles cost 
the inhabitants ten per cent. more. 
Thus altogether 

Which makes already the sum of 
Still let me mention the interest of 6 per 
cent, for the national debt of tive millions 
sterling, due by the colony, and what 
they are defrauded of by usurers in Hol- 
land, where prodigious other charges are 
brought in ; and where those who have 
made their fortunes go to spend it; and 
the amount will be found to produce 
at least 
The whole of which items added together, 
produce no less a sum yearly than 

/. 3,100,000 


7 '-20,000 

1,100,000 — 

J'. 5,000,000 — 

1,0C0,000 — 

J. 6,000,000 — 
There are some years but four, and some ten, &c. 




Brought forward 
Which is clear profit to the republic, viz. 
principally for Amsterdam, Rotterdam, 
and Zealand. Thus the inhabitants of 
Surinam get, for their share of the 
above treasure, only 

Which make together, as I said, one mil- 
lion sterling, or - - - 

/. 6,000,000 — 

5,000,000 — 

/'. 1 1,000,000 — 

In the third place, I shall now show in what manner the internal 
expence of the Society of Surinam is defrayed by taxes ; whicli 
amount to no trifle, as shall be seen. 

Having already mentioned, when speaking of the government, 
that the public revenue officers were five in number, I will now 
point out how they collect the cash respectively each, for the sup- 
port of the above expences. 

The first of these is that of Importation and Exportation Duties. 
To this is paid, viz. 

By all Dutch vessels, Sjl "J 

per ton - - I thus for ton- 

By Americans, &c. 6 f. fnage,/; <J0,000 

per ton " ' -J 

By Americans, &c. for all") 

imports and exports, 

5 per cent. 
Sugar pays i /. per thou 

sand or barrel - 
Coffee \5d. per 100 lb. 

Cacao \ f. \5(l. per 100 

lb. D° 



Thus receives yearly about the sum of ■ 
Vol. II. ' E e 

f. 410,000 

f. 410,000 




Brought forward 

The second is the office of excise and 

small duties. 

To this is paid, riz. 

For a barrel of beer - - J^ ^ 

AD" of claret - - - 12 

A pipe of madeira - - 23 10 — 

All wines, per quart bottle l 

The tax on publicans, is - 600 

D° on small retailers - - soo 

And which amounts to a yearly 

produce of at least - - - - 
Then follows thirdly the office for taxation 
on heads ; which receives for all inhabi- 
tants, blaek and white, without excep- 
tion, viz. 
For men and. women f.1 lo^^i^^s ipro- 
For boys and girls un- I duces 

der 12 - - J". 1 5 [^yearly - 
Next comes the office for sales and 
slaves, which gets, t'iz. 
For selling dead stock, including 

estates, &c. 5 per cent. - - 
For selling newly-arrived or im- 
ported negro slaves, 2^ per cent. 
And finally, the office for re-taking ne- 
gro deserters, which was then erected, the 
other taxes not being sufficient ; which 
produces yearly, viz. . - - . 
By an additional tax on heads, 

black and white, at ij". is 
By 4/)e;' coit. of every profitgot^ 
during the year upon oatli, is5 

Which makes exactly 

Carried forward 

' thus, 



/, 410,000 

100,000 • 



480,000 — 

/. 1,270,000 




Brought forward 

Still let me not forget what is yearly 
paid for what is called the support of the 
common or grass fields, viz. 
For a house, according to its size. 

For a coach - - - 20 

For a whiskey - - - lo 

For a saddle-horse - - 10 

Which add to the above impositions again 

And these, if summed together, make a 
yearly revenue of no less than - 

/. 1,270,000 — 

12,000 — 

/. 1,'28'2,000 

Having now clearly demonstrated, partly by the assist- 
ance of Dr. Firmyn's Tableau de la Colonie de Surinam^ 
and partly by my own experience, that the intrinsic value 
of this settlement is worth yearly above otie million of 
sterling money, which, by proper management, might be 
still increased ; also that the greater part of it goes to the 
republic, while the people are thus burthened on their 
estates by almost insupportable taxation, which induces 
many to be rogues, who Avould perhaps otherwise be ho- 
nest; X shall by way of appendix, give some short ac- 
count of the trade carried on in this colony by tlie ISiorth 
Americans: — These people arrive with small brigs, 
sloops, and schooners from Virginia, Rhode Island, New 
York, Boston, Jamaica, Grenada, Antigua, Barbadoes, 
&;c. from which places they export flour, beef, pork, her- 
rings, salt, mackarel, and leaf-tobacco for the negroes ; 

ECS also 


also fir-boards, English rum, and other spirits ; loaf-sugar*, 
spermaceti-candles, onions, Sec. Besides each vessel is 
bound to bring in one horse f-, which thcj often supply 
by a head only ; affirming, that they put on board a horse, 
but that he died on the passage. For the above commo- 
dities the American traders export all the melasses of this 
colony to distil into ram at home, and frequently ship- 
loads of other productions and merchandize, though 
this is done in a clandestine manner, by Avhich both the 
seller and buyer are considerable gainers, being ready 
cash for the one, and a cheap bargain for the other. 
From the Leeward Islands these vessels also import pri- 
vate mulatto and quaderoon slaves, which being generally 
young and handsome, whatever may be their moral cha- 
racter, sell for considerable prices. 

Having thus shewn, according to the best information 
I was able to acquire, in what the commerce and intrinsic 
wealth of this fine colony consist; I will noAv take my 
leave of the subject, and continue my narrative. 

On the 21st of February, Mr. Reynsdorp, the son-in-law 
of Mrs. Godefroy, took me in his sail barge for change 
of air to Nuten-Schndehjk, one of his own cofi'ee estates ; 
where I saw a white man who had lately lost both his eyes 
in one night by the bats or vampires, as they are called ; 
and the following day, sailing up Comewina river, Ave 

* I have said they can naake no rum here; neither do they refine sugar. 
t Mr. Hartzink mentions four horses, but this is a mistake. 



proceeded to the delightful Cacao plantation Allcmaar, 
the property of the above lady ; where the negi-o slaves 
are treated like children by the mistress, to whom they 
all look up as to their common parent. — Here weve no 
groans to be heard, no fetters to be met with, nor any 
marks of severity to be seen — but all was harmony and 
content. The superb house and other offices of this 
charming estate, where pleasure and hospitality ever reign, 
I have already represented in plate N° X. ; while the fields 
and gardens, nay even the negro houses, bore all the marks 
of perfect peace and plenty. 

The cacao-trees are supplied from nurseries for the 
purpose, like orchards in England, and planted very re-^ 
gularly at ten or twelve feet distance from each other, 
where they grow to the height of our English cherry- 
trees. But these plantations must be well sheltered, both 
from the hard winds and scorching sun, when young; the 
roots not entering deep into the ground to succour them, 
nor can they at that time bear extraordinary heat ; on 
which account the groves are filled up M'ith cassava- 
shrubs or plantain-trees for their shelter, and Avhich at 
the same time answer the piirpose of killing the weeds, 
which grow so luxuriantly in all the tropical climates ; — • 
by these attentions the trees will bear fruit before they 
are three years old, when they afford two crops annually, 
but they are in the highest perfection at the age of 
twehe or fourteen. The leaf of the cacao-tree is above 



eight Indies long, and nearly three broad, thick-pointed, 
ribbed like the laurel-thyuie, and of a bright green-colour. 
The fruit is about the same size, and when young resem- 
bles a cucumber ; but when ripe it becomes yellow like 
a large lemon, with ribs like the melon, and tubercles 
which enclose the seed or nuts, near thirty in number : 
they lie longitudinally in the fruit, and when fit for use 
are of the size of olives, and purple-coloured. The trees 
are supposed to bear at each crop from thirty to three 
hundred pods, each containing about thirty nuts, weigh- 
ing one pound, from which a calculation may be made 
how much will be the produce of each harvest. After a 
few days the nuts are extracted from the pods, and dried 
in the sliade; during which time they undergo a very 
strong perspiration, when they are put into bairels and fit 
for transportation, to be converted into that well-known 
and agreeable beverage called Chocolate. 

It is said the cacao-trees are natives of Guiana, and 
grow wild in large quantities near the river Amazon : be 
that as it may. Governor Chattllo?is son planted the first 
tree in Surinam in 1684, and the first crop was exported 
to Holland in 1733. A great advantage in cultivating 
cacao-trees is, that fewer slaves are required than in any 
other branch of the planting business. How consider- 
able are the profits will appear by the accounts of the 
year 1774, when 506,6 10 lbs. were exported to Amster- 
dam alone, which produced 202,614/. Dutch money, 
7 beins 

^///■/f/ ^'/ ////' imyz<^>;0/- ( //rffV'////^/- -^/rr 

Lo,„l,;,. riihl,\.-lu.l /•.,■■•<■'■'/,-,,/,/.,• .r..r,'h,u;m..f.'P.i„li a,„r.i, r„r,i. 


being equal to f^. 18,419 sterling. The prices have been chap. 
fluctuating from 4(/. to 9(1. per lb, the average being ^,^^^1,^^ 
about 6f d. The best estates, of which Alkmaar is one, 
produce yearly above 80,000 lbs. weight. 

In the plate annexed, A is the leaf above, Z> below *; 
C, the wood ; X), the flower ; _E, the young pulp ; jP, 
the same in perfection; and G, the seeds or nuts to make 
the chocolate. 

On the 27th Ave returned to town, where the day before 
a Society soldier was shot for mutiny ; and the day fol- 
lowing a ship was burnt in the roads. At this time the 
celebrated free negro Qwasi, who was the prophet, 
priest, and king of the rangers, &c. went to Holland on- 
a visit to the Prince of Orange, with letters of recommen- 
dation from Fourgeoud, whose praises he was to resound, 
as well as to complain of the Governor for not treating 
him with due respect. This being the period for the 
sessions, another negro's leg was cut off for sculking from 
a task to which he was unequal ; while two more were 
condemned to be hanged for running away altogether. 
The heroic behaviour of one of these men before the 
court deserves particularly to be noticed : — He begged 
only to be heard for a few moments ; which being 
granted, he proceeded thus : 

" I was born in Africa, where, defending my prince 

* Drs. Bancroft and Brooke say, the leaf is light above and dark below, 
which in my original drawing is quite the reverse. 

" durinjr 


" duiing an engagement, I was made a captive, and sold 
" for a slave on the coast of Guinea by mr/ own countiy- 
" men. — One of your countrymen, who is now to be one 
" of my judges, became my purchaser, in whose service 
" I was treated so cruelly by his overseer, that I deserted, 
" and Joined the rebels in the woods. — ^Here again I was 
" condemned to be a slave to Bonny, their chief, who 
" treated me with even more .severity than I had expe- 
" rienced from the Europeans, till I was once more forced 
" to elope, determined to shun mankind for ever, and in- 
" offensively to end my days by myself in the forest. Two 
" years had I persevered in this manner quite alone, un- 
" dergoing the greatest hardships and anxiety of mind, 
" preserving life only for the possibility of once more see- 
" ing my dear famil}^ who were perhaps starving on my 
" account, in my own country ; I say two miserable years 
" had just elapsed, when I was discovered by the rangers, 
" taken, and brought before this tribunal, who are now 
" acquainted with the history of my wretched life, and 
" from whom the only favour I have to ask is, that I 
" may be executed next Saturday, or as soon as it may 
" possibly be convenient." 

This speech was uttered with the utmost moderation, 
by one of the finest-looking negroes that was perhaps 
ever seen; to which his former master, who, as he ob- 
served, was now one of the judges, made the following 
laconic reply — " Rascal ! that is not what we want to 

" know; 


" know ; but the torture this moment shall make you c h a p. 

W I V 

" confess crimes as black as yourself, as well as those of v_^„-.-^ 

" your hateful accomplices." To which the negro, who 

now swelled in every vein with indignation and inefl^"able 

contempt : " Massera, the tigers have trembled for these 

" hands," holding them up ; " and dare you think to 

" threaten me Avith your wretched instrument .'' No, I 

" despise the utmost tortures you can now invent, as 

" much as I do the pitiful wretch who is going to inflict 

" them." Saying which, he threw himself down on the 

rack, where, amidst the most excruciating torments, he 

remained with a smile, without uttering a syllable ; nor 

did he ever speak again, until he ended his unhappy days 

at the gallows. 

What good man can " leflecl ihe tear-stain'd eye, 
" When blood attests even slaves for freedom die ? 
" On cruel gibbets, high disclos'd they rest, 
" And scarce one groan escapes one bloated breast. 
" Here sable Cxsars * feel the Christian rod, 
" There Afric Platos, torturd hope a God, 
" While jetty Brutus for his country sighs, 
" And sooty Cato with his freedom dies !" 

Having dined with Colonel Fourgeoud on the 8th of 
March, when we celebrated the Prince of Orange's birth- 

* The above names, with such as to negro slaves, in exchange for 
TSero, Pluto, Charon, Cerberus, Pro- Quacoo, Quacy, Quamtj, Quaminn, 
serpine, Medusa, &,c. are usually given Quasiba, Adjuba, &c. 

Vol. II. Ff - day, 



day, while Mr. Reynsdorp gave a treat to all the soldiers, 
he acquainted me that the rangers Avere now alone en- 
camped at the Wana Creek ; that the pestilential spot 
Devil's Harwar was at last entirely forsaken ; and that the 
two lately raised companies of sable volunteers had taken 
a few prisoners, and killed others on the JVanica path, be- 
hind Pai'amaribo. I was at this time a good deal better, 
but still, not being quite recovered, he Avho had formerly 
treated me so severely, now even insisted on my staying- 
some longer time at Paramai'ibo : nay, gave me an offer 
to return to Europe, which I absolutely refused ; in short, 
about the middle of the month, I was as well as ever I was 
in my life. At this time Colonel Fourgeoud and myself 
were daily visitors of the ladies, in whose company no 
man could behave better, while I could often not avoid 
disgust ; indeed so languid were many in their looks, and 
so unrestrained were some in their conversation, that a 

Mrs. N even asked me, sans ceremonie, to supply the 

place of her husband ; while she might as M'ell have asked 
me to drink, for a relish, a tumbler of salts. 

On the 17th, however, my eyes were better feasted, 
when, going to dine with Colonel Texier of the Society 
troops, I first took a walk in the orange grove and the 
Governor's gardens ; here, peeping through the foliage, 
I soon discovered two most elegant female figures after 
bathing, the one a fine young Samhoo, the other a bloom- 
ing 2uaderoon, which last was so very fair complexioned, 
1 that 


that she might have passed for a native of Greece, while chap, 
the roses tliat glowed in her cheek were equal to those ^.^iL,^ 
that blossomed in the shrubbery*. They were walking 
hand in hand, and conversing Avith smiles near a flowery 
bank that adorned the side of a crystal brook, in which 
they plunged the instant they heard me rustling amongst 
the verdure, like two mermaids: 

" Then to the flood they rush'd ; the parted flood 
" Its lovely guests with closing waves receiv'd, 
" And every beauty soft'ning, every grace 
" Flushing anew, a mellow lustre shed." 

Leaving them to enjoy their innocent amusement of bath- 
ing, I spent the remaining hour before dinner amongst 
the shady fruit-trees, blooming bowers, and serpentine 
gravel walks : where indeed I saw greater variety of Eu- 
ropean plants than I imagined were produced in a tro- 
pical climate, such as mint, fennel, sage, rosemary, gold- 
en-rod and jessamine, the sensitive plant, pomegranates, 
roses, figs, and even some grapes. — Of the pomegranate 
flowers, a specimen may be seen in plate, N° XXIX. The 
figs are both within and without of a beautiful crimson 
colour ; but the roses are rather pale. Here were some 
beautiful pine-apples and melons, which, though they are 

* It is to be remarked, that though often a freshness peculiarly engaging, 
EiH'opeans look pale under the torrid particularly mulattoes and quade- 
zone, the native inhabitants have roons. 

F f 2 so 


so general!}^ known, I will nevertheless give some account 
of. The impeiial fruit called Aiiana or pine-apple grows 
in the centre of an elegant sea-green plant, on a stalk of 
the same hue, about eight inches in length, its leaves di- 
verging near the surface of the earth, which are smooth, 
long, strong, pointed, and dcntulated with hard prickles. 
The shape of this fruit is nearly oval, the size of a sugar- 
loaf, all over chequered, and of a most beautiful orange 
or golden colour, being cr6wned with a sea-green tuft, of 
the same leaves as the mother plant, and which when put 
in the ground produces another pine-apple in the space of 
about eighteen months. The delicious taste and flavour 
of this fruit has in the space of half a century become so 
well known, that I have introduced it merely to notice its 
plenty in the country I Avrite of; for so spontaneously 
indeed do the foimer grow in this climate, and of such 
different kinds, without any cultivation, that on many 
estates they serve as a common food for hogs. 

The musk and wata' melons grow also plentifully in this 
country ; the first is of a ghjbular form, large, like the 
crown of a small hat, ribbed, buff colour, orange and 
green. The pulp is yellow, firm, sweet, and succulent; 
still it is eaten with sugar, but more fiequently with black 
pepper and salt — the smell of this fruit is excellent. 

The water-melon is of an oval or cylindrical shape, its 
colour is a bright polished green, and partly a very pale 
buff: the pulp of this fruit is a pink colour, and of a 



:^/u- .. //^^. ^/- -. //r^n, ' iLtr/ •.- //r/o// , j'i^/^.. ^94/^/^-; 

t..;i,l,l,.J;,/./,M,.l ni^:Vi-i,u.(n ./..l„/,n^;,n. f.'r.udj r/u.r.Ji Tanl. 


mellow watery substance ; its taste is sweet, exceedingly 
cooling, and of a most agreeable flavour. 

Both the above melons are of the cucumber kind, grow- 
ing on rough stalks, with large leaves, that creep along 
the ground. It is remarkable that the Avater-melon, which 
may be freely eaten in all distempers without the least 
pernicious consequence, thrives best in very dry and sandy 
places. — In the annexed plate may be seen the Anana 
or pine-apple, with the musk and water-melon, besides 
the seed from which this last is produced. 

I sent about this period, to a IVIr. Reygersman in 
Holland, a most elegant collection of Surinam butterflies, 
which are here caught in great abundance and variety, 
and by which alone some people make no small profit ; 
but the very idea of pinning them alive to a sheet of 
paper, was sufficient to prevent me from becoming a 
fly-catcher : 

" Lo ! the poor beetle that we tread upon 
" Feels a like pang, as when a giant falls." 

Now Captains Van Geurick and Fredericy, Avith Ser- 
jeant Fowler, were sent on an embassy to the Owca and 
Sarameca free negroes, if possible to procure their as- 
sistance against the rebels, which they always continued 
to promise (while Colonel Fourgeoud gave them presents) 
but never yet performed. A few of the other officers 
still stayed with us gallanting at Paramaribo, amongst 



whom were Major Medlar and Captain Hamell*, who 
had both been with General Desalve's resirnent, in the 
colony Berbict, and previous to that the first was in the 
Prussian service. It was no small change of aj>pearance 
for us, who had so little a time before appeared like wild 
men, now to strut through Paramaribo, dressed like so 
many Frenchm arquees. 

Being a particular favourite of Governor Nepveu, I 
one day was induced to ask him for a piece of unculti- 
vated forest ground ; when he readily gianted me 400 
acres : but when I inconsiderately asked it of him, I had 
not calculated how large a capital it required to clear 
away woods, purchase negroes, and provide other neces- 
saries for such an undertaking : and when a little reflec- 
tion convinced me how difficult it would be to find a 
partner of abilities to assist me, I declined accepting this 
mark of the Governor's regard. 

Having on the 26th once more saved a poor black girl 
from receiving some hundred lashes, by replacing a dozen 
of china, which she had broken by accident; while an- 
other was stabbed by a Frenchman, who immediately cut 
his own throat from remorse, and his companion, an 
overseer, hanged himself; and having visited the poor 

• The latter gentleman^ in the men ; and dethroned also the king 
year 1783, sailed from the Texel to of Salurigoo, whose land he captured 
ihe Molucca islands; where, as com- for the Dutch East-India Company, 
mander in chief, he killed the king of besides taking 127 pieces of cannon, 
Pongue, with his three sons, and 600 Stc. 



negro Avhose leg had lately been cut off hy law, I packed chap. 
my boxes to set out next morning on my sixth campaign ; t_^_ .^, 
and once more take the command of the River Comewina : 
at which moment arrived at my lodgings six loaded negro 
slaves Avith presents from my hospitable friends, of every 
kind that Guiana could produce, and the colony of Suri- 
nam could afford me. 



Singular Method of defecting a Th'eft — Rencounter between 
the Hangers and Rebels — Amazonian Action of a black 
Girl — Wondtrful Sagacity in wild Bees — The Regiment 
receives a second Order to return to Europe. 

N the 27tli of March, 1776, adieu once more Para- 
maribo, my Joanna, and my boy ! 

This morning, a httle before I sat out, I saw a Mr. 
dHalbergh terribly bitten by a large iguana or lizard, at 
the very moment he was pressing me and my com- 
panions to stay a few days, to be present at the cele- 
bration of what he called his Silver-feaji, being the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his marriage ; but after con- 
doling with him upon account of the accident, we em- 
barked in a tent-barge, and arrived that evening at the 
Sporksgift estate in Matapica. Here we were entertained 
two days by Captain Mac Neal, with the greatest hospi- 
tality. I was however nearly suffocated by the steam of 
some green coffee, w hich Avas spread on the floor of the 
lodge where I had slung my hammock. 

Late on the evening of the 29th, we arrived at the 
Gold-mine plantation, where Ave found a negro boy and 
girl, suspended by each others side from a high beam, by 

a rope 


a rope fastened to tlieir thumbs, which were tied behind 
their backs ; this ahiiost dislocated their shoulders, and 
must have occasioned the most agonizing tortures. Thus 
I cut the miserable victims down, without leave or cere- 
mony, and swore that instant to demolish the tja'annical 
overseer who had inflicted this new mode of punishment, 
unless he pronjised immediately to forgive them ; which 
he miraculously did in my presence. 

On the 30th, a little before we landed at the Hope, I 
discovered that all my sugar, Avith the greatest part of my 
rum, was gone; and detected the thief by the following 
laughable stratagem (though not my own invention) — I 
told the negroes, six in number, that a parrot's feather 
was to groAV within six minutes upon the tip of his nose 
who w-as most guilty ; at the same time pronouncing a few 
incoherent words, and making two or three circles with my 
sabre, I shut myself within the tilt : here, peeping through 
the key-hole, and observing the rowers with great atten- 
tion, without their perceiving me, I soon saw one of them, 
at every stroke of the oar, put up his hand, and feel the 
tip of his nose ; upon which I instantly ran up to him, 
and cried, " I see the parrot's feather! Thou art the thief, 
^' thou rascal I" To which the poor superstitious fellow 
instantly answered, " Yaw, me massera!" then, kneeling tq 
the sorcerer for mercy, and the others also entreating me 
to spare him, I pardoned the credulous thief and his ac- 
complices, who by their candid confession obtained a 
Vol. II. G g piece 


piece of salt beef for their dinner, and a gourd full of good 
grog in the bargain. 

Immediately on my arrival I took the command of the 
whole river, and now was once more the Prince of Come- 
wina. I also built an elevated "palace in imitation of Prince 
Bonny's, at Boosy-Cry, on twelve strong stakes; Avhich 
aerial habitation 1 found very necessary, the whole post 
being almost under water by the inundations, and by neg- 
lect become a perfect mire-pool, while of my former cot- 
tage not a vestige was to be seen. Here I found the ma- 
rines in perfect misery, being almost naked, and having 
sold their very shoes for a mouthful of fresh provisions. 
These grievances, however, by my labour and intercession 
with Colonel Fourgeoud, Avhose favourite I noAv became 
more and more, were speedily redressed, and the Hope, in 
a little time appeared like a paradise, when compared 
with its former state. 

Shooting was now as formerly my favourite diversion ; 
and on the 4th I brought home a kind of plover, a couple 
of red-hr easts, and near a dozen grass-sparrows. 

The plover of Guiana is the size of a pigeon, its co- 
lour a dark-brown and white, with transverse bars. The 
wet savannahs are full of them, and they are delicate 
eating. The red-breast is a kind of large bull-finch, with 
the upper part of its body a deep chesnut; and all the 
rest a blood colour : this is reckoned as good as an or- 
tolan, and abounds on all the plantations. The grafes- 
1 spanoA\^, 


>«parrow, which I think is by some called the anaca, is a 
beautiful little creature, like a paroquet; these birds are 
perfectly green, with a white bill and red eyes. They do 
much damage amongst the rice and Indian corn, flying in 
prodigious flocks upon the plantations. 

At the Hope the truchulus, or hamming birds, were so 
thick among the tamarind-trees, that they resembled a 
swarm of bees; a Lieutenant -Sa^i/Jens dail}^ fetching down 
several of them, by blowing small peas or Indian corn 
through a hollow reed. 

Of all the tropical birds, this little creature is particu- 
larly worth attention, not only on account of its beauty, 
but for its diminutive size, being smaller than the first 
joint of a man's finger; and when deprived of its feathers 
not larger than a blue-bottle fly. However, there are se- 
veral species, and some twice as large. These birds vary 
much in their colour: in the shade they appear generall}'' 
of a deep shining green ; which, by the reflection of the 
sun, produces a splendid purple brown and azure. The 
head is crested with a small tuft of feathers, green, black, 
and gold ; the tail and wings are a glossy black ; the bill 
is not much thicker than a pin, it is long, black, and 
crooked at the end ; the tongue is forked, and resembles 
a red silk tlu'ead ; with this they sip the nectar or honey 
from the flowers, during which time they are stationary, 
exactly like bees, and this juice seems to be the only nou- 
lishment of these httle creatures. TJiey often make their 
G g 2 nest 

nest on the leaf of a wild pine-apple, or dwarf aloe, which 
is constructed mostly of cotton, and not larger than the 
husk of a walnut ; their eggs are about the size of peas, 
and only t^\'o in number. Madam Merian says, that the 
humming-bird sits on four eggs; which, for my part, I 
never saw or heard of during my residence in Guiana. 

In the annexed plate I have endeavoured to represent 
them and their little habitation in natural size ; thovigh I 
found it impossible to make the drawing more perfect, 
their motion upon the wing being so very quick, that the 
feathers are hardly perceptible ; and this motion occasions 
that humming noise, from which this delicate little crea- 
ture derives its name. 

Here were also immense flocks of monkies : I have seen 
above two hundred of them in a field of sugar-canes, where 
they make great devastation. These wary animals place 
sentinels all round the field to give the alarm; and I my- 
self have been a witness with Avhat sagacity and fidelity 
they perform this duty, when the Avhole company hop 
into the forest, each with his plunder in his paw. 

Swimming was another of my favourite amusements, 
which contributed to make me more healthy, and stronger 
than most' of my companions; as it is beautifully ex- 
pressed by the author of the Seasons :— 

" This is the purest exercise of health, 
" Tlie kind I'efresher of the summer heats : 

" Hence 

^^A^'J^/^y^/t^n^y/l^^^/'i/, //'///' /^-^ ///.// 


London. I^Abb'xhoi DrrSi-^i-j^i . h\ X Johns, m.Sf Pauls t'hureh T<ir,l. 


" Hence the limbs 

" Knit into force, and the same Roman arm 
" That rose victorious o'er the conquer'd earth, 
" First learn d when tender to subdue the wave." 

On the 1 4tli I shot an alligator ; but returning from thi& 
excursion in a boat, a packet of letters from Colonel Four- 
geoud being reached me, unfortunately fell overboard into 
the water, and sank immediately ; some officers, however, 
the next day coming to the Hope, informed me of the 
principal contents, viz. that Colonel Fourgeoud, being de- 
termined once more to scour the woods, had ordered me 
to send up all my spare men and provisions, as also the 
Society troops who were now at Oranjebo, the former to 
Magdenberg, and the latter to the river Pirica; which I 
performed, retaining only twelve crippled soldiers at the 
Hope, and as many at Clarenbeke, without either surgeon 
or medicines ; nevertheless, with this small number, I made 
daily patrols by land and water — they also informed me 
of the death of Ensign Van Halm, and that another ship 
with sick was ordered shortly to set sail for Holland. 

Colonel Fourgeoud, though he himself remained still 
at Paramaribo, yet continued attentively to command. 
Thus, on the 23d, he ordered a detachment of one hun- 
dred men to reconnoitre from Magdenberg to the Wana 
Creek and JNIarawina river ; but they returned without 
any new discoveries. 

As I was now likely to be continued at the Hope for 



some time, I sent for my sheep and poultry, from the 
estate where I had left them, presenting Mr. Gourly with 
a. ram and a ewe, as being of a breed superior to any in 
the colony; and I found with joy tliat my flocks had con- 
siderably encreased in numbers. 

On the 26th one of my men brought me a snake, which 
he had just killed ; it was about four feet long, and not 
thicker than the barrel of a musket ; when perceiving a 
knob near its middle, larger than my fist, I had the curiosity 
to cut it open, and an enormous frog made its appearance, 
perfectly alive and entire, a small spot on the back of its 
head and neck excepted, which was blue and slimy, as if 
beginning to putrefy. For the sake of experiment, I fas- 
tened him with a string to his foot, upon a grass-plat near 
the river for three days ; when finding the poor animal 
hearty and well, I gave him his liberty, with a caution to 
keep a better look-out for the future. 

On the 28th I paid a visit to Thomas Palmer, Esq. late 
King's counsellor at Massachusett's Bay, upon his estate 
called Fabjiekl. Here both the master and his slaves were 
perfectly happy and contented, chiefly owing to Mr. 
Palmer's just and equitable administration to all around 
him; and such were the consequences of his wise govern- 
ment, that few plantations in the West Indies could boast 
/3f greater prosperit}^ either in point of produce or popula- 
tion ; while the courtesy and hospitality of the gentleman- 
like proprietor to strangers, completed his happy character, 
which shone conspicuously throughout the colony. 



Upon my return to the Hope I received a letter from chap, 


the Commander in chief, informing me that Mr. Vinsack v.,^-^— ^ 
with his rangers had killed several rebels and taken eleven 
prisoners ; but that another party of the rangers had been 
surprised by the enemy, and several of them shot dead 
while asleep in their hammocks. 

During these skirmishes, an instance of presence of 
mind was exhibited by a rebel negro, I think but seldom 
equalled : — A ranger having levelled his piece was just 
going to fire at him, when the man called out, holding 
up his hand, " What, Sir^ do you mean to kill one of 
" your own party ?" Which the ranger believing him to 
be, replied, '* God forbid !" and dropping the muzzle of 
his piece, instantly received a ball through the body from 
his adversary, which killed him ; and who, having thus 
saved himself, disappeared like a flash of lightning. One 
of the captive negroes related, that the evening before 
they were taken, a rebel, who had formerly deserted from 
Eauconberg, was cut to pieces with sabres, by Bonny 's 
command, as two others had been before we took Gado- 

On the 6th of May it blew a violent hurricane, accom- 
panied with thunder and lightning, so that many trees 
were torn up by the roots, and most of the houses on the 
Hope blown down or unroofed ; my aerial palace, how- 
ever, by good fortune, withstood this gale ; and upon 
the 8th, Joanna, v/ith her boy, arriving at this place, I 



promised myself a scene of happiness equal to that I 
experienced ia 1 77i i especially as my family, my sheep, 
and my poultry, were now doubled ; besides, I had at 
this time a beautiful garden, and if I could not with pro- 
priety be called a planter, I might at least claim, with 
some degree of justice, the name of a little farmer. 

On the 9 th we all dined with Mr. de Graqff', at his beau- 
tiful plantation Knoppemomho, in Cassawina Creek, where 
this worthy man had foretold, before the birth of my 
boy, that both he and his mother should one day be 
happy and free. Here I saw the following roots and 
plants, which I have not 3^et observed. — The tayers, which 
are the hearts of a farinaceous green shrub, not above 
two or three feet high, with remarkable large leaves, in 
the form of a heart, the trunk something resembling that 
of a banana-tree. This plant being cut down, and with 
a knife divested of its outer tegument, has the appear- 
ance and consistency of a yam or potatoe, but is better 
eating, having a much finer grain. The tayers are of 
different kinds ; the smallest is preferred, and made use 
of in the same manner as the above roots. I have here 
also found a kind of real potatoe, and in large quantities, 
but they are only used by the negroes, being inferior to 
the hog-potatoes in Great Britain. 

The tobacco plant grows here with large downy leaves, 
full of fibres ; it flowers almost continually, and will last 
for twelve or fourteen years, but is so inferior to the 



Virginia tobacco, that it is only used by the slaves. This 
plant derived its name from the island Tobago, where it 
was first discovered, in l56o. 

They have here also a kind of wild tea, which is 
accounted very wholesome, but in my opinion is no better 
than English gi'ound-ivy. I found plenty of tomate, which 
being produced in many British gardens, I will not attempt 
to describe ; but only observe that the Jews are particu- 
larly fond of it, and stew it witli butchers meat instead 
of onions. 

The physic-niit tree is likewise to be met with here ; this 
is a knotty shrub, that gi'ows about ten or twelve feet in 
height, and very slender ; the nut that it produces has a 
kernel like an almond, and tastes as well, provided it be 
deprived of a thin white skin that adheres to it, otherwise 
a violent vomiting and purging is the immediate conse- 
quence of swallowing it. They also shewed me several 
kinds of peas and beans, and other fruits groAving in pods ; 
such as the cassia, a shining hard yellow seed inclosed in 
a woody shell near sixteen inches long, and very small, 
with a black soft pulp as sweet as honey ; this is consi- 
dered as a very safe laxative : the cassia grows on a tree 
very common in Guiana, and which is called soete hoonties 
and cotiaan. Another kind of pod, named seve-yaars 
hoontie, is so called, because it is said to be in blossom 
seven years before it produces. The shrub called snakee 
weerce-weeree also grows here ; they told me it was a so- 

VoL. II. H h vereign 


CHAP, vereign remedy for fevers, and I take it to be the same 
yJ^^^J^^ as the serpeiitaria Virginiana, or Virginian snake-root. 
Lastly, I saw a vegetable or floAver here called seven-boom, 
which is too frequently used by the young negro girls to 
promote abortion, as are also the green pine-apples, which 
are said to have the same effect. 

Thus having spent not only an agreeable but an in- 
structive day at Knoppemombo, we took leave of our very 
good friend in the evening, and rowed contentedly back 
to the Hope, our boat being nearly loaded with presents 
of every kind, amongst which were some fine cocoa-nuts, 
that one of his slaves, after walking, I may say more pro- 
perly than climbing*, up the tree, had brought down in 
my presence, and after a fierce engagement with a black 
serpent upon the very top of it, which by the help of his 
knife he vanquished, and to our admiration dropped it 
down dead at our feet. 

The slaves of the Hope and Fauconberg also testified 
their respect for Joanna and her boy, by bringing in pre- 
sents of fowls, fruit, eggs, venison, and fish ; and Mr. 
Palmer handsomely presented us with a large quantity 
of Indian corn to feed our poultry. Thus every thing 
seemed to contribute to our felicity, which was however 
considerably allayed by the disagreeable ncAvs we received 
on the 18th, informing me of the death of my dear friend, 

* See Vol. II. p. 6g, plate L. 



Mr. Walter Kennedy, shortly after his arrival in Holland* : 
it was now also confirmed that the Dutch had refused the 
Scots Brigade to his Britannic Majesty; Avhich greatly 
surprised me, as I considered it as a claim not only from 
affinity, but also by treaty. 

To amuse my mind from these unpleasing subjects, I 
now paid a short visit to my French acquaintance. Mon- 
sieur Cachelieu, at his plantation Egmond. Here, amongst 
other company, I met with an Italian, a planter, called 
D'O — s, who had but one arm ; with which, however, he 
took up a knife at table, and without the smallest provo- 
cation, as I sat next him, made a back thrust at me, to 
the astonishment of all who were present. Having fortu- 
nately parried the blow by beating up his elbow, which 
occasioned the point of his knife to pass over my shoulder, 
I started up, and was going to put him instantly to death; 
but this being prevented, I offered to fight him with one 
hand tied behind me, and with any instrument he chose, 
fist, bludgeon, sword, pistol, or even knife ; this the cow- 
ardly assassin having refused, was kicked out of company, 
and sent home to his plantation called Hazard. 

So violent was this unhap|)y man's disposition, that some 
little time before, he ordered a poor negro woman, who 

* This gentleman a little before lution (which he had felt approach) 

his departure shewed me a letter trom was signed, " Yotir's to eternity, 

the unhappy youth Campbe/l, which, " R. C.;" and to his father he had 

after thanking him for every civility, wrote the same, 
and acquainting him with his disso- 

H h 2 was 


was advanced eight months in her pi-egnanc}^ to be- 
flogged until her intestines appeared, and that only for 
breaking a tumbler. One of his male slaves trying ta 
evade his severity, Avas shot dead on the spot ; and there 
was not a slave belonging to his estate but was cut by the 
lash of his whip from the neck to the heel. 

Colonel Fourgeoud now sending a proper supply of 

men, with a surgeon and medicines, the Hope wore a 

more pleasing aspect, and health and content began to be 

visible in every countenance. Amongst other things, I 

encouraged the men to catch fish, which were here in 

abundance, and the negroes taught them how to make 

the proper snares, such as the spring-hook, and mansoa or 

spring- basket. I have given a representation of both these 

in the plate annexed, where the spring-hook is expressed 

by the letter A, being a long elastic pole, like a strong 

fishing-rod, stuck in the ground under water, at the other 

end of which is fixed a double line, the shoi'tcst having 

fastened to it a small stick, ten inches long, and the other 

the same, but a little lower ; while at the extremity of this 

line is hooked a small fish by the fins, in such a manner 

as to swim to and fro, and be a bait for the larger species. 

Two long sticks being next placed in the ground so as 

to appear above water, a third stick much shorter, forms 

them like a gallows. ; above this gallows is bent and fixed the 

elastic pole, by means of the double line and its beams ; 

but in so very slight a manner, that upon the least touch 


' Ma/2 7irr a/^ fY////////y 'y/.j// /'y Mr ■ ////////-/- //or*/ . 

'^^Ma// ///'/■ o/ rYf/r/////f/ (ly'ij/i' /a/ //w t^y^yr/////-{^yr7j//'/'. 

l.,i,.l..„.r:,t'IM„l lh,'., .l.^'olmj,<H..r.'l'„„l> I/,.., ; ■, 


the whole apparatus gives way, and the large pole erects 
itself", when the fish that occasioned the spring, by taking 
the bait, is suspended to the hook in the air, as exhibited 
by the figure B. 

The mansoa or spring-basket is much upon the same 
construction, and may be seen by referring to letter C, 
where it is represented open and under water, with the 
bait swimming in it. This basket is made of warimbo 
reeds, in the form of a sugar-loaf (the above apparatus 
being fixed to the middle) in the small end of which the 
elastic pole is fastened, while at the other end is an open 
trap-door, the whole being supported in an erect position 
by a forked stick. No sooner has a large fish entered 
and taken the bait, than this j)ole, as in the former, erects 
itself with a spring, and the snap or trap-door shuts on 
the invader, and he is taken, as may be seen by letter Z>. 
This differs from the former, no hook of any kind being 
necessary. An idea of the ingenuity of the negroes may 
be formed from these constructions, as this mode of 
catching their fish requires no attendance, for the snaps 
being set at night, the fish is found in the morning, Avhich 
is generally the newmara or barracota already described. 

Among the variety of fish caught here was the sitiba, a 
small oval fish, marked not unlike a pine-apple ; the sokatf, 
which is a large fish, and very good eating ; the torro-torro, 
and another called tarpoen ; the first three feet in length ; 
the other, which is white, about two feet six inches., 



On the 26th, I saw a most surprising display of activity, 
strength, and courage, by a young female negro, called 
Clardina, at the Hope ; where a wild stag having strayed 
from the flock, at the moment it came bounding over the 
footpath she seized it in full speed by the hinder leg, but 
not being able to stop it, she suffered herself to be drag- 
ged to a considerable distance, nor until she was terribly 
wounded Avould she let go her hold. 

The Hope was now truly a charming habitation, being 
perfectly dry even in spring-tides, and washed by pleasing 
canals that let in the fresh-water every tide ; while the 
hedges surrounding the fields and gardens were neatly 
cut, and produced fruit and vegetables of many species 
for our use. The houses and bridges were also all re- 
paired, while the strictest adherence to cleanliness was 
recommended and enforced among the men : by these 
means not one sick person out of fifty was now to be found, 
Avhere sloth, stench, and disease, had so lately spread their 
destructive influence, and to which the land and sea- 
scurvy had given the most fatal assistance. Of the above 
scorbutic complaints, the former covers the body over with 
blotches, and the latter chiefly affects the teeth and gums. 
I now enjoyed the greatest flow of health and spirits, 
while most of my old ship-mates were either dead or re- 
turned to Europe ; not a single officer at this time being 
in rank above me, except only such as had been formerly 
inured to the West India climate. 

3 But 


But to return to my garden — this at present exhibited 
carrots, cabbages, onions, cucumbers, lettuces, radishes, 
pepper, cresses. Sec. all thriving as well as in Europe; 
besides sorrel of two kinds, the connnon and the red, this 
last grows upon a shrub, and is excellent for making jam 
or marmalade. The jessamine also was found here of 
different species, that growing on a small tree being most 
admired : it is of a pale but beautiful red colour, and a 
most agreeable smell ; the leaves are thick, shining, and 
filled with a milky juice. A species of sensitive shrub thej 
call shame-shame, grew also here, as did the sleeping plant, 
so called from its leaves, which are set in pairs, clapping 
close together from sun-set to sun-rise, and appearing as 
if the two were but one ; but as soon as the sun is up, 
they again open, and resume their double form. The 
above-mentioned shrubs were all dispersed through my 
hedges, besides pomegranates and Indian roses, which 
blow every day ; while a few elegant red-lilies, which also 
grow wild in the savannas, adorned the banks of my 
canals, the leaves of which flower have a very bright 
and beautiful green polish. 

Thus situated, we were visited amongst others by a 
Madame de Z — e, in company with her brother, and a 
Mr. Schadts, who were lately arrived from Holland ; this 
lady Avas supposed the finest woman that even Europe 
produced, as well as the most accomplished. She spoke 
several languages, and was a perfect mistress of music and 

painting ; 


painting ; she danced elegantly, and rode vastly well on 
horseback ; she even excelled in shooting and fencing, &c. 
Jn order to make her perfect mistress of all the fashion- 
able exercises, I offered her my assistance in teaching her 
to SA\am, which, however, witli a smile, she thought proper 
to refuse. 

My soldiers, and even negroes, seemed now completely 
happy, amongst whom the most perfect harmony sub- 
sisted; while I frequently indulged them with a merry 
evening, and a grey-beard of rum. 

One night, in the midst of this festivity, I secretly or- 
dered the sentinel to fire his piece, and cause a false 
alarm, as if the enemy were on the estate ; when I had 
the satisfaction to see them seize their arms, and rush out 
with the utmost order and intrepidity. This experiment 
I M'as the rather inclined to put in practice, as it was re- 
ported that the rebels intended soon to pay a visit to the 
river Comewina. But we soon experienced that no scene 
of perfect felicity can be lasting, for the dry season now 
suddenly setting in, disease and mortality once more 
began to rage among us, ten or twelve men dying daily at 
the Java Creek and Magdenburg, Avhile those under my 
command at the Hope diminished hourly. 

On the 3d, the surgeon made me the following report, 
" That my Ensign, Mr. Decabanes, had his anchor a-peak, 
" and would certainly set sail for the other world with the 
" ebb-tide ;" which was really the case, for he died that 



very evening. This grieved me the more, as he had ob- 
tained his commission through my interest, and bore an 
excellent character. 

On the 4th of June, the spring-flood broke down my 
dams while we were drinking the King's health, and laid 
the whole post under water, which created vast confu- 
sion ; and in this distress the overseer Blcnderman refused 
to lend me any assistance, which occasioned so violent a 
quarrel, that he was glad to take to his heels, and make 
his escape from the plantation. I shall never have done 
mentioning the insolence of these savage brutes, who 
mostly are the refuse of the earth, brought up in Ger- 
many, or elsewhere, under the cane of a corporal. " Well," 
said one of these miscreants ironically to an old free 
negro, " don't you believe that the monkies are a lace of 
" damn'd Christians, who have been thus transformed for 
" shewing so much lenity to such as you T' — " No, sir," 
replied the black man, " we do not think that the mon- 
" kies are damned Christians ; but I, and all of us, believe 
" that many who call themselves Christians are a pack of 
" damn'd monkies." — Which pointed repartee afforded me 
infinite satisfaction. 

Of the administrators I shall say nothing, nor of the 
appraisers of estates ; having, I believe, already mentioned 
that the first got ten per cent, of all the produce, and many 
of the latter enrich the purchasers and themselves by sell- 

Vol. II. I i ing; 



c H .A p. ing under the value such property as is entrusted to their 
, care. 

On the 7th, Mr. Moi-i/n, administrator of the Hope, 
being in a piece of newly-cultivated ground on the oppo- 
site sliore, I rowed over to obtain satisfaction of the im- 
pertinent Elenderman, who Avas along Avith him ; but this 
fellow's cowardice being equal to his insolence and barba- 
rity, he made every concession, and promised likewise to 
repair my dams, rather than run the risque of broken 
bones — thus a reconciliation was established. 

Walking through these new fields, where a neat house 
was already built, I saw some beautiful birds, amongst 
Avhich Avas the wood-pecker. I ought indeed to have de- 
scribed this, bird before, and another, the name unknown 
to me, liaving had an opportunity of doing it when I was 
at Magdenburg, but I then took only drawings of them. 
The Avood-pecker is about the size of a thrush, and of an 
elegant cinnamon-colour, speckled A\ath dark brown and 
yellow ; near the rump it is entirely yellow ; the Iiead is 
crested Avith a fine croAvn of small feathers, of the same 
colour as the body ; the tail is long and black ; the bill 
is straight, and of a sea-green colour, as are the legs and 
iris of the eyes, under Avhich on each side are tAvo spots 
of beautiful crimson. 

The anonymous bird, which, however, the negroes 
called woodo-louso-fowla, from its feeding on Avood-lice, is 


,.y/u '//<//c'U' "//'rn^y/ny •// ■/■ ,\ f/f '/>//■ /r//. u A'//'/. 

LoruLm ,J%tUf!u/L HetTi^ijfft by J.Jufm^'in. Sf hmU i'Anrcii Titrd. 



larger than the former, and uncommonly brilliant in its c h a p. 


plnmage ; the head and upper part of its body being of v„,^-J,-^ 

a rich grass green ; the breast and belly crimson, divided 

by an ash-coloured bar. The tail is long, and of a dark 

blue, as are the prime feathers in the "svings, which are 

also divided from the green by another ash-coloured bar ; 

the bill is yellow and hooked, being surrounded by a 

number of small black feathers, as are the eyes, the iris 

of which is of a blood colour. (Both these birds may be 

seen in the annexed plate.) — As I have already' observed, 

however rich and beautiful the plumage may be wliich 

decorates the groves of Surinam, the melodious song there 

is but seldom heard. They had also here the tame galinos, 

or Guinea-hens, called tokay, vvhich being so well known 

m England, re(iuire no particular description. 

Among the plants uhich I saw here was the American 
aloe, above half a foot in thickness, and twenty feet high ; 
it is an ever-green, pithy within and without, covered 
with sharp-pointed follicles, growing less as they approach 
the summit. This tree has numerous thick leaves diverg- 
ing at its base, like the pine-apple [)lant, which are very 
long, broad pointed, and dentulated with strong prickles. 
On the top grows a cluster of yellow flowers, whose pedi- 
cles contain the seed of future aloes, and which never fail 
to come to perfection in the space of tAvo months. 

In the skirts of the surrounding Avoods I saw also the 
vanillas, or hanilla, which is a shrub that climbs up along 

I i 2 the 


the trunks of other trees, adhering to the bark Uke nebees 
or ivy, by the help of its tendrils : the leaves are prodi- 
giously thick, and dark green, the fruit consisting of a tri- 
angular pod six or eight inches long, and filled with small 
polished seeds. These pods, being dried a fortnight in 
the sun, become brown, and have a fat rich aromatic 
taste, and most agreeable flavour ; on which account they 
are used to scent the chocolate. There are different kinds 
of vanilla, but that is most esteemed which has its pods 
the most long and most slender. The negroes shewed me 
here also a small sweetish seed, which they called bon~ 

As I returned to the Hope, I met Cojo, Joanna's unclcy 
who had shot one of the howling baboons, which he 
brought to tlie Hope to shew it me. These animals 
are the size of a small bull-dog, and the colour a reddish 
brown, with long hair ; they have also a beard, and are 
upon the whole extremely ugly ; but what chiefly dis- 
tinguishes them from other monkies is their abominable 
howl, which they perform in chorus whole groups toge- 
ther, and so loud, that it may be heard above a mile ; 
these discordant concerts the negroes told mc, they gene- 
rally repeat, both night and day, at the time of high 
water, which it is supposed the baboons know by in- 
stinct. — When speaking of instinct in animals, I cannot 
omit relating the following singular fact ; after Avhicli I 
shall return to the historical part of my narrative. 



On the 1 6th I was visited by a neighbouring gentle- 
man, whom I conducted up my ladder; but he had no 
sooner entered my aerial dwelling, than he leaped down 
from the top to the ground, roaring like a madman with 
agony and pain, after which he instantly plunged his 
head into the river; but looking up, I soon discovered 
the cause of his distress to be an enormous nest of wild 
bees or wassee-wassee, in the thatch, directly above my 
head, as I stood within my door; when I immediately 
took to my heels as he had done, and ordered them to be 
demolished by my slaves without delay. A tar mop was 
now brought, and the devastation just going to commence, 
when an old negro stepped up, and offered to receive 
any punishment I should decree if ever one of these bees 
should sting me in person. " JVIassera," said he, " they 
" would have stung you long ere now had you been a 
" stranger to them ; but they being your tenants, that is, 
"gradually allowed to build upon your premises, they 
" assuredly know both you and your's, and will never hurt 
" either you or them." I instantly assented to the propo- 
sition, and tying the old black man to a tree, ordered my 
boy Quaco to ascend the ladder quite naked, which he 
did, and was 7iot stung ; I then ventured to follow, and I 
declare upon my honour, that even after shaking the nest, 
which made its inhabitants buz about my ears, not a 
single bee attempted to sting me. I next released the old 
negro, and rewarded him with a gallon of rum and five 



shillings for the discovery. Tliis swarm of bees I since 
kept unhurt, as my body-guards, and tliey have made 
many overseers take a desperate leap for my amusement, 
as I generally sent them up my ladder upon some frivo- 
lous message, when I wished to punish them for injustice 
and cruelty, which was not seldom. 

The above negro assured me, that on his master's estate 
was an ancient tree, in which had been lodged ever since 
he covdd remember, a society of birds, and another of 
bees, Avho lived in the greatest harmony together; but 
'should any strange birds come to disturb or feed u])on the 
bees, they were instantly repulsed by their feathered allies, 
and if strange bees dared to venture near the birds nests, 
the native swarm attacked the invaders, and stung them to 
death: that his master and family had so much respect for 
the above association, that the tree was considered as sa- 
cred, and was not to be touched by an axe until it should 
yield to all-destroying time. 

On the 22d, a patrol arrived from Rictwj'k, in Pirica, 
w'lio informed me, that a party of our troops Avere just 
returned to Java Ci'cek from a cruize to Vredenburg, at 
the Marawina; and that, in conjunction with the rangers, 
they had during this campaign destroyed many Selds of 
provisions belonging to the rebels : also, that for their 
faithlVil services, our sable allies had been comphmented 
by the Society with new arms, and, for the fnst time, 
clothed in green uniform jackets. I turther learned that 
1 1 the 


the amhassadors to the Owca and Scrameca negroes were chap, 
returned after a fruitless journey, as neither of these asso- ^_^„.l^-^ 
ciations would lend the smallest aesistance. In conse- 
quence of this refusal, Colonel Fouigeoud, being Avcaricd 
himself, and having exhausted his troops in destroying 
most of the rebel settlements, at length dt'termined to re- 
linquish the whole expedition ; which resolution he previ- 
ously communicated to his Serene Highness the Prince of 
Oranoe at the Hague. 

On the 'J3d I received positive orders to prepare and be 
ready on the 16th of July, to break up, with all the troops 
under my command, leave the river Comewina, and row 
do^v'n to Paramaribo, where the transport ships were put 
in commission to convey us back to Holland. This order 
I instantly read before the front to all my men, who re- 
ceived it with unbounded joy and three cheers — but I 
alone sighed bitterly. — Oh my Joanna ! Oh my boy ! 
who were at this time both dangerously ill, the one with 
a fever, the other with convulsions, so that neither were 
expected to survive. Add to this, that I ran a nail quite 
through my foot — thus was completely miserable. 

During this scene of sickness and distress, the strir or 
night-owl of Guiana regularly paid us his nocturnal visits, 
even in the apartment where we la)^ pouring out his me- 
lancholy hootings, until he was killed by one of my black 
attendants. This bird is here called Ooroocoocoo, fi-om its 
note, to which this word has some affinity. It is about 



the size of a pigeon ; the bill is yellow, and hooked like 
that of a sparrow-hawk ; the eyes are also yellow ; the 
tongue is cloven ; the ears very visible ; the legs strong, 
short, and armed with sharp claAvs ; the general colour of 
this bird is a pale biown, except the breast and belly, 
which are white, intermixed with some spots of amber. 
The superstitious negroes generally believe that where the 
night-owl makes his appearance mortality must ensue: 
which prejudice is the more excusable, as this creature 
only frequents the apartments of the sick ; but the real 
cause which attracts the animal, I apprehend to be the 
lights that upon these occasions are generally kept burn- 
ing all night, or possibly the morbid and putrid air, which 
excites its appetite for prey. 

An old Indian woman of Joanna's acquaintance being 
noAV sent for to the Hope, I m3^self was soon cured by her 
skill and attention ; but my little family continued so very 
unwell, that I thought it right to send them to Parama- 
ribo before it was too late. And on the 1 Oth of July I 
sent all my sheep and poultry to Fauconberg, one couple 
of fat CAves excepted, which I killed, and with which, by 
the addition offish and venison, I entertained for two days 
following twenty-four of the most respectable inhabitants 
in the river, while the white bread, fruit, and Spanish 
wines to help out the feast, I received as a present from 
my very worthy friend, Mr. James Gourland, at Berg- 



On the 1 3th I ordered down the troops from Claren- chap. 
heek, where an hospital had been a second time erected, v..^^-^ 
and they this evening anchored ofT the Hope. 

On the l4th, an officer of the Honourable Society 
troops airived to relieve me in the command of the river ; 
and his men from that moment began to perform the 

I now removed my flag from the Hope to the barges ; 
and in the evening took my last farewel of Joanna's re- 
lations on the Fauconberg estate; who, crowding round 
me, expressed their sorrow aloud for my departure, and 
with tears invoked the protection of Heaven for my safe 
and prosperous voyage. 

On the 1 5th we finally left the Hope, having marched 
my troops on board the barges at ten o'clock, A.M.; and 
at noon I fired my pistol as a signal to weigh anchor, when 
we immediately proceeded down the river Comewina for 
the roads of Paramaribo, to be embarked on board the 
transport ships for Europe. 

Vol. II. K k 



The Troops on Board — Again ordered to disembark — Great 
Dejection — Mutiny — Insolent Conduct of an Owca Negro 
Captain — Near two hundred Sick sent to Holland — Gene- 
ral Description of the African Negroes. 

N the evening of the I5th of July we anchored oft' 
the estate Berkshoven, where I spent the night 
ashore with my friend Gourley ; and in the morning we 
continued to row down the river, when I took my last 
farewel of Mr. Palmer, I passed the evening of the 1 7th 
with Captain Mac Neyl ; and, on the I8th, the whole 
fleet, consisting of my own barges, together Avith three 
from Magdenberg, and those from the river Cottica, ar- 
rived safe at anchor in the roads of Paramaribo, where 
three transports lay ready to receive us, on board of 
which vessels I immediately embarked all the troops that 
had come down under my command. 

This service being accomplished, I went ashore, and 
made my report to Colonel Fourgeoud ; after which I 
went to visit Joanna and her boy, whom, to my great joy, 
I found very much recovered. 

The following day I was again sent on board, to make 
the necessary arrangements for the voyage ; and on the 



£Oth I dined with Colonel Fourgeoud, where, to my c 11 a P; 
surprise, I found two species of fish, which I have never v^jl^^—J 
mentioned ; the one is called the haddock, being much 
like ours, but rather larger and whiter coloured : the other 
the separee, which a little resembles the skate. At the 
dessert was a fruit called in Surinam zurzacka, Avhich I 
believe by the English is called the sour-sop. It grows 
upon a tree of a moderate size, with a grey bark, and 
leaves like those of the orange-tree, but set in pairs ; the 
fruit is of a pyramidical form, heavier than the largest 
pear, and all covered over with inoifensive prickles : the 
skin is very thin, the pulp a soft pithy substance as white 
as milk, and of a sweet taste, mixed with a most agree- 
able acid, in which are seeds like the large kernels of an 
apple. Another species of small zurzacka grows in this 
country, something resembling hops, but is of no use 
whatever. We had also the fruit called sabatille, which 
grows on a large tree, the leaves like those of the laurel. 
This fruit is the size of a peach, very round, and of a 
brown colour, covered over with a soft dowm : when cut 
in two, the pulp is not unlike marmalade, in which are 
found the seeds ; it is such a luscious sweet, that to many 
palates it is even disagreeable. 

On the 21st we once more received our clearance, but 
in card money, by which we all lost very considerably ; 
however, I instantly went to Mrs. Godefroy, and again 
gave her all the money that was in my pocket, being no 

K k 2 )norc 


more than £. 40. This excellent woman now renewed 
her entreaties that I should carry my boy and his mother 
with me to Holland, but to no purpose ; Joanna was 
perfectly inmiovcable, even to a degree of heroism, and 
no persuasion could make the least impression upon her, 
until her redemption should be made complete by the 
payment of the very last farthing. In this situation we 
affected to bear our fate with perfect resignation, though 
what each of us felt in particular may much more easily 
be imagined than described. 

The regiment's colours were now carried on board on 
the 23d in great state, which put a final close to the ex- 
pedition, but without receiving any honours from Fort 
Zealandia, not a single gun being fired, nor even the flag 
hoisted on the occasion, to the great mortification of Co- 
lonel Fourgeoud, though in effect it was chiefly owing to 
his own neglect, as he had never given the Governor 
official notice of his intended departure. The baggage 
was also sent on board the ships ; and a gentleman of the 
name of Van Heyst entertained the marines at his private 
expence with three hundred bottles of wine, fruit, &c. 

I have often remarked the hospitality and generosity of 
these people, which I now also once more experienced, 
receiving various presents of fruits and preserves from 
my numerous friends, to refresh me at sea while on the 
voyage ; amongst the preserves were the female pappayas, 
the male bearing no fruit. Thb grows on a grey trunk, 



near twenty feet high, straight, and pithy within, the top 
being covered witli a crown, and only fourteen or sixteen 
diverging leaves, extremely large and digitated. Tlie 
fruit grows close to the trunk ; the flower or blossom has 
a most delicious fragrance. When ripe, it is the size and 
shape of a water-melon, and turns from green to yellow, 
but its pulp is more firm and solid : the inner pulp is soft 
and slimy, filled with innumerable seeds. This fruit at 
full maturity is cut in pieces and boiled, when it eats like 
English turnips ; but they use it principally for confec- 
tionary and sweetmeats, when young, and with its blos- 
soms being both extremely delicate and wholesome. I had 
also sent me some fine preserved giiige?- ; this is the root 
of a kind of reedy stalk, that never exceeds two feet in 
height, Avith long, narrow pointed leaves. These roots are 
tuberous, flattish, small, and clustered in many different 
shapes, not unlike pig-potatoes, and of nearly the same 
colour in the inside, but fibrous, acid, hot, and aromatic ; 
the smell is higlily fragrant : it is well known to be not 
only an agreeable preserve, but in many cases an excel- 
lent medicine. But to proceed. 

On the 24th of July, the sails being bent to the yards, 
we at last proceeded in corps to take leave of his Excel- 
lency the Governor of the colony, who, while he still re- 
ceived us with the greatest politeness, yet gave our hero 
to understand that were his colours 7iow to be sent on 
board, they should most certainly be saluted with those 



honours which indisputably were their due. After which 
he sent the whole corps of Society officers to the head- 
quarters in state, to wish us a prosperous voyage to Holland ; 
and in this contest of etiquette his Excellency most as- 
suredly led the van ; for hinting which, however, to some 
of Fourgeoud's favourites, I had nearly engaged myself 
once more in a serious quarrel. Our men, who had been 
on board since the 18th, being now joined by their officers, 
the poor remains of this fine regiment were thus finally 
embarked, and in the highest flow of spirits, expecting to 
set sail the following day for Europe ; while (one alone 
excepted) every countenance wore the appearance of 
happiness and joy ; and nothing indeed could equal the 
exultation of the few surviving troops, when the next 
morning the orders were issued for the ships to weigh 
anchor and put to sea. 

But it was by fate ordained that their eager hopes 
and expectations once more should be blasted : for on 
the very moment of departure, a. ship entered the river 
with dispatches, inclosing an order for the regiment 
immediately to re-enter the woods, and remain in the 
colony until relieved by fresh troops to be sent out from 
Holland for that purpose. The sincere thanks of 
his Serene Hiohness the Prince of Orange were now 
read to the men from the quarter-deck of each vessel, 
" for the manly and spirited conduct they had displayed 
" during so long a trial, and so many great and unpre- 
10 " cedented 


*.* cedented hardships ;" but as they conckided with orders chap. 
for the troojjs to disembark, and remain in this dreadful ^,,],__^ 
sei'vice, I never saw dejection, disappointment, and despair 
so strongly marked : -while at this moment I, who but just 
before had been completely miserable, was now in turn the 
only one who was not depressed with sorrow. 

In the midst of this gloomy scene, the men were or- 
dered to give three cheers, which the marines on board 
one of the vessels absolutely refused to comply Avith : 
Colonel Seyburg, and unluckily myself, Mere in conse- 
quence ordered to compel them ; which he undertook, 
with a cane in one hand, and a loaded pistol cocked in the 
other. KnoAving his temper to be fiery and irascible, 
Avhat did I not feel at this moment .'' I suddenly leapt 
into the boat that lay along-side, where, after haranguing 
those few that leaned over the gunwale, I promised the 
ships crew tAventy gallons of Holland's gin if they Avould 
only begin the melancholy chorus. Then mounting 
again the quarter-deck, I acquainted the Colonel that all 
were now ready and Avilling to obey his commands; Ave 
then re-entered the boat, and in shoving off had the satis- 
faction to receive three hearty cheers from the sailors, in 
Avhich joined a ievf marines, but Avith such languid looks 
and heavy hearts as cannot be described.. 

At this time however the Prince of Orange's goodness 
of heart appeared in a conspicuous light, as he ordered 
all private accounts due by the troojis to surgeons and 


physicians to be paid by the treasury ; which, however 
trifling it may appear, was no trifle to many of the offi- 
cers, &c. and evinced an attention in his Serene Highness 
which is not always to be found in princes, while all 
knew his sorrow for the hard lot of his soldiers, but v^diich 
could not yet be dispensed with, consistent with the ge- 
neral good. 

If our disembarkation distressed the troops, it afibrded 
joy to most of the colonists; as indeed a petition signed 
by the principal inhabitants, had l)een presented to Co- 
lonel Fourgeoud but tAVO days before, " praying that our 
" regiment might stay some time longer, and give the 
" finishing stroke to the rebels, as we had so gloriously 
" begun, and persevered in routing and harassing them ;" 
which indeed was certainly true, for our regiment in con- 
junction with the Society and rangers, had demolished 
most settlements the rebels possessed in the colony, and 
had driven them to so considerable a distance, that their 
depredations, and the desertion of slaves, Avere incompa- 
rably less than upon our arrival ; and this was assuredly 
much better than the Dutch making a shameful peace 
with them, as had been done with the rebels of the Owca 
and Sarameca settlements before, yet which would probably 
again have been the consequence had we not landed in 

As an instance of the insolence of savages, when per- 
fectly independent, I must relate a conversation which 



passed l^ctween one of this description and myself at Pa- 
ramaribo, Avhere the troops were allowed some time to 
refresh themselves before they again retook the field: — 
Dining one day at Captain IMac Neyl's, who was now 
come to town from his estate, a captain of the Ozoca ne- 
groes, our supposed allies, came in to demand money from 
his lady ; and being very importunate, I desired her in 
English to " give him a dram, and he would be gone;" 
which the fellow understanding, called me -without the 
door, and lifting up his silver-headed cane, asked me, " If 
" that house was my own? and, if not, what business I 
" had to interfere? I am," said he, in a thundering voice, 
" Captain Fortune Dago-So ; and, if I had you in my 
" country at Owca, I would make the very earth drink up 
" your blood." To which I replied, drawing my sword, 
" That my name was Stedman; and that if he dared to 
" utter one insolent expression more, my weapon should 
" find the shortest way through his bod3\" Upon which 
he snapped his fingers, and marched oft', leaving me much 
displeased, and blaming Fourgeoud for shewing so much 
indulgence to such a set of banditti. In the evening, as 
I returned from dinner, I met the same black fellow again, 
who, stepping short up to me, said, " Massera, you are a 
" man, a very brave fellow; won't j^ou now give some 
*' money to the Owca Captain?" This I sternW refused; 
he then kissed my hand, and shewed his teeth (he said) in 
token of reconciliation, promising to send me a present of 
Vol. II, LI pistachio- 


pistachio-nuts, which, however, never did arrive, nor in- 
deed should I have tasted. 

Though we continued in Surinam some time longer, 
our future services could add but very little to its prospe- 
rity, as our numbers were now so very few, and out of this 
number, small as it was, 7nne officers, and above one hun- 
dred and sixty privates, all sick and incurable, embarked 
again for Holland on the 1st of August. 1 was ill with an 
ao-ue at this time, and had the offer of making one of the 
party, but declined it, being determined to see the end of 
the expedition if I could ; I however availed myself of the 
opportunity to send some presents to my friends in Eu- 
rope: amongst these were a couple of beautiful parrots, 
two curious monkies, an elegant collection of fine butter- 
flies, three chests of sweetmeats, and some pickles, all 
shipped on board the ship Faramaribo, and under the care 
of Serjeant Fowler, Avho was, poor fellow, one of the inva- 
lids bound for Amsterdam. 

Major Medlar being quite emaciated Avith fatigue and 
hardships, now also sailed for Holland ; thus, during his 
absence acting as major, I began to entertain an expecta- 
tion that I should one day carry home the regiment myself, 
so very rapidly were our officers daily diminishing ; and yet 
atnongst those few who remained two had the courage at 
this time to venture upon matrimony, and married two 
Creole ladies, both widows. 

Every thing now being peaceable and quiet, I recovered 
S ray 


my strength so far as on the 1 0th to walk to Mrs. Godefroy, chap. 


when I acquainted her that I Avished much to emanci' v^,^-,--^ 
pate at least Johnny Stedman ; and requested her to be- 
come bail before the court, for the usual sum of ;^. 300, 
as he should never be any charge to the colony of Surinam. 
But this she peremptorily declined, though there was no 
risque, it being only a matter of form ; at which I could 
not help feeling some astonishment, till I was acquainted 
that she had actually refused the same favour to her own 

The mention of slavery reminds me of a debt which I 
seem to have incurred to my reader. I have from time to 
time given some account of the mode in which slaves are 
brought to this market, and of the manner in v.hich they 
are treated — But I feel that I have not been sufficiently 
full upon this subject; and lam the more disposed to 
bring forward all the information that I have gained con- 
cerning the negroes, because I flatter myself that I shall 
be able to bring some truths to light, that have hitherto 
been unobserved or miperfectly related, at least to the 
generality of Europeans. 

In the first place, as to the complexion of a negro ; this, 
as I have observed before, is I am persuaded entirely 
owing to the burning climate in which he lives, and an 
atmosphere still more heated by the sandy deserts, over 
which the trade winds pass before they reach the habit- 
able parts. The Indians of America, on the contrarj^ 
L 1 2 who 



c ir A p. who indeed live under the same degree of latitude, have 
this wind I'efreshed by the Atlantic Ocean, and are cop- 
per-coloured ; and the inhabitants of Abyssinia, who re- 
ceive it cooled by the Arabian and the Indian Seas, are 
entirely olive. Thus north of the great River Senegal the 
complexion changes from blapk to brown amongst the 
Moors, as it does toward the south amongst the Caftrarians 
and the Hottentots ; and I am of opinion, that the woolly 
texture of their hair is an effect proceeding from the 
same cause. The epidermis or cuticle of the negroes I 
have seen dissected more than once ; it is clear and trans- 
parent, but between this and the real skin lies a thin fol- 
licle, which is perfectly black, which being removed b}'' 
severe flagellation, or by scalding, exposes a complexion 
not inferior to that of an European. 

On the estate Vossenbergit, in Surinam, were born two 
white negroes, whose parents were both perfectly' black ; 
the one was a female, sent to Paris in 1734 ; the other a 
boy, born in March 1738. And in 1794, a similar woman, 
Emelia Lewsam, was exhibited in England, whose children 
(though she is married to an European) are all mulattoes. 
The skin of these people is not of the European white, 
but more resembles chalk ; their hair the same ; their eyes 
are often red *, and they see very little in the sun-shine, 

* This is well known to be the white, to have their eyes blood- 
cast with many other animals, as coloured. 
rabbhs, mice, Jic. that are perfectly 



neither are they fit for any kind of labour; while their 
mental faculties, I have been told, usually correspond 
with the debility of their bodies. 

With respect to the sliape of the African negroes, it is 
from head to foot certainly difll^erent from the European 
mould, though not, in my opinion, in any degree in- 
ferior, prejudice being laid aside. Their strong features, 
flat noses, thick lips, and high cheek bones, may appear 
deformities to us, and yet amongst themselves may be es- 
teemed the reverse ; their bright black eyes, and fine 
white teeth, we are forced to admire ; and one decided 
advantage in a black complexion is, that all those languid 
pale sickly-looking countenances, so common' in Europe, 
are never exhibited among them, nor are the wrinkles 
and ravages of age equally conspicuous ; though I must 
confess that when a negro is very ill, his black changes 
to a very disagreeable sallow olive. 

For exertion and activity, their shape is assuredly pre- 
ferable to ours, being generally strong and muscular near 
the trunk, and slender towards the extremities ; they have 
mostly a remarkable fine chest, but are small about the 
hips; their buttocks are more prominent, and their necks 
are thicker than ours ; the thighs are strong, as also the 
arms above the elbow, but the wrists and lower part of 
the legs are very slender; and a good deal indeed of the 
liercidean make of the late Broiighton the pugilist may 
be traced in the form of a vigorous negro. As to the 

crooked aess- 


crookedness of their limbs, it is to be accounted for by 
the manner in which they are carried whilst infants upon 
the mother's back, their tender legs being tied close round 
each side of her waist, which occasions that unnatural 
bent, with which they are not born : nor are their children 
ever taught to Avalk, but left to creep amongst the sand 
and grass, until they gradually acquire strength and incli- 
nation to erect themselves, which they do very soon; by 
this custom, however, the position of their feet is much 
neglected, yet by exercise, and daily bathing, they ac- 
quire that strength and agility, for which they are so 

Another custom which, in their opinion, conduces 
much to their health and vigour is, that, during the two 
years in Avhich the mothers suckle their children, they 
frequently make them swallow large quantities of water, 
after which they shake them twice a da}^, with much 
violence ; they are then taken by a leg or an arm, and 
tossed into the river, to be well scoured outwardly : nor 
are the females exempt from this mode of rearing youth, 
which renders them not inferior to the men, in size alone 
excepted, while some in running, swimming, climbing, 
and dancing, as well as wrestling, are even their supe- 
riors : thus, that it depends on education to form a race 
of Amazonian females, is a proposition of which 1 have 
very little doubt. 

Nor are these hardy daughters of the Torrid Zone 



less remarkable for propagation. 1 knew a female ser- 
vant at Mr. de Graaf's, called Lespetrmza, who actually 
bore nine children in the com'se of three years, the first 
3'ear four, the next two, and the third three. They bring 
their otfspring into the world without pain, and like the 
Indian women resuming their domestic employments 
even the same day. During the first week their infants 
are as fair as any Europeans, except that in the males 
there is a little appearance of black in a certain part, and 
the whole body becomes gradually of that colour. Their 
females arrive early at the age of puberty ; but, as in 
the fruits of this climate, this early maturity is succeeded 
by a sudden decay. Many of the negroes, however, live 
to a very considerable age : I have seen one or two that 
were above one hundred ; and the London Chronicle for 
October 5, 1 780, makes mention of a negro woman, 
called Louisa Truxo, at Tucomea, in South America, still 
living, at the surprising age of one hundred and seventy- 
five years. In what tables of longevity is there such an 
European to be found ? though most probably this vene- 
rable person spent her youth in hard labour, like other 
slaves ; which, though a negro can bear much better in a 
tropical climate than a native of Europe, 3'et cannot be 
natural, either on the coast of Guinea or Guiana, where, 
without toil, the necessaries of life are produced, and 
vegetation flourishes spontaneously for ever. 

In the constitution of the negroes I have still observed 




CHAP, this singular'tty, that while they bear the fatigue of 
labour in the hottest days, they can also bear the cold 
and damp better than an European, at least better than I 
could ; sleejiing all night on the Met grass, perfectly 
naked, without any injury to their health, while I have 
been glad, especially early in the morning, to have a fire 
lit under my hammock, and while the marines for want 
of it lay in a shiver. They also bear hunger and thirst, 
and pain or sickness, with the greatest patience and reso- 

I have formerly mentioned the names of more than 
a dozen of negro tribes : all these know each other by 
the different marks and incisions made on their bodies 
— for instance, the Coronumfijn negroes, who are most 
esteemed, cut three or four long gashes on each of their 
cheeks, as represented in the face of the armed free negro 
or ranger, in plate VII. 

The Lonngo negroes, who are reckoned the Avorst, dis- 
tinguish themselves by puncturing or marking the skin 
of their sides, arms, and thighs with square elevated 
figures, something like dice, (See plate LXVIII.) These 
also cut their fore-teeth to a sharp point, which gives 
them a frightful appearance, resembling in some degree 
those of a shark ; and all their males are circumcised, 
after the manner of the Jews. 

Among the strange productions of nature, a species of 



people known by tlio name of Accorecs deserves to be chap. 
particularly noticed. — The Accorecs, or Two-fingers, live ^J^!^^!— ^ 
amongst the Seramaca negroes, in the very upper parts of 
the river of that name. This heterogeneous tribe are so 
deformed in their hands and feet, that while some have 
three or four fingers and toes on each hand and foot, 
others have only two, which resemble the claws of a lob- 
ster, or rather limbs that have been cured after mutilation 
by fire, or some other accident. This deformity in one 
person would cause but small admiration ; but that a 
whole community should be afflicted with this singularity, 
is certainly a most wonderful phaenomenon. Having seen 
but two myself, and that at too great a distance to take a 
drawing of them, I cannot pretend to vouch for the truth 
of what I have only heard ; but an engraving of one of 
these figures was positively sent to the Society of Arts and 
Sciences at Haerlem ; while I beg leave to introduce, as 
a further voucher, the following extract from an old book 
of surgery and anatomy, procured me by the ingenious and 
learned Owen Cambridge, Esquire, of Twickenham. 

" After Michaelmas term, in the year 1 629, a body was 
" brought from the place of execution to the College of 
" Physicians, to be cut up for an anatomy ; and by 
" chance the officer of the college brought the body of a 
" cruel wretch, who had murdered the son of one Master 
" Scot, a surgeon of good note in this city. This wretch 
Vol. II. Mm " was 


CHAP. " was of a ver}-^ truculent countenance and aspect ; his 


v^^,,!.^,^^ " hair was black and curled, not very long, but thick and 
" bushy ; his forehead little above an inch high ; his 
" brows great and prominent ; his eyes set deep in their 
" sockets; his nose crooked, with a round knob or button 
" at the end, Avhich also somewhat turned upwards ; on 
" his upper lip he had some quantity of black hair, on 
" his chin very few, straggling, black, and stiff; and his 
" nether lip was as big as three lips. Such was his face : 
" but the greatest deformity was his feet, and that almost 
" to admiration ; for they were both cloven, but not 
" alike. One foot was equally divided between four and 
" five inches deep into two toes, jointed like other men's 
" toes, but as large each of them as half the foot could 
" make them, with nails proportionable. The left foot 
" was divided likewise in the middle, but the division 
" was not above three inches deep, or scarce so much ; 
" the one half which was towards the body, made one 
" large toe, with a nail proportionable, like the inward 
" half of the right foot; but the outward half was com- 
*' pounded of two toes, yet growing close and fast to- 
" gether. This monstrous shape of a man I have thought 
" good to give this relation of, from certain knowledge, 
" for there were a thousand witnesses of it present." 

With the languages of the African negroes I am but 

little acquainted ; as a specimen, however, I will insert a 

1 few 


few sentences of that called the Coromantyn, upon the chap. 
credit of my boy Quaco, who belonged to that nation, v,.,^,-^^^ 
together with a translation in English ; and only observe, 
that they break off their words very short, in a kind of 
guttural manner, which I cannot easily describe : — For in- 
stance — " Co fa ansyo, na haramon bra, Go to the river, 
" and bring me some water." — " Mee yerecy nacomeda mee, 
" My wife, I want some food/' So much for the Coro- 
mantyn language, as spoken by the negroes on the coast 
of Guinea. 

But as to that spoken by the black people in Surinam, 
I consider myself a perfect master, it being a compound 
of Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and English. The 
latter they like best, and consequently use the most. It 
has been already observed, that the English were the first 
Europeans who possessed this colony, hence probably the 
predilection for that language which they have still re- 
tained. In this mixed dialect, for which I have seen a 
printed grammar, the words end mostly with a vowel, like 
the Indian and Italian, and it is so sweet, so sonorous and 
soft, that the genteelest Europeans in Surinam speak little 
else ; it is also wonderfully expressive and sentimental, 
such as, " Good eating, sweefy-muffo." — " Gun-powder, 
" man sanny." — " I will love you, with all my heart, so 
" long as I live, Mee salohy you, langa alia mee hatty, so 
" la7iga me leeby." — " A pleasing tale, ananassy tory." — 

]M m 2 I am 


" I am very angry, me hatty hrun." — " Live long, so long 
" until your hair become white as cotton, Lehee langa, 
" tay, tay, ta-y you weeree weeree tan wity likee catoo." — ■ 
*' Small, peekeen."' — " Very small, peekeeneenee." — " Fare- 
" wel ! Good-bye ! I am dying, and going to my God, 
" Adioso, cerroboay, mee de go dede, me de go na mee Gado." 
— In this sample, many corrupt English words are per- 
ceptible, which however begin to grow out of use near the 
capital, but are still retained in the distant plantations ; 
for instance, at the estate Goet-Accoord, in Cottica, I have 
heard an old negro woman say, " We loheefo leehee toged- 
dere," by which she meant, we love to live together ; and 
at Paramaribo to express the same sentence, " JVee looko 
for tanna macandera." 

Their vocal music is like that of the birds, melodious, 
but withovft time, and in other respects not unlike that of 
a clerk performing to the congregation, one person con- 
stantly pronouncing a sentence extempore, which he next 
hums or whistles, and then all the others repeat the same 
in chorus; another sentence is then spoken, and the 
chorus is a second time renewed, &c. 

This kind of singing is much practised by the barge 
rowers or boat negroes on the water, especially during 
the night in a clear moonshine; it is to them peculiarly 
animating, and may, together Avith the sound of their 
oars, be heard at a considerable distance. 


As a specimen, I have tried to set the following words 
to music, supposing a ranger going to battle, and thus 
taking leave of his girl : 




Oan bus adiosi - o da so adiosso me de -go me iobij fo fightij me man q 

One buss good-hy o 'tis so good-by girl I must go I love lor to fight like a man o 





Amimba ?ne dego na boosy o da so 
Amimba I go to the woods o 'tis so 

adiusso me do go. 
good-by girl, I must go. 

Such is their vocal melody ; and of their instrumental 
music, and dancing, which is perfectly to time, I shall 
speak hereafter, having already given a short account of 
that which is practised by the Loango negroes. That 
these people are neither divested of a good ear, nor poe- 
tical genius, has been frequently proved, when they have 
had the advantages of a good education. Amongst others, 
Phillis Wheatley, who was a slave at Boston in New Eng- 
land, learned the Latin language, and wrote thirty-eight 
elegant pieces of poetry on different subjects, which were 
published in 1773. As a specimen, I cannot refrain 
here inserting the following extract from that entitled 
" Thoughts on Imagination." 

" Now here, now there, the roving fancy flies, 

" Till some lov'd object strikes her wand'ring eyes, 

" Whose silken fetters all the senses bind, 

" And soft captivity invades the mind. 

" Imagi- 



" Imagination ! who can sing thy force ? 

" Or where describe the swiftness of thy course ? 

" Soaring through air to find the bright abode, 

" Th' imperial palace of the thundering God. 

" We on thy pinions can surpass the wind, 

" And leave the rolling universe behind. 

" From star to star the mental optics rove, 

" Measure the skies, and range the realms above : 

" There in one view we grasp the mighty whole, 

" Or with new worlds amaze th' unbounded soul.'' 

What can be more beautiful and sublime? 

Ignatius Sancho, a negro, many years servant to the 
Duke of Montagu, whose sentimental letters, so generally 
known, would not disgrace the pen of an European, may 
also be mentioned on this occasion ; and with regard to 
their powers of memory and calculation, I shall only 
notice Thomas Fuller, a negro, the property of a Mrs. Cox 
in Maryland, North America; and quote one singular 
anecdote, as it is related by Dr. Rush of Philadelphia, in a 
letter to a gentleman at Manchester. 

" Being travelling," says the Doctor, " with some other 
" gentlemen of this city, through Maryland, and having 
" heard of the astonishing powers of memory in arith- 
" metical calculation possessed by Thomas Fuller, a negro, 
*' we sent for him ; when one of the gentlemen in com- 

" pany 


" pany asked him, how many seconds a man of seventy chap. 


" years, some odd months, weeks and days, had hved .'' s„^-y-^ 
" He told the exact number in a minute and a half. 
" When the gentleman who had asked the question took 
" his pen, and having calculated the same by figures, told 
" the negro he must be mistaken, as the number he had 
" mentioned was certainly too great. ' Top, Massera,' said 
" the negro, ' you have omitted the leap-years ;' when 
•' having calculated the seconds contained in the number 
" of leap-years, and added them, the number was found 
" exa<ftly the same as that calculated by the negro. This 
" same man multiplied nine figures by nine, by me- 
" mory, before another company." Another lately re- 
peated the Alcoran from recollection only. — What amaz- 
ing mental faculties in African negroes, who could neither 
read nor write ! Yet that such things are, is Avell authen- 

To Avhat I have already advanced, I may add, that all 
negroes firmly believe the being of a God, upon whose 
goodness they rely, and whose power they adore, while 
they have no fear of death, and never taste food without 
offering a libation. In the rivers Gambia and Senegal they 
are mostly Mahometans ; but generally the worship and 
religious ceremonies of the Africans vary, as do the num- 
berless superstitious practices of all savages, and indeed 
of too many Europeans. Perceiving that it was their 



custom to bring their offerings to the wild cotton-tree*, 
1 enquired of an old negro, Avhy the}' paid such particular 
reverence and veneration to this growing piece of timber. 
" This proceeds (said he) massera, from the following 
" cause : having no churches nor places built for public 
" worship (as you have) on the Coast of Guinea, and 
" this tree being the largest and most beautiful growing 
" there, our people, assembling imder its branches when 
" they are going to be instructed, are defended by it from 
" the heavy rains and scorching sun. Under this tree our 
" gadoman, or priest, delivers his lectures ; and for this 
" reason our common people have so much veneration 
" for it, that they will not cut it down upon any ac- 
" count whatever." 

No people can be more superstitious than the gene- 
rality of negroes ; and their Locomen, or pretended pro- 
phets, find their interest in encouraging this superstition, 
by selling them ohias or amulets, as I have already men- 
tioned, and as some hypocrites sell absolution in Europe, 
for a comfortable living. These people have also amongst 
them a kind of Sibyls, who deal in oracles ; these sage 

* This tree grows to a considerable is neither white nor plentiful/which 

height and thickness, very straight, makes it httle sought after. It bears 

and covered with a strong grey prickly some resemblance to the British oak, 

bark. The boughs spread very much^ the largest of which it surpasses both 

with small digitated leaves. The in elegance and magnitude, 
cotton, which it produces triennially, 



matrons dancing and whirling round in the middle of an 
assembly, with amazing rapidity, until they foam at the 
mouth, and drop down as convulsed. Whatever the pro- 
phetess orders to be done during this paroxysm, is most 
sacredly performed by the surrounding multitude ; which 
renders these meetings extremely dangerous, as she fre- 
quently enjoins them to murder their masters, or desert 
to the woods; upon which account this scene of excessive 
fanaticism is forbidden by law in the colony of Surinam, 
upon pain of the most rigorous punishment : yet it is 
pften practised in private places, and is very common 
amongst the Owca and Seramica negroes, where captains 
Fredericy and Van Geurick told me they had seen it per- 
formed. It is here called the winty-play , or the dance of 
the mermaid, and has existed from time immemorial ; as 
even the classic authors make frequent mention of this 
extraordinary practice. Virgil, in his sixth book, makes 
Eneas visit the Sibyl of Cuma ; and Ovid also mentions 
the same subject, lib. 1 4. where Eneas wishes to visit the 
ghost of his father. 

But what is still more strange, these unaccountable 
Avomen by their voice know how to charm the ammo- 
dytes,* or papaw serpent, down from the tree. This is 

* This creature is from three to unparalleled brilliancy of its colours 

five feet long, and perfectly harmless; may be another inducement for the 

it has not the least apprehension of adoration of the negroes, 
being hurt even by man ; while the 

Vol. II. N n an 


an absolute fact ; nor is this snake ever killed or hurt by 
the negroes, who, on the contrary, esteem it as their 
friend and guardian, and are happy to see it enter their 
huts. "When these sibyls have charmed or conjured down 
the ammodytes serpent from the tree, it is common to 
see this reptile twine and Avrithe about their arms, neck 
and breast, as if the creature took delight in hearing her 
voice, Avhile the woman strokes and caresses it Avith her 
hand. The sacred Avriters speak of the charming of 
adders and serpents in many places, which I mention 
only to prove the antiquity of the practice *; for nothing 
is more notorious, than that the Eastern Indians will rid 
the houses of the most venomous snakes by charming 
them with the sound of a flute, which calls them out of 
their holes. And it is not many years since an Italian 
woman brought over three tame snakes, which crawled 
about her neck and arms: they were four or five feet 
long, but not venomous. 

Another instance of superstition amongst the negroes. 
I must relate; there is a direct prohibition in every 
family, handed down from father to son, against the 
eating of some one kind of animal food, which they call 
treff; this may be either fowl, fish, or quadruped, but 

* See the 58th Psalm, ver. 4, and " eis, charming never so wisely." — 

5: "They are like the deaf adder, Jerem. chap. viii. ver. 17,— and the 

*' that stoppeth her ear; which will Book of Ecclesiastes, chap. x. ver. 

" not hearken to the voice of charm- 1 a, &c. 



whatever it is, no negro will touch it; though I have seen 
some good Catholics eat roast-beef in Lent, and a reli- 
gious Jew devouring a slice from a fat flitch of bacon. 

However ridiculous some of the above rites may appear, 
yet amongst the African blacks they are certainly neces- 
sary, to keep the rabble in subjection ; and their gadomen 
or priests know this as well as the infallible Pontiff of 
the Roman church. These illiterate mortals differ, how- 
ever, in this respect from the modern Europeans, that 
whatever they believe, they do it firmly, and are never 
staggered by the doubts of scepticism, nor troubled with 
the qualms of conscience ; but whether they are, upon this 
account, better or worse, I will not pretend to determine. 
— I however think that they are a happy people, and 
possess so much friendship for one another, that they 
need not be told to " love their neighbour as themselves ;" 
since the poorest negro, having only an egg, scorns to eat 
it alone ; but were a dozen present, and every one a 
stranger, he would cut or break it into just as many 
shares ; or were there one single dram of rum, he would 
divide it among the same number : this is not done, 
however, until a few drops are first sprinkled on the 
ground, as an oblation to the gods. — Approach then here, 
thou canting hypocrite, and take an example from thy 
illiterate sable brother! — From what I sometimes throw 
out, however, let it not be understood that I am an 
enemy to religi(jus worship — God forbid ! But I ever will 
N n 2 profess 


profess myself the greatest friend to those whose actions 
best correspond Avith their doctrine ; which, I am sorry 
to say, is too seldom the case amongst those nations who 
pretend most to civilization. 

If savage nations be commonly generous and faithful, 
they are not, however, without their dark shades; and 
among these, the most conspicuous is a proneness to 
anger and revenge. I never knew a negro indeed forgive 
those who had wilfully offended him. The strength of 
this passion can only be equalled by their gratitude ; foi',, 
amongst them, it may be truly said, that 

" A generous friendship no cold medium knows, 
" But with one love, with one resentment glows." 

Their abominable cruelties also, like those of all barba- 
rous nations, are truly shocking. In the colony of Ber- 
bice, during the late revolt, they made no scruple of cut- 
ting up their mistresses with childj even in their master's 
presence, with many other savage devices too dreadful to 
relate *. — In the art of poisoning, not even the Accawaw 


* It is a well-known fact, that a of the house. When asked why he 
negro, having been ill-treated by the did not give admittance, he only an- 
famiiy in which he lived as a servant, swered by throwing an infant baby 
one day took the following desperate to the ground : they threatened — lie 
revenge : — The master and mistress tossed down the brother : they in- 
being from home, he having locked treated, but to no purpose, the third 
all the doors, at their return pre- sharing the same fate, who all ley 
sented himself with their three fine dead at their parents' feet — then call- 
children on the platform on the top ing out to them thathe was now fully 



Indians are more expert ; they can carry it under their 
nails, and by only dipping their thumb into a tumbler of 
water, Avhich they offer as a beverage to the object of 
their revenge, they infuse a slow but certain death*. 
Whole estates, as well as private families, have become the 
victims of their fury, and experienced their fatal ven- 
geance, even putting to death scores of their own friends 
and relations, with the double view of depriving their 
proprietors of their most valuable possessions. These 
monsters are distinguished by the name of Wissij-men, 
perhaps from wise, or knowing, and by their fatal genius 
carry destruction to a most dreadful length before they 
are detected. 

All barbarous and uneducated people have indistinct 
notions of property; nor can we wondeT that slaves, 
who in their own persons suffer the most flagrant viola- 
tion of every right, should be disposed to retaliate. The 
slaves on the plantations are therefore too commonly 
thieves, plundering whatever they can lay their hands 
upon with impunity ; nor can any bounds be set to their 
intemperance, especially in drinking. I have seen a negro 

revenged, leaped down himself, and while to himself it was the sweetest 

dashed out his own brains amongst satisfaction, 
the amazed spectators. — Another 

stabbed the inoffensive husband to be * After the most scrupulous en- 
revenged on the guilty wife; de- quiry, and even ocular demonstra- 
claring, that to kill herself was only tion, I can assert the above as liter- 
temporary, but to lose all that was ally true, 
dear to her must be eternal bitterness^ 



girl empty a china-bowl at one draught, containing two 
bottles of claret, which I had given her by way of experi- 
ment, till she could no more stand. 

I should not forget to mention that the Gango negroes 
are supposed to be anthropophagi or cannibals, like the 
Caribbee Indians, instigated by habitual and implacable 
revenge. Amongst the rebels of this tribe, after the 
taking of Boucou, some pots were found on the fire with 
human flesh ; which one of the officers had the curiosity 
to taste, and declared it was not inferior to some kinds of 
beef or pork. 

I have been since assured by a Mr. Vangills, an Ame- 
rican, that having travelled for a great number of miles 
inland in Africa, he at length came to a place where 
human legs, arms, and thighs hung upon wooden sham- 
bles, and were exposed to sale, like butchers meat in 
Leadenhall market. And Captain John Keene, formerly 
of the Dolphin cutter, but late of the Naimhana schooner, 
in the Sierra Leona company's service, positively assured 
me, that when he, a few years since, Avas on the coast of 
Africa, in the brig Fame, from Bristol, Mr. Samuel Biggs 
owner, trading for wood, iron, and gold-dust, a Cap- 
tain Dunnigen, "with his whole crew, belonging to the 
Nassau schooner, which was her tender, were cut in pieces, 
salted, and eaten by the negroes of Great Drewin, about 
thirty miles North of the River St. Andrew's ; who having 
torn the copper oft' her bottom, burned the vessel. 

10 But 


But from these deformities of character I will now re- 
lieve the attention of the reader, and proceed in justice to 
dispel the gloomy cloud, by introducing the sunshine of 
their virtues. 

Their genius has been already treated of, so has their 
gratitude; which last they carry to such a length, that 
they will even die for those who have shewn them any 
particular favour. Nothing can exceed the fidelity and 
attachment they have for those masters who use them 
well, which proves that their affection is as strong as their 
hatred. Negroes are generally good-natured, particu- 
larly the Coromantyn, and those of Nago. They are also 
susceptible of the tender passion, and jealousy in their 
breasts has produced the most dreadful effects. The 
delicacy of these people deserves likewise to be noticed : 
I do not remember, amongst the many thousands I have 
seen during several years residence among them, ever to 
have observed even an offer to kiss a woman in public. 
Maternal tenderness for their children is also natural to 
the females, for in general, during the two years which 
they usually suckle them, they never cohabit with their 
husbands; this they consider as unnatural, and preju- 
dicial to the mfants : and the case of Lesperanza (who 
bore so many children in a short time) is no exception, as 
her children died almost as soon as they came into the 
world. The cleanliness of the negro nation is peculiarly 
remarkable, as they bathe above three times a day. The 



Congo tribe in particular are so fond of the water, that 
they may, not improperly, be called amphibious animals. 
The negroes are likewise spirited and brave, patient 
in adversity, meeting death and torture with the most 
luidaunted fortitude. Their conduct, in the most trying 
situations, approaching even to heroism ; no negro sighs, 
groans, or complains, though expiring in the midst of 
surrounding flames. Nor do I remember, upon any occa- 
sion whatever, to have seen an African shed a tear, though 
they beg for mercy with the greatest earnestness when 
ordered to be flogged for offences which they are conscious 
deserve to be punished ; but if they think their punish- 
ment unmerited, immediate suicide is too often the fatal 
consequence, especially amongst the Coromantijn negroes, 
Avho frequently, during the a6l of flagellation, throw back 
their heads in the neck, and sroallow their tongue, which 
chokes them upon the spot, when they drop dead in the 
presence of their masters. But when negroes are sensible 
of having deserved con-ection, no people can be more 
humble, or bear their unhappy fate with greater resigna- 
tion. The swallowing of the tongue, which they only 
practise during the moments of severe discipline, has of 
late been prevented in Surinam by the humane method of 
holding a firebrand to the victim's mouth, which answers 
the double purpose of burning his face, and diverting his 
attention from the execution of his fatal determination. 
Some have a practice of eating common earth, by Avhich 



the stomach is prevented from performing its ordinary c ii a p. 
functions, and thus dispatch themselves without any v^]„_.^-^ 
immediate pain, but linger perhaps for a twelvemonth in 
the most debilitated and shocking condition. Against 
these ground-eaters the severest punishments are decreed 
by the laws, but without much eflect, as they are seldom 
detected in this act of desperation. 

After these general remarks upon the mental and bo- 
dily faculties of the African negroes, we shall next pro- 
ceed to view them in a state of bondage, under all the 
oppression they are exposed to from the rod of barbarous 
tyranny ; then, rescuing them from this horrid sccjie, we 
will next consider them as protected by impartial justice, 
and fostered by the mild liand of tenderness and huma- 

I'he reader may remember that I have already intro- 
duced the slaves as landing from on board the Guinea 
sliips, and generally shocking instances of debility and 
misery : — 

" Their visage is blacker than a coal, they are not known 
" in the streets, their skin cleaveth to their bones, it is 
" withered, it is become Ukc a stick." 

I have also observed, that under the care of some old 
negroes, appointed for that purpose, they soon become fat 
and sleek, and learn the language of the colony: they 
then are sent to woik in the fields, to which they cheer- . 
Vol. II. O o fully 


CHAP, fully submit; though I have seen some instances of 
,^^^f\i[^ nevvly - imported negroes refusing to work, nor could 
promises, threats, rewards, nor even blows, prevail : but 
these had been princes or people of the first rank in their 
native country, who by the casualties of war had the mis- 
fortune to become slaves, and whose heroic sentiments 
still preferred instant death to the baseness and miseries 
of servitude. Upon these occasions I have seen the other 
slaves fall upon their knees, and intreat the master to 
permit them to do the work required, in addition to their 
own tasks; Avhicli being sometimes granted, they conti- 
nued to shew the same respect for the captive prince 
that he had been accustomed to receive in his own coun- 
try. I remember once to have had a remarkable good- 
looking new negro to attend me, Avhose ancles and wrists 
being much galled by chains, I enquired the cause. " My 
" father," said he, " was a king, and treacherously mur- 
" dered by the sons of a neighbouring prince. To re- 
" venge his death, I daily went a hunting with some 
" men, in hopes of retaliating upon his assassins ; but I 
" had the misfortune to be surprized, taken, and bound ; 
" hence these ignoble scars. I was afterwards sold to 
" your European countrymen on the coast of Guiana — a 
" punishment which was deemed greater than instant 
" death." 

The history of Quaco, my black boy, was still more 
extraordinary : — " My parents," said he, '* lived by hunt- 


*' ing and fishing : I was stolen from them very young, 
" whilst playing on the sands with two little brothers ; 
" I was put into a sack, and carried for several miles. I 
" afterwards became the slave of a king on the coast of 
" Guinea, with several hundreds more. When our master 
" died, the principal part of his slaves Avere beheaded 
" and buried along with him ; I, with some other chil- 
" dren of my age, were bestowed as presents to the dif- 
" ferent captains of his army ; and the master of a Dutch 
" ship afterwards had me, in exchange for a musket and 
" some gun-powder." — Each loves his country best, if 
mild its laws, or rigid ; 

" The naked negro, panting at the line, 

" Boasts of his golden sands and palmy wine ; 

" Basks in the glare, or stems the te|)id wave, 

" And thanks his gods for all the good they gave : — 

" Such is the patriot's boast, where'er he roam, 

" His first best country ever is at home."' 

No sooner do these wretched strangers begin to flag tt 
their labour, than whips, cow-skins, bamboos, ropes, fet- 
ters, and chains are introduced, until they are ready to 
sink under accumulated oppression. With some masters 
their tasks can never be performed, as they must toil on, 
day and night, even Sundays not excepted. I recollect a 
strong young negro, called Marquis, who had a wife he 
loved, with two fine children ; he laboured hard, and ge- 
nerally finished his task of digging a trench of five hun- 

2 dred 


dred feet by four o'clock in the afternoon, that he might 
have some time to cultivate his little garden, and go to 
fish or fowl to support his beloved family : hard did IVIar- 
quis strive to earn this additional pittance, when his hu- 
mane master, apprized of his industry, for his encourage- 
ment informed him, that if he could delve five hundred 
feet by four o'clock, he could certainly finish six hundred 
before sun-set ; and this task the unfortunate 3'oung man 
was condemned from that day ever since to perform. 

In Surinam the slaves are kept nearly naked, and their 
daily food consists of little more than a few yams and 
plantains ; perhaps twice a year they may receive a scanty 
allowance of salt fish, with a few leaves of tobacco, which 
they call sweety-muffo, and this is all : but what is pecu- 
liarly provoking to them is, that if a negro and his wife 
have ever so great an attachment for each other, the 
woman, if handsome, must yield to the loathsome em- 
brace Qf an adulterous and licentious manager, or see her 
hmsband cut to pieces for endeavouring to prevent it. 
This, in frequent instances, has driven them to distrac- 
tion, and been the cause of many mui'ders. 

It is in consequence of these complicated evils, that sa 
many also destroy themselves by suicide, run away to the 
woods to join their countrymen in rebellion, or if they 
stay, grow sad and spiritless, and languish under diseases, 
the effects of bad usage ; such as the lota, which is a white 
scorbutic spot that externally covers the body. The crassy- 



crassi/, or itch, v\ hicli with us comes from poorness of c h a p. 
diet, is of course very common with them. The i/azis, a v,^-,-^ 
most disagreeable disorder, by many compared to the ve- 
nereal disease, which renders the patient a shocking spec- 
tacle, all covered over with yellow ulcers. To this last- 
mentioned loathsome malady most negroes are subject, 
yet but only once in their lives, in which, and being very 
infectious, it resembles the small-pox : indeed if a fly 
which has been feeding upon the diseased (and they are 
generally covered with them) lights upon the slightest 
scratch on a healthy person, it communicates this dread- 
ful disorder, which always confmes him for several 
months. The most general cure for the yaws in Suri- 
nam, is salivation and spare diet, with continual exercise 
to promote perspiration ; and during this process, the 
poor wretches absolutely look like decayed carcases. 

Still more dreadful is the hoassij, or leprosi/, which is 
deemed incurable : the face and limbs in this complaint 
swell, and the whole body is covered with scales and 
ulcers ; the breath stinks, the hair falls off, the fingers and 
toes become putrid, and drop away joint after joint. The 
worst of which is, that though the disease is hopeless, the 
unhappy sufferer may linger sometimes for many years. 
The lepers are naturally lascivious, and the disease being 
infectious, they are of necessity separated from all society, 
and condemned to a perpetual exile in some remote cor- 
ner of the plantations. 



c H A P. The clahha-yaws, or tuhhoes, is also a very troublesome 


vj^^^_^ and tedious disorder; it occasions painful sores about the 
feet, mostly in the soles, between the skin and the flesh. 
The usual remedy in this case is, to burn out the morbid 
part with a red-hot iron, or cut it out Avith a lancet ; 
and then the warm juice of roasted limes is introduced 
into the wound, though with great pain yet with great 

The African negroes are also subject to many species 
of worms, both extraneous and internal, owing to the 
wading much in stagnated waters, and to the crudity of 
their diet. Of the former species is the Guinea or tape- 
worm, which breeds between the skin and the flesh, and 
is sometimes two yards in length, of a shining silvery co- 
lour, and not thicker than the second string of a bass- 
\'iol. It occasions dangerous and jiainful swellings where- 
ever it inserts itself, which is mostly about the legs. The 
method of cure, is to seize the head of the worm when 
it appears above the skin, and extract it by winding it 
gently round a stick or card ; this operation cannot be 
performed with too much caution, for if it breaks, the 
loss of the limb, or even of life itself, is frequently the 
fatal consequence. Some are infested with seven or eight 
of these worms at a time. 

Besides these dreadful calamities, peculiar to them- 
selves, the negroes are subject to every complaint common 
to the Europeans ; who, in their turn, aie not exempt in 



Guiana from the afflicting and dangerous distempers I chap. 
have just described. - ij^ -^ 

It is therefore not to be wondered at if many of the 
plantations are crowded with miserable objects left under 
the care of the dressi/ negro or black surgeon only, whose 
whole skill consists in administering a dose of salts, or 
spreading a plaster. As to the numbers who are exco- 
riated fi'oni their neck to their heel, by constant whip- 
ping, they may cure themselves, or do their work without 
a skin, if they think proper. 

Thus from accumulated miseries, some naturally suc- 
ceeding from the climate and their poor diet, but more 
from the inordinate cruelty of managers, it must follow 
that numerous slaves become unfit for work, many from 
weakness and depression of spirits, and others from ex- 
treme labour becoming old before their time. But for all 
these evils, this plantation despot finds an infallible re- 
medy, which is no other than to put them to death at 
once : the loss does not aftect him but his master, and he 
is proud of shewing only such negroes as are able to do 
their task, assuring their owner that they mostly died by 
the venereal disease ; and the Avord of the human carcase- 
butcher is quite sufficient, as no negro is allowed to give 
evidence in any case whatever, 

" Dictio testimonii non est servo homini." 

Yet should some fair European by accident prove the 



murder, the delinquent escapes, as I liave observed, by 
paying a fine of £.50 and the vahie of the slave, if the 
owner requires it; and for this price of blood he may 
slaughter the poor wretches whenever a temporary pas- 
sion or a habit of cruelty, which is too commonly gene- 
rated in this situation, prompts his rage. 

They have moreover many stratagems to evade the 
penalty, should even the magistrates be present. I have 
known it happen when one of these scourges of the hu- 
man race l^ecame tired of a negro, that he has taken him 
out with him a shootino; ; and ordering him to discover 
the game, the first bird that started he has shot the poor 
man dead upon the spot. This was called an accident, 
and no farther enquiry was made concerning it. Others 
have been dispatched by the following method : — A stake 
being fastened in the middle of an open plain, the slave 
is chained to it, and exposed to the burning sun, where 
one jill of water and a single plantain is brought him dailj'', 
until he pines to death. But this is not called starving, as 
his master declares that he neither wanted victuals nor 
drink until he expired — thus he is honourably acquitted. 

Another plan of murdering Avith impunity has often 
been put in practice. The slave is fastened naked to a 
tree in the forest, with his arms and legs extended, under 
pretence of stretching his limbs ; but here he is left, and 
regularly fed, until he is actually stung to death by the 
musquitoes and other insects — a most infernal punisli- 
6 ment. 


uicnt, and such as ma}' he with truth ascribed to the in- 
stigation of the devil ! Diov.ning them, by kicking them 
overboard v.ith a weight chained to their legs, is called 
accidental death. It has been known that by the orders 
of a zc'omau, negro slaves have been privately burnt to 
death, miserably chained in a surrounding pile of flam- 
ing faggots. As to the breaking out of their teeth, merely 
for tasting the sugar-cane cultivated by themselves, slit- 
ting up their noses, and cutting off their ears, from private 
pique, these are accounted mere sport, and not worthy to 
be mentioned. 

By such inhuman usage this mihappy race of men ar« 
sometimes driven to such a height of desperation, that to 
finish their days, and be relieved from worse than Egyj)- 
tian bondage, some even have leaped into the caldrons of 
boiling sugar, thus at once depriving the tyrant of his 
crop and of his servant. 

From these sketches can it be a matter of surprize, 
that armies of rebels are assembled in the forest, and at 
every opportunity thirsting for revenge ? 

I shall now conclude this dreadful scene by one general 
remark, shewing how far population is atfe6led by this 
most infamous treatment. 

In Surinam there are, upon an average, about 75,000 
negro slaves, as I have stated ; from which if we subtract 
children, and superannuated men and women, there will 
not be found above 50,000 really fit for labour. There are 

Vol. II. P p from 


from six to twelve Guinea ships, that import from 250 to 
300 slaves each from Africa annually : we may therefore 
compute the yearly importation at an average of 2,500, 
necessary to supply and keep complete the above 50,000 ; 
so that the annual deaths exceed the births by the num- 
ber of 2,500, though each man negro has a wife or two if 
he chuses, which is, upon the mass, just 5 per cent, and 
consequently proves that the whole race of healthy slaves, 
consisting of 50,000, are totally extinct once every twenty 

Truth and justice however oblige me to declare, that 
the inhuman barbarities I have been just describing are 
not universal. Compassionate Heaven has ordained some 
exceptions, as I shall impartially shew, by reversing the 
picture : not like some writers who have treated this sub- 
ject, and carefully concealed the most pleasing touches of 
goodness and humanity, whilst only the darkest shades 
have been exposed to the public eye, but by candidly ex- 
hibiting both sides with equal justice and precision ; and 
it is indeed with pleasure I can affirm, that the negro 
slaves on some estates are treated, in my opinion, as men 
ought to be treated; and this mode of conduct might 
still be more general, by amending the laws, which ought 
not corruptly to invest human nature with what it is cer- 
tain to abuse — an authority completely despotic. No 
master surely ought to be entrusted with the dangerous 
power of taking aA\ay the life of his slaves with impunity; 
7 and 

r K,if' 

/'//////////'/. hy/y . ''//'//'r.i //'f'/// _ /r>r///'/^' . 


and it ought to be considered an equal crime in the eye of 
the laAv to kill a negro or a white man, as it is equally 
murder in the sight of God. 

I shall now introduce to the reader's acquaintance a 
negro family in that state of tranquil happiness, which 
they always enjoy under a humane and indulgent mas- 
ter. The figures in the plate are supposed to be of the 
Loango nation, by the marks on the man's body, while 
on his breast may be seen J. G. S. in a cypher, by which 
his OA\ner may ascertain his property. He carries a 
basket with small fish, and a net upon his head, with a 
large fish in his hand, caught by himself in the river. His 
wife, who is pregnant, is employed in carrying different 
kinds of fruit, spinning a thread of cotton upon her distaff, 
and comfortably smoking her pipe of tobacco. Besides 
all this, she has a boy upon her back, and another playing 
by her side. Thus, under a mild master and an honest 
overseer, a negro's labour is no more than a healthy exer- 
cise, which ends at the setting-sun, and the remaining 
time is his own, which he employs in hunting, fishing, cul- 
tivating his garden, or making baskets and fish-nets for 
sale ; with this money he buys a hog or two, sometimes 
fowls or ducks, all which he fattens upon the spontaneous 
growth of the soil, Avithout expcnce, and very little trouble, 
and, in the end, they atlbrd him considerable profit. Thus 
pleasantly situated, he is exempt from every anxiety, and 
pays no taxes, but looks up to his master as the only pro- 

p p 2 tector 


lector of liiin and his family. He adores him, not from 
fear, but from a conviction that he is indebted to his 
goodness for all the comforts he enjoys. He breathes in 
a luxurious A\arm climate, like his own, which renders 
clothes unnecessary, and he finds himself more healthy, as 
well as more at his ease, by going naked. His house he 
may build after his own fancy. The forest affords him 
every necessary material for the cutting. His bed is a 
hammock, or a mat called papaya. ?Iis pots he manu- 
factures himself, and his dishes are gourds, which grow in 
his garden. He never lives Avith a wife he does not love, 
exchanging for another the moment either he or she be- 
comes tired, though this separation happens less fre- 
quently here than divorces do in Europe. Besides the 
regular allowance given him by his master weekly, his 
female friend has the art of making many savoury 
dishes ; such as hraf, or a hodge-podge of plantains 
and 3"ams boiled with salt meat, barbacued fish, and 
Cayenne pepper. Tom-tom is a very good pudding, 
composed of the flour of Indian corn, boiled Avith flesh, 
fowl, fish, Cayenne pepper, and the young pods of the 
ocra or althea plant. Teppei^-pot is a dish of boiled fish 
and capsicum, eaten with roasted plantains. Gangotay 
is made of dried, and afofoo of green plantains. Acansa 
and doquenoo are composed of the flour of maize, and the 
latter is eaten with mol.Tsses. His common drink is the 
limpid stream, sometimes corrected by a Uttle rum. If 



he is accidentally wounded or indisposed, he is cured for 
nothing; but it is very seldom he troubles the faculty, 
being tolerably skilled in herbs and simples, besides scari- 
fying and puckering the skin, which serves instead of 
bleeding. The inconvenience of vermin he remedies 
without a comb, by plastering up his hair with clay, Avhich 
being dried on the head, and then washed with soap and 
water, makes him clean beyond conception; his teeth 
are constantl}^ kept as white as ivory ; for this purpose 
he uses nothing but a sprig of orange-tree, bitten at one 
end, until the fibres resemble a small brush ; and no negro, 
male or female, is to be seen without this little instru- 
ment, which has besides the virtue of sweetening the 

So much for his body ; and with regard to his soul, it 
is seldom troubled Avith any qualms of conscience, or fear 
of death, as I have stated, being firm and unshaken in 
Avhat he was taught to believe, which is indeed little, but 
plain ; and Avhen he is no more, his companions or rela- 
tions carry him to some grove of orange-trees, where he 
is not interred Avithout expence, being generally put in a 
coffin of the very best Avood and Avorkinanship, Avhile 
the cries and lamentations of his surviving friends, Avho 
sing a dirge, pierce the sky. The grave being filled up, 
and a green turf neatly spread over it, a couple of large 
gourds are put by the side, the one Avith water, the other 
with boiled foAvls, pork, cassava, &c. as a libation, not 



V II A r. from a siiperstitious notion, as some believe, that he will 
^J^^^i\l^ cat or drink it, but as a testimony of that regard which 
they have for his memory and ashes ; while some even 
add the little furniture that he left behind, breaking it in 
pieces over the grave. This done, every one takes his 
last farewell, speaking to him as if alive, and testifying 
tlicir sorrow at his departure ; adding, that they hope to 
see him, not in Guinea, as some have written, but in that 
better place, where he now enjoys the pleasant company 
of his parents, friends, and ancestors ; when another dis- 
mal yell ends the ceremony, and all return home. Next a 
fat hog being killed, with fowls, ducks, &:c. a general 
feast is given by his friends to all the other negroes, 
A\hich concludes not till the following day. The nearest 
connections and relations of the deceased, both male and 
female, now cut their hair* and shave their heads, round 
which having tied a dark blue handkerchief, tlicy wear 
tliis mourning for a whole year ; after which, once more 
visiting the grave, they offer a last libation, and taking 
their final farewell, another hog and fowls being killed, 
the funeral rites are quite ended by a second feast, which 
finishes with a joyful dance, and songs in memory and 
praise of their dear departed friend or relation. 

No people can more esteem or have a greater friend- 
ship for one another than the negro slaves ; they appear 

* We are told Job did the same. 


to have unbounded enjoyment in each other's company, 
and are not destitute of social amusements, such as the 
soesa, which consists in footing opposite to each other, 
and clapping with their hands upon their sides to keep in 
time. So very eager are they at this animating play, in 
which sometimes six or eight couple are engaged at once, 
that the violent exercise having been known to kill some 
of the negroes, it is forbidden by the magistrates at Pa- 
ramaribo. Awaree is an innocent amusement, consisting 
in pitching with a large kind of marbles, in defect of 
which they use the awaree nuts or large pebbles. 

The men also cudgel and wrestle ; yet at this I think 
them inferior to either those of Cornwall or Devon. 
Most negroes are strong and active *. But swimming is 
their favourite diversion, which they practise every day 
at least twice or thrice, promiscuously, in groups of boys 
and girls, like the Indians, when both sexes exhibit asto- 
nishing feats of courage, strength, and activity. I have 
not only seen a negro girl beat a hardy youth in swim- 
ming across the river Comewina (while I was one of the 
party) but on landing challenge liim to run a two mile 
race, and beat him again, naked as they were ; while all 
ideas of shame on the one side, and of insult on the other, 
are totally unknown. — I shall now say something of their 
instrumental music and dancing. I have already men- 

* Witness James Jackson, the equeslrlan rider, London, &c. 



tioncd the singing aiul the dancing of the Loango tribe 
in particular; and will now describe that practised by the 
other negro natioi-s in general. 

Their instruments of music, which are not a httle in- 
o'cnious, are all made by themselves, and consist of those 
represented in the annexed plate ; wlieie 

N° 1, which is called qua-qiia, is a hard sounding-board, 
elevated on one side like a boot-jack, on which they beat 
time as on a drum, with two pieces of iron, or two bones. 

'^"Q, is the Jciemha-toctoe, or hollow reed, which is 
blown through the nostrils, like the nasal flute of Ota- 
heite : it has but two holes, one at each end, the one 
serving to sound it, the other to be touched by the 

N" 3, is the Amokko-baina, which is a hard board, su])- 
.ported on both sides like a low seat, on which are placed 
small blocks of difterent sizes, which being struck wilh 
two small sticks hke a dulcimer, give different sounds, that 
are not at all disagreeable. 

N' 4, is the great Creole drum, being a hollow tree, 
open at one end, and covered at the other with a sheep- 
skin, on which they sit astride, and so beat time Avith the 
palms of their hands ; answering the effect of the bass-viol 
to the qua-qua board. 

N° 5, is the great Loango drum, being covered at both 
^ends, and serves the same purpose as a bass drum. 

N" 6, is the Fapa drum, beaten as the others. 


//^/.j/rf// .//^j/r/////r///j r/ ///,■ . ////r^/// , ifv/rarj. 

/.oii.!„n,ruM,.rl,r.l D„ri:'i;„i,h J../„/,„yoil .1" rai.L- (luirj. Y.m, _ 


N° 7, is the small Loango drum, beaten together with 
the great one. 

N" 8, the small Creole drum, for the same use. 

N' 9, is called coeroema ; this is a wooden cup, inge- 
niously made, covered also with a sheep-skin, and beaten 
Avith two small rods or drum-sticks, after the manner of 
the qua-qua board. 

N° 1 0, is the Loango-bania. This I thought exceedingly 
curious, being a dry board, on which are laced, and kept 
down by a transverse bar, different sized elastic splinters 
of the palm-tree, like pieces of whalebone, in such a 
manner that both ends are elevated by two other bars 
that are fixed under them ; and the above apparatus being- 
placed on 

N° 1 1, which is a large empty callebash to promote the 
sound ; the extremities of the splinters are snapt by the 
fingers, something in the manner of a piano-forte, when 
the music has a soft and very pleasing effect. 

N° 12, is called by the negroes saka-saka, being a hol- 
low gourd, with a stick and handle fixed through it, and 
filled with small pebbles and pease, not unlike the magic 
shell of the Indians. This they hold above their heads, 
and while they dance rattle it to measure. 

N" 13, is a conch, or sea shell, which by blowing they 
sound, for pleasure, or to cause an alarm, &c. but is not 
used as an accompaniment to dancing. 

Vol. II. Qq N° 14, 


N° 1 4, is called benta, being a branch bent like a bo^r 
by means of a slip of dry reed or warimbo ; which cord, 
Avhen held to the teeth, is beaten with a short stick, and 
by being shifted backwards and forwards sounds not un- 
like a jew's-harp. 

N° 15, is the Creole-hania, this is like a mandoline or 
guitar, being made of a half gourd covered with a sheep- 
skin, to which is fixed a very long neck or handle. This 
instrument has but four strings, three long and one short, 
which is thick, and serves for a bass ; it is played by the 
fingers, and has a very agreeable sound, but more so when 
accompanied by a song. 

N° 16, is the trumpet of war, to command advancing, 
retreating, &c. and is called by the negroes the too-too. 

N° 17, is a horn used to supply the place of the other, 
or on the plantations to call the slaves to work. 

N* 1 8, is the Loungo too-too, or flute, which they blow 
as the Europeans do, after the common way. It has but 
four holes for the fingers, and yet they make it produce 
a variety of sounds. — Such are the musical instruments of 
our African brethren, to which they dance with more 
spirit than we do to the best band in Europe. 

To what I have stated, I will only add, that they always 
use full or half measure, but never triple time, in their 
dancing music, which is not unlike that of a baker's 
bunt, when he separates the flour from the bran, sounding 



tuckety-tuck and tucketu-tuck ad perpetuum. To tliis 
noise they dance with uncommon pleasure, and most 
times foot it awa}^ with great art and dexterity. 
" Sahantes Satyros imitabitur Alphesiboeas." 

Every Saturday evening, the slaves who are well treated 
close the v/eek with an entertainment of this kind, and 
generally once a quarter are indulged with a grand 
ball, to which the neighbouring slaves are invited ; the 
master often contributing to their happiness by his pre- 
sence, or at least by sending them a present of a few jugs 
of new rum. 

At these grand balls the slaves are remarkably neat, 
the women appearing in their best chintz petticoats, and 
many of the men in fine Holland trowsers. So indefati- 
gable are they at this diversion, that I have known the 
drums continue beating without intermission from six 
o'clock on Saturday night till the sun made its appear- 
ance on the Monday morning ; thus had passed six-and- 
thirty hours in dancing, cheering, hallooing, and clap- 
ping of hands. The negroes dance always in couples, 
the men figuring and footing, while the women turn 
round like a top, their petticoats expanding like an um- 
brella; and this they call waey-cotto. During this, the 
by-standing youths fill about the liquor, while the girls 
encourage the performance, and wipe the sweat from the 
brows and sides of the unweai'ied musicians. 

It is indeed upon the whole astonishing to see with 

Q q 2 what 


Avhat good-nature and even good manners these dancing 
societies are kept up, of wliicli I repeat it they are so 
fond, that I have known a ne^vlj^-imported negro, for 
Avant of a partner, figure and foot it for nearly the space 
of two hours, to his shadow against the walk 

If to what I have stated relative to negro slaves, when 
iinder a candid and humane master, we further add, their 
never being separated from each other; parents seeing 
their children around them, sometimes till the third and 
fourth generation, besides the confidence that they are 
all provided for to the end of their lives ; — then if we draw 
the comparison between this class of people, and the num- 
berless wretched objects that disgrace the streets of Eic- 
rope, we can assuredly not call those Africans who fall 
under the above description — unhappy. 

And now, to sum np all I have to say on the subject of 
slaves in the fewest words, for the sake of the reader, 
and also for my own, lest I should seem to contradict 
myself, by having so frequently animadverted on the 
shocking cruelties of some masters, and occasionally done 
justice to the humane and liberal dispositions of others, 
I beg leave to say one word more on the projected abo- 
lition. — Could we persuade all our commercial neigh- 
bours to join in that measure, the case would be different ; 
but since I have seen cruelties exercised so commonly in 
Surinam, which I never heard of in the British islands, 
and from my certain observation have declared the soil 



of that country to be so much more rich and productive chap. 
than our West Indies, (liall we not drive our planters v,.^-!^,,^ 
from their worn-out lands, to settle on the more fertile 
spot, under a government which will allow a free import- 
ation of negroes, while our object (if we knew^ how to 
compass it) is to reduce an unlimited infliction of punish- 
ment, which indeed onr planters have by their own laws 
most humanely restrained *? 

Such is indeed the love and confidence of some planters 
for their slaves, that they often entrust their infants to a 
negro wet-nurse, in preference to an European, where 
both may be had ; and such the attachment of some 
slaves to their masters, that I have known many refuse 
to accept of their emancipation, and even some, who had 
their liberty, voluntarily return to dependence. No one 
is perfectly free in this world, all mankind is depending 
upon one another — while I will beg leave to conclude 
this laborious chapter, by this general remark, that all 
sublunary happiness exists only in imagination, and may 
ever be obtained, where health of body and peace of 
mind are not crushed by despotic oppression. 

* By a law passed in the council hundred inflicted on a female ; and 

of Jamaica, the punishment of a was once the unfortunate occasion 

negro is usually limited to twelve of seeing it immediately repeated, 

lashes, but never exceeding thirty- (See Plate XXXV. Voli I.) 
nine. In Surinam I have known two 



The Rape of the Sahines — Shocking Execution, and African 
Fortitude — Description of an Indigo Plantation — The 
Spafiso Bocko, a Punishment — The Troops again re-enter 
the Woods — The Expedition draws to a Coticlusion. 

'NOTWITHSTANDING the successive defeats and re- 
•*- ^ peated distresses of the rebels, news was brought to 
Paramaribo, on the 1 2th of August, that they had fallen 
upon the estate Bergendal, or the Blue Bergh, which is also 
called Mount Parnassus, situated in the higher parts of the 
River Surinam, and carried away all the black women, 
although a military post was stationed near the above 
place, but without committing any kind of cruelty, as too 
generally had been their custom. Upon this intelligence a 
party of the rangers was instantly detached thither to assist 
in pursuing them ; and about this same time the long- 
projected cordon, or path of circumvallation round the 
colony, was also began to be cut, by seven hundred negro 
slaves; which path was henceforth to be manned Avith 
military piquets at proper distances to defend the estates 
against any farther invasions from without, and to pre- 
vent desertion to the enemy from within. 

Mount Parnassus, Avhich was the scene of the late )'ape 


//fv/^a/l/://^- ^ye///^>///--t/// (y///f^/ M.^> -J^v/yJ' ' /a/v/// 

//a// . 

//r/?'r/'//,r. ^^//y/'l^^vyy rr/Z/rr/, //^^un/^ l/a.r//Y//.J//J. 

httndon.VublMud Vc^ri-'.'iyai J^i J.Jolm.','n . S.' /;uil:f l7i,in:/i i'.inl. 


of the Sabincs, is situated on the west side of the River 
Surinam, distant from Paramaribo, if we include the 
windings of the river, above one hundred miles ; and as 
the situation is pleasant, I present the reader with a view 
of it, in the plate annexed, as also of the village, called the 
Jews Savannah, which is distant from town, in a straight 
line, something more than forty, but by water above 
sixty English miles. Here the Jews have a beautiful sy- 
nagogue, and keep their solemn fasts and festivals ; here 
they also have their capital schools and seminaries, for at 
this village reside some very respectable Jewish families. 
These people possess particular rights and privileges in 
this colony, with Avhich they Avere endowed by King 
Charles the Second, when the settlement of Surinam was 
English ; and such are these privileges I never knew Jews 
to possess in any other part of the world whatever. 

Prom Paramaribo, or rather from the fortress New- 
Amsterdam, the River Surinam, like those of Cottica and 
Comewina, is beautifully bordered with sugar and coffee 
plantations, as are also several creeks or small rivers that 
communicate with it ; such as the Pawlus, the Para, the 
Cropina, and the Pararac creeks ; but above Mount Par- 
nassus not a single estate, that may be so called, is to be 
found ; neither is the river any longer navigable, even 
for small craft, on account of the prodigious rocks, and 
cascades or water-falls, with which it is obstructed as it 
winds through excessively high mountains and an im- 


penetrable forest. While therefore they fomi an enchant- 
ingly romantic scene to the eye, these natural bulwarks 
prevent the possessors of the colony from making such 
discoveries as might perhaps reward their labour with 
very considerable riches. 

If, as I have just mentioned, cruelties were become less 
common in the rivers by the rebels, barbarities still con- 
tinued in a shocking degree in the metropolis ; where 
my ears were deafened with the clang of the Avhip, and 
the shrieks of the negroes. Among the most eminent 
of these tyrants was a Miss Sp — n, who lived next door 
to Mr. de Graav, and who I saw with horror from my 
window give orders that a young black woman should 
be flogged principally across the breasts, at which she 
seemed to enjoy peculiar satisfaction. To dissipate the 
impression this scene had left on my mind, I got into a 
■whiskey, and rode out ; when the first thing I saw was 
a negro girl fall naked from a garret window on a heap of 
broken bottles : this was indeed an accident, but she was 
so mangled, though not dead, that she exhibited a spec- 
tacle nearly as wretched as the other. — Cursing my un- 
lucky fate, I turned the horses, and drove to the beach, as 
the only place to avoid every scene of cruelty and misery ; 
but here I had the mortification to see two Philadelphia 
sailors (while they were fighting on the forecastle of their 
vessel) both fall over the ship's bow into the stream, where 
they sunk, and were no more seen. On board another 
1 3 American 


American brig, I discovered a little tar defending himself 
from the cross-trees with a hatchet, against a serjeant and 
four armed men, for a considerable time ; till they threat- 
ening to shoot him out of the rigging, he at last surren- 
dered, and being brought ashore, was dragged to Fort 
Zelandia, in company with two others, by a file of mus- 
keteers, where, for having been drunk on duty, they re- 
ceived a fire-cant each, at the captain's request ; that is, 
they were bastinadoed or beaten on the shoulders by two 
corporals with bamboo canes, till their backs were black, 
and swelled like a cushion. However arbitrary this mode 
of correction, the captain endeavoured to explain the 
necessity of it ; the private American sailors being of a 
turbulent spirit indeed when drunk, although when sober 
they may be fairly classed among the best seamen in the 

Early the next morning, while musing on all the dif- 
ferent dangers and chastisements to which the lower class 
of people are exposed, I heard a crowd pass under my 
window. Curiosity mgde me start up, dress in a hurry, 
and follow them : when I discovered three negroes iij 
chains, surrounded by a guard, going to be executed ia 
the savannah. Their undaunted look, however averse I 
may be to the sight of cruelties, so attracted my attention, 
as to determine me to see the result, which was thus : — 
The sentence being read in Low Dutch (which they did 
not understand) one was condemned to be flogged below 

Vol. II. R r the 


the gallows, and his accomplice to have his head stnick 
off with an axe, for having shot a slave who had come to 
steal plantains on the estate of his mistress. The truth 
however Avas, that this had been done by that lady's abso- 
lute command ; but the murder being discovered, she, in 
the hopes of saving her character, besides the expence of 
paying the penalties, gave up her valuable slave, and per- 
mitted the unhappy man to be thus sacrificed. He laid 
his head upon the block with great indifference, stretching 
out his neck ; when, with one blow of the axe, it was 
severed from his body. 

The third negro, Avhose name was Neptune, was no 
slave, but his own master, and a carpenter by trade ; he 
was young and handsome, but having killed the overseer 
of the estate Altona, in the Para Creek, in consequence of 
some dispute, hejiistli/ forfeited his life. The particulars,, 
however, are worth relating : lliis man having stolen a 
sheep, to entertain a favourite young woman, the overseer, 
who burnt with jealousy, had determined to see him 
hanged ; to prevent which, the negro shot him dead 
among the sugar canes ; for these offences of course he was 
sentenced to be broken alive 7tpon the rack, without the 
benefit of the coup de grace or mercy-stroke. Informed of 
the dreadful sentence, he composedly laid himself down on 
his back on a strong cross, on which, with arms and legs 
expanded, he was fastened by ropes : the executioner, also 
a black man, having now with a hatchet chopped off bis 



left hand, next took up a heavy iron bar, with which, by c ii a p. 
repeated blows, he broke his bones to shivers, till the mar- v,,,^*-^-^ 
row, blood, and splinters flew about the field ; but the 
prisoner never uttered a groan nor a sigh. The ropes 
being next unlashed, I imagined him dead, and felt 
happy ; till the magistrates stirring to depart, he writhed 
himself from the cross, when he fell on the grass, and 
damned them all, as a set of barbarous rascals; at the 
same time removing his right hand by the help of his 
teeth, he rested his head on part of the timber, and asked 
the by-standers for a pipe of tobacco, which was infa- 
mously answered by kicking and spitting on him ; till I, 
with some American seamen, thought proper to prevent 
it. He then begged that his head might be chopped otf ; 
but to no purpose. At last, seeing no end to his misery, 
he declared, " that though he had deserved death, he had 
" not expected to die so many deaths : however, (said he) 
*' you christians have missed your aim at last, and I now 
" care not, Avere I to remain thus one month longer." 
After which he sung two extempore songs (with a clear 
voice) the subjects of which were, to bid adieu to his 
living friends, and to acquaint his deceased relations that 
in a very little time he should be with them, to enjoy their 
company for ever in a better place. This done, he calmly 
entered into conversation with some gentlemen concern- 
ing his trial; relating every particular with uncommon 
tranquillity—*' But," said he abruptly, " by the sun it 
B. r 2 " must 


" must be eight o'clock ; and by any longer discourse I 
" should be sorry to be the cause of your losing your 
" breakfast." Then, casting his eyes on a Jew, whose 
name was De Vries, " A-propos, sir," said he, " won't you 
" please to pay me the ten shillings you owe me ?" — " For 
" what to do ? " — " To buy meat and drink, to be sure— 
♦' don't you perceive I am to be kept alive ?" Which 
speech, on seeing the Jew stare like a fool, this mangled 
wretch accompanied with a loud and hearty laugh. Next, 
observing the soldier that stood sentinel over him biting 
occasionally on a piece of dry bread, he asked him " hov/ 
" it came to pass, that he, a white man, should have no 
*' meat to eat along with it ?".^" Because I am not so 
" rich," answered the soldier. — " Then I will make you a 
" present, sir," said the negro ; " first, pick my hand that 
•' Avas chopped off clean to the bones, next begin to dc- 
" vour my body, till you are glutted ; when you will have 
" both bread and meat, as best becomes you;" which 
piece of humour was followed by a second laugh ; and 
thus he continued, until I left him, which was about three 
hours after the dreadful execution. 

Wonderful it is indeed, that human nature should be 
able to endure so much torture, which assuredly could 
only be supported by a mixture of rage, contempt, pride, 
and the glory of braving his tormentors, fiora whom he 
was so soon to escape*. 


* At Demeiary, so late as October^ ^7^9} thirty-two wretches were 


oV/i^ 0,:£^y ////>// (>/ / ^y /■ra/vuy ('^^ //^i:±/?in'/(^ . 


Though I never recal to my remembrance, without chap. 
the most painful sensation, this horrid scene, Avhich must vl^_v-^ 
revolt the feelings of all who have one spark of humanity, 
I cannot forbear exhibiting to the public the dreadful 
spectacle in the annexed drawing. If the reader, how- 
ever, should be offended with this shocking exhibition, 
and my dwelling so long on this unpleasant subject, let 
it be some relief to his reflection, to consider this punish- 
ment not inflicted as a wanton and unprovoked act of 
cruelty, but as the extreme severity of the Surinam laws, 
on a desperate wretch, suffering as an example to others 
for complicated crimes ; while at the same time it cannot 
but give me, and I hope many others, some consolation 
to reflect that the above barbarous mode of punishment 
was hitherto never put in practice in the British colonies. 

I must now relate an incident, which, as it had a mo- 
mentary effect on my imagination, might have had a last- 
ing one on some who had not investigated the real cause of 
it, and which it gave me no small satisfaction to discover. 
About three in the afternoon, Avalking towards the place 
of execution, with my thoughts full of the affecting scene, 
and the image of the sufferer fresh in my mind, the first 
object I saw was his head at some distance, placed on a 
stake, nodding to me backwards and forwards, as if he 

executed in three days, sixteen of without uttering one single com- 
whom suffered in the manner just plaint, 
described, with no less fortitude^ and 



had really been alive. I instantly stopped short, and 
seeing no person in the savannah, nor a breath of wind 
sufficient to move a leaf or a feather, I acknowledge that I 
was rivetted to the ground, where I stood without having 
the resolution of advancing one step for some time ; till 
reflecting that I must be weak indeed not to approach this 
dead skull, and find out the wonderful pha^nomenon, if 
possible, I boldly walked up, and instantly discovered the 
natural cause, by the return of a vulture to the gallows, 
who perched upon it, as if he meant to dispute with me 
for this feast of carrion ; which biid, having already picked 
out one of the eyes, had fled at my first approach, and 
striking the skull with his talons, as he took his sudd( n 
flight, occasioned the motion already described. I shall 
now only add, that this poor wretch, after living near six 
hours, had been knocked on the head by the commisera- 
ting sentinel, the marks of whose musket were perfectly 
visible by a large open fracture in the skull. 

Vultures are compared by some to the eagle, though 
those of Surinam possess very opposite qualities. They 
are indeed birds of prey, but instead of feeding on what 
they kill, like the other noble animal, their chief pur- 
suit is carrion ; wherefore they generally resort to burial- 
grounds and places of execution, which they discover by 
their very acute smell, so much so, that by the negroes 
they are called tingee-fowlo, or the stinking bird. The 
Guiana vultures are the size of a common turkey; they 
1 are 



are of a dark-grey colour, with black wings and tail ; the chap. 
bill is straight with a crooked point, and very strong ; the 
tongue is cloven, the neck without feathers, and the legs 
very short. Besides carrion, these birds will often destroy 
and eat serpents, and indeed every thing that comes in 
their way, until they are so much gorged that they can 
hardly fly. 

The bird called the kitig of the vultures is not very 
common in Surinam, though sometimes the Indians bring 
one or two to Paramaribo for sale, on account of its great 
beauty. This is larger than any turkey-cock, with a 
naked head and neck, the skin of which is partly brown, 
yellow, and scarlet : round its neck it has a dusky, long, 
feathered collar, in which it can at pleasure withdraw, 
and so far hide its neck, that nothing but part of the 
head is perceptible. This bird likewise feeds on carrion, 
serpents, rats, toads, and even excrements. 

Among the other birds of prey in the forest of Surinam, 
is found the crested eagle. This is a very fierce bird, and 
also very strong ; the back is black, but yellowish at the 
base ; the breast and belly white, with black spots, as are 
its thighs, and even the feathers of its legs ; the rest of 
the body is entirely brown, and the claws perfectly yellow. 
The head of this bird is flat, ornamented with four fea- 
thers, two long and two short, which it can erect or depress 
at pleasure. 

About this time the Hind, an English frigate, with 



her tender, were on the coast, looking out for American 

The 24th, being the Prince of Orange's birth-day, the 
■whole corps of Officers were entertained with salt beef, 
salt pork, barley puddings, and hard pease, by Colonel 
Fourgeoud. And this day (poor Joanna being inflexible 
in her resolutions) I ratified the agreement with the good 
Mrs. Godefroy, in presence of her mother and other re- 
lations, whereby the above lady bound herself " never to 
*' part with her, except to myself alone, as long as she 
" lived ; and that upon her death, not only her full liberty, 
" but a spot of ground for cultivation, besides a neat house 
" built upon it, should be her portion for ever, to dispose 
" of as she pleased." After this she returned my remaining 
bond of 900 florins, and gave Joanna a purse with gold 
containing near twenty ducats, besides a couple of pieces 
of East India chintz, advising me at the same time " to 
" give in a request to the court for little Johnny's inime- 
" diate manumission : which," she observed, " was a ne- 
" cessary form, whether I should be able to obtain the bail 
" usually required or not ; and without which formality, 
" even if I had the bail ready to appear, nothing would 
" be done in the course of business." 

Having both of us thanked this most excellent woman, 
I went to sup with the Governor, where being transported 
Avith joy, I gave him my request in full form, which he 
coolly put in his pocket with one hand, while he gave 



nie a hearty squeeze Avith the other; and shaking his 
head, told me frankly, " that he would lay it before the 
" court ; but at the same time was perfectly convinced 
" my boy must die a slave, unless I could find the neces- 
" sary bail, which he was at the same time well persuaded 
" very few people Avould wish to appear for." Thus, 
after spending so much time and labour, besides the ex- 
pence of above a hundred guineas already paid, I had 
still the inexpressible mortification to see this dear httle 
fellow, of Avhom I was both the father and the master, 
exposed to perhaps eternal servitude ; as for Joanna, she 
was now perfectly Safe, to my heartfelt satisfaction. 

One consolation, however, in the midst of this disap- 
pointment, most opportunely presented itself. The fa- 
mous negro, Graman-Qwacy, formerly mentioned, who 
was just returned from Holland, brought the news, that 
partly by his interest a new law Avas there enacted, by 
which all slaves were to be free six months after their 
landing at the Texel ; which, indeed, on application of ^^, 
their masters, might be extended to twelve, but not a 
single day longer on any account whatsoever. — Thus 
being persuaded that I should one day joyfully carry both 
him and his mother over the Atlantic, my heart was 
greatly relieved. 

Of this Graman-Qwacy I will beg leave to give a short 
account, before I take farewell of the reader. Suffice it 
for the present to say, that the Prince of Orange, besides 

Vol. II. S s paying 


paying his out and homeward passage, and giving him 
several presents, sent him back to Surinam dressed in a 
suit of bkie and scarlet, trimmed over with broad gold 
lace ; on his hat he wore a white feather, and looked 
upon the whole not unlike one of the Dutch generals ; 
which goodness made this king of the negroes, however, 
very proud, and even frequently very saucy. 

On the 25th, the Governor of the colony gave a very 
sumptuous feast to several of his friends at his indigo- 
plantation, which was situated but a few miles at the back 
of his palace, v/here 1 had the honour to be invited aa 
one of the party, and had the pleasure of inspecting the 
process of making indigo, a detail of which will probably 
be acceptable. 

In the first place, therefore, I shall present the curious 
with a drawing of the indigo plant, which is a knotty 
shrub produced from seed, which grows to about two feet 
from the ground, and comes to perfection in the space of 
• two months. This plant requires a very rich soil, which 
besides ought to be kept perfect!}^ clean from Aveeds. In 
the plate, A is the colour of the sprig ; B, the leaves 
above ; C, the same below ; D, the seed inclosed in small 
brown pods; E, the size of the leaf as it grows; F, a 
piece of indigo ready made for use. The above sprig 
was designed from nature on the spot, but on a small 
scale : it has something the appearance of the tamarind 
branch, principally in the size of the leaf, which also 
6 «;roAvs 

9^/./'r'^ ,^/V//r .///^//yr _'/■/.////:. 

Londnn.PulOMrd Da-SAjgi, by J.JohrLron, StPaul/ Omrdi- Yard. 


grows in pairs, and is darker above than below ; but at c 11 a p. 
the extremity of each shoot in this shrub, one leaf grows v^^!^,ii/> 
single, M'hich is not the case in the other. The young 
shoot in the tamarind-trees also appears at the extremity 
of the branches; but in this they spring forth, as may be 
seen, from the base. 

The mode in M'hich this plant is converted into indigo 
is as follows : — When all the verdure is cut off, the whole 
crop is tied in bunches, and put mto a very large tub with 
water, covered over with very heavy logs of wood liy 
way of pressors : thus kept, it begins to ferment ; in less 
than eighteen hours the water seems to boil, and becomes 
of a violet or garter blue colour, extracting all the grain 
or colouring matter from the plant : in this situation the 
liquor is drawn ofi' into another tub, which is something 
less, when the remaining trash is carefully picked up 
and thrown away ; and the very noxious smell of this 
refuse it is that occasions the peculiar uuhealthiness which 
is always incident to this business. Being now in the 
second tub, the mash is agitated by pjtddles adapted for 
the purpose, till by a skilful maceration all the grain 
separates from the water, the first sinking like mud to the 
bottom, while the latter appears clear and transparent on 
the surface : this water, being carefully removed till near 
the coloured mass, the remaining liquor is drawn oft" into 
a third tub, to let what indigo it may. contain also settle 
in the bottom ; after wliich, the last drops of water here 

s s 2 being 


being also removed, the sediment or indigo is put into 
proper vessels to dry, where being divefted of its last re- 
maining moisture, and formed into small, round, and 
oblong square pieces, it is become a beautiful dark blue, 
and fit for exportation. Tlie best indigo ought to be 
light, hard, and sparkling. In Surinam but little of it is 
cultivated, for what reason I know not, since one pound 
is sold for about four florins, which is about seven shil- 
lings in sterling money. 

It is said this article was first introduced by one 
Destrades, who called himself a French officer, and 
must have brought it from the island of St. Domingo 
very lately, since I myself was well acquainted with this 
poor fellow, who since shot himself through the head 
with a pistol at Demerary. As the circumstances of his 
death were somewhat remarkable, I cannot resist the 
temptation of relating them. Having involved himself 
in debt, he turned to ready money his remaining effects, 
and fled from Surinam : next setting up in the Spanish 
contraband trade, his all was taken. Deprived of every 
thing, he now applied for protection to a friend at 
Demerary, who humanely gave him shelter : at this time 
an abscess gathering in his shoulder, every assistance was 
offered, but in vain, Mr. Destrades refusing to let it be 
even examined ; his shoulder therefore grew worse, and 
even dangerous, but he persisted in not permitting it to 
be uncovered ; till one day, having dressed himself in his 



best apparel, the family was alarmed by the report of c ii a p. 
fire-arms, when they found him weltering in his blood, ^^,,1.^^ 
with a pistol by his side ; and then, to their surprize, hav- 
ing stripped him, the mark of V. for voleur, or thief, was 
discovered on the very shoulder he had attempted to con- 
ceal. — ^Thus ended the life of this poor wretch, who had 
for years at Paramaribo supported the chara6ler of a 
polite and well-bred gentleman, where he had indeed 
been universally respected. 

Dinner being over at the Governor's indigo-plantation, 
I now departed in his excellency's coach to the water- 
side, Avhere a tent-barge and eight oars lay in waiting to 
row me down to the estate Catwyk, in the River Come- 
wina, whither I was invited by Mr. Goetzee, a Dutch 
naval officer, who was the proprietor of this beautiful 
country-seat. In this charming situation, no amusements 
were wanting. There were carriages, saddle - horses, 
sail-boats, bilhard-tables, &c. all ready for immediate 
use. But what embittered the pleasure was, the inhuman 
disposition of JNIr. Goetzee's ladi/, who flogged her negro 
slaves for every little trifle. For instance, one of the 
foot-bo3's, called Jachj, not having rinsed the glasses 
according to her mind, she ordered him to be whipped 
the next morning ; but the unfortunate youth soon put 
himself beyond the reach of her resentment : for, having 
taken farewell of the other negroes on the estate, he 
went up stairs, laid himself down upon his masters own 



bed, where, placing the muzzle of a loaded fowling-piece 
in his mouth, by the help of his toe he drew the trigger, 
and put an end to his existence. A couple of stout ne- 
groes were now sent up to see what was the matter ; who, 
finding the bed all over bespattered with blood and 
brains, got orders to throw the body out of the windo^v 
to the dogs, while the master and mistress were so very 
much alarmed, that they never got the better of it*; nor 
would any person consent to lie in the same apartment, 
till I chose it in preference to any other, being assuredly 
the most pleasant room, and the very best bed, in the 
house. What added much to the alarm of the famil}', 
was the circumstance of a favourite child lying fast 
asleep in the same apartment where this shocking cata- 
strophe happened. They were, however, relieved from 
their alarms on this score, by being informed that it had 
not received the smallest injury. 

I had not been fourteen days on this plantation, when 
a female mulatto slave, called Yettee, for having jocosely 
said " her mistress had some debt as well as herself," was 
stripped stark naked, and in a very indecent as well as 
inhuman manner flogged by two stout negroes before the 
dwelling-house door (while both her feet were locked to 
a heavy iron bolt) until hardly any skin Avas left on her 
thighs or sides. Five days after this I had the good for- 

* The above unhappy people were poisoned by their slaves about six 
years after this happened. 



tune, however, to get her reheved from the iron-bolt, c ii a v. 
which was locked across her shins : but a IMrs. Van Ei/s, v,^^-^,-^ 
alledging she had affronted her also by her saucy looks, 
prevailed on iNIrs. Goetzee to renew the punishment the 
same week ; when she was actually so cruelly beaten, that 
1 expected flie could not have survived it. 

Disgusted with this barbarity, I left the estate Catwyk, 
determined never more to return to it : but I still accom- 
panying Mr. Goetzee to visit some of his other plantations 
from curiosity, in Cottica and Pirica Rivers, at one of these, 
called the Alia, a new-born female infant was presented me 
by way of compliment, to give it a name, which I called 
Charlotte. But the next morning, during breakfast, 
seven negroes were here again tied up and llogged, some 
Avith a cozi^-skin, Avhich is very terrible. Hence I made 
my retreat to the estate Sgraven-Haguc, and there, meet- 
ing a mulatto 3'outh in chains, whose name w'as Douglas, 
I with horror recollected his unhappy father, who had 
l)een obliged to leave him a slave, and was now dead. 
Heartily tired of my excursion, 1 was now glad to make 
haste back to Paramaribo ; where, as soon as I arrived, the 
first news I heard was that Colonel Fourgeoud's French 
ralet-de-chambre, poor Monsieur Laurant, had actually 
been buried before he was cpiite dead ; — and that, for 
having; been found drunk in an alehouse, no less than 
thirteen of our men had most severely run the gauntlet, and 
as many been terribly bastinadoed, the greatest number 



of which no more saw Europe ; — also, that a Qnaderoon 
youth and a Dutch sailor were found murdered on the 
beach. — I was now proceeding to take a walk on the plain 
or esplanade, but here I was called in by Mr. St — k — r, 
Avho conducted me three stories high : " From this window 
'* (said he) a few days since, leaped one of my black boys, 
" to escape a gentle flogging ; however, having only fainted 
" in consequence of his fall, we soon brought him to hfe 
" again by a hearty scouring on the ribs, so he did not 
" escape ; after which, for having risked himself, that is 
" to say his master's property, and frightened my wife, 
" she ordered him to be sent to Fort Zelandia, where he 
" received the interest, that is a most confounded spcaiso- 
" bocko." 

The punishment called spunao-hocko is extremely se- 
vere indeed, and is executed in the following manner: — 
The prisoner's hands being lashed together, he is laid 
down on the ground on one side, with his knees thrust 
between his arms, and these confined by a strong stake, 
Avhich separates them from his wrists, and is driven pei- 
pendicularly into the ground, insomuch that he can no 
more stir than if he was dead. In this locked position, 
trussed like a fowl, he is beaten on one side of his breech 
by a strong negro, with a handful of knotty tamarind 
branches, till the very flesh is cut away ; he is then 
turned over on the other side, where the same dreadful 
flagellation is inflicted, till not a bit of skin is left, and 



the place of execvition is d^xd with blood : after which 
the raw lacerated wound is immediately Avashed with 
lemon-juice and gun-powder to prevent mortification, and 
then he is sent home to recover as well as he can. 

The above cruel and indecent punishment is sometimes 
repeated at every street in the town of Paramaribo, to men 
and women indiscriminateh', which is a severity absolutely 
beyond conception ; however, it is never thus inflicted 
without a condemnation from the court. But a single 
spanso-bocko, without regard to age or sex, as I have just 
mentioned, may be ordered by any proprietor, either at 
home, or by sending the victim to the fortress, wdth a 
note to the public executioner, to whom some trifle in 
money is paid as a fee of oflice. 

I next was addressed by a Monsieur Kochetaux, whose 
Coromantyn cook, having spoiled his ragout, had just cut 
his own throat to prevent a whipping ; and Mr. Charles 
Heynsdorps lately did the same. 

After these facts, can it be a matter of surprize, that 
the negro slaves rise up in rebellion against masters who 
treat them with so very much severity ? 

As I do not recollect that I have described in what 
manner these insurgents generally attack the estates, I 
cannot introduce it on a more proper occasion. 

Having lain during the night lurking in the bushes 
that surround the estate, they always appear a little be- 
fore day-break, w^hen unexpectedly falling on and mas- 

VoL. II. T t sacrine: 


sacring tlie Europeans, they plunder the chvelling-house, 
wliich they nest set on fire, and then carry off the negro 
women, v/honi they load Avith the spoil, and treat with 
the utmost insolence should they make opposition*. 

And now farewell, I hope, ye wretched objects, who 
have not made the least conspicuous figure in these 
bloody pages ! for which I should be more ready to apo- 
logize to the reader, had I not been induced to make 
cruelty ashamed of itself, and humanity gain ground : 
that at last, in some measure, my motive may be crowned 
with success, I most sincerely wish, abhorring every act 
of barbarity from the very bottom of my soul. 

" Why, Christians, rage thine insolence and scorn, 

" Why burst thy vengeance on the wretch forlorn ? 

" The cheerless captive, to slow death consign 'd, 

" JVeigJfd down with chains, in prison glooms confin'd ; 

" Of hope bereft, wlio, by thy minions curs'd, 

" With hunger famish'd, and consum'd with thirst, 

" Without one friend, when Death's last horror stung, 

" RolI'd the wild eye, and gnaw'd the anguish'd tongue." 

I have already stated that on the 24th of August I gave 
in a hopeless request to the Governor for my boy's eman- 
cipation; and on the 8th of October 1 saw with equal 

* For minute particulars I cannot insurrection of theAmerican Indians, 

do better tlian refer the curious to which are almost perfectly similar to 

Mr, Belknap's History of New those of the African negroes. 
Hampshire ; where he describes tlie 



joy and surprize the following advertisement posted up, 
" That if any one could give in a lawful objection why 
" John Stedman, a Quaderoon infant, the son of Captain 
" Stedman, should not be presented with the blessing 
" of freedom, such person or persons to appear before 
" January 1 st, 1 777." — I no sooner read it, than I ran 
■with the good news to my good friend, Mr. Palmer, who 
assured me, " that the above was no more than a form, 
" put in practice on the supposition of my producing the 
" bail required, Avhich undoubtedly they expected, from 
" my having so boldly given in my request to the Governor 
*' of the colony." Without being able to utter one syllable 
in reply, I retired to the company of Joanna, who, with a 
smile, bid me " never to despair, that Johnny certainly one 
"day would be free;" nor did she ever fail in giving 
me some consolation, however desperate were my expec- 

About this time we were informed, that in tlie Utrecht 
paper an impertinent libel had appeared against the good 
Fourgeoud, ridiculing him for his embassy to the Owca 
and Serameca negroes : which gentleman, though he had 
no assistance from these allies to expect, and his troops 
now melted down almost to nothing, nevertheless scorned 
to keep those that could stand upon their feet inactive. 
Thus, having provided the few remaining privates with 
new clothes {i\\ejirst they had received since 1772) besides 
new sabres, bill-hooks, &c. he sent them all once more 

T t 2 up, 


up, accompanied only by the subalterns, to be encamped 
at the mouth of the Cassipore Creek, in the upper parts 
of the Cottica river ; the staff officers and captains being 
ordered soon to follow : and on the 7th we were treated 
by our commander for the first time, with a sirloin of 
gpod roast-beef, Avhich, however, was sent him from Am- 
sterdam, prepared as I have already described. At the 
dessert was a kind of fruit called in Surinam pomme ds 
canelle, or cinnamon-apple : it grows on a shrub in most 
gardens at Paramaribo, and has something the appearance 
of a young artichoke, being covered with a kind of green 
scales. The skin of this fruit is half an inch thick, and 
the pulp like clotted cream mixed Avith brown sugar: 
it is very sweet, but not much esteemed by many 
palates, being rather too luscious; the seeds, which are 
black, hard, and large, are contained in the pulp or 
creamy substance. 

Having now prepared myself once more for actual ser- 
vice, and again received a profusion of wine, spirits, and 
refreshments of every kind, to carry with me to the 
Avoods, from different friends at Paramaribo; I left my. 
dear mulatto and her boy to the care of that excellent 
woman Mrs. Godefroy, in order the following day to set 
out on my seventh campaign, and hel]), if possible, to 
compleat that business Ave had' so long and so ardently 
undertaken, for the safety and Avelfare of this valuable 
colony, and its lawful inhabitants of every denomination.; 



while happily my health and my spirits were at this time 
once more just as vigorous and as strong, with all my 
limbs as perfectly sound, as the very first day that I 
landed, with Colonel Fourgeoud and his regiment of 
marines, in Terra Firma. 



The Rebels fly for Protection to Cayenne — Third March to 
Gado-Saby — A second 'Reinforcement of Troops arrive 
from Holland — Shipwreck of the Transport Rarainaribo 
— March to Rio Comewina — Dismal Picture of Distress 
and of Mortality — The Peace of the Colony restored. 

/'^N the 10th of November, in company M'ith several 
^■^ other gentlemen, I now once more set out in a tent 
barge for the encampment at the Casseepore Creek ; and 
this da}-^ the whole colony Avas full of smoke, the woods 
having taken fire near the sea side by some unknown acci- 
dent. On our passage we met Colonel Texicr, who came 
from the post Vredenburgh, at the Marawina, with a de- 
tachment ; and assured us, that since the blow we save 
to the rebels at Gado-Saby, they Mere mostly fled to the 
other side of that great river, where they found refuge 
amongst the French who were settled in Cayenne ; he had, 
however, taken a Avoman, and lieutenant Keen took two 
men, and killed two more, while the two new black volun- 
teer companies supported the honour of their colours, 
which they had received with so much ceremony from the 
Governor, by occasionally bringing in captives from the 
sea shore behind Paramaribo, in which they Averc assisted 
11 by 


by the Indians, who had voluntarily fought and defeated 
the enemy there, more than once. Thus every thing pro- 
mised fair to crown our endeavours with success, and 
finally to re-establish safety and tranquillity in the colon}'. 

On our passage we stopped at the estate Saardam, the 
proprietor of which (by a late marriage) Avas our Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Des Borgnes. I found here an American 
sailor who came to load molasses, and having an inclina- 
tion to try the skill of the new planter (and his overseer) 
in rum, I desired the tar to colour a couple of gallons of 
kill-devil made at the very same plantation, and bring 
them ashore as rum brought from Antigua. He did so, 
and they gave him in exchange for it a six gallon keg of 
the very same spirits ; declaring it was much better than 
their own, and then drank the contents in punch, to my 
very great entertainment. The sailor said he should 
colour the six gallons also, and did not doubt of loading 
his boat to the water's edge before he reached Paramaribo. 
— Such, in all countries, is the force of prejudice. 

Having been very well entertained at Saardam, we 
set forward, and arrived safe in the encampment at the 
Casseepore Creek, in Cottica River, on the I3th; where, 
in stepping ashore, being without shoes and stockings, 
I narrowly escaped being bitten by a land-scorpion. This 
insect is of the size of a small cray-fish, and has an oval 
body ; its colour is like that of soot, and it is jointed in 
moveable rings : it has eight legs, divided by joints, and 



two jointed claws projecting from the head, appearing 
hke ]>art of the body, with such small eyes that they are 
hardly perceptible : the tail is formed by seven globular 
divisions like beads, which terminate in a double sting ; 
this it bends over its back, to protect its young ones from 
the attacks of other insects : for to the creature's back the 
young resort, after being hatched from eggs like pin- 
heads, in a small web spun by the female. The sting of 
the land-scorpion is not accounted fatal, but occasions a 
violent pain, and throws the patient into a fever : it is said 
they change their skins, as crabs do their shells. The 
scorpions generally frequent old trees and old furniture, 
and are often found amongst dry rubbish and faded grass. 
Almost the first accidents that I saw here was a poor 
fellow, a marine, going to bathe in the river, avIio was 
instantly snapt away by a large alligator. I no sooner 
beheld him sink and disappear, than having stripped, I 
actually dived after the poor man, by the help of a long 
oar, which a negro held perpendicular under water for 
the purpose, constantly taking care to keep all my limbs 
in motion. However I found him not, and tugging the 
oar as a signal to pull it up, the fellow, by miscomprehen- 
sion, pushed both it and myself down Avith such violence, 
that we did not rise again to the surface till near the 
middle of the stream, Avhich carried down the oar, 
while I regained the shore by swimming and very great 



On the 20th, being now once more ordered to march 
on discovery to Gado-Sabi/, I set out at six o'clock in the 
morning, with two subaltern officers, three serjeants, 
seven corporals, and fifty privates, besides a surgeon, and 
the noted free negro Gousary (whom we lost for three 
or four hours) and encamped near the banks of the 
same creek, not having been able to advance above six 
miles due Avest from its mouth. 

On the 21st we marched north for about seven or eight 
miles, without meeting with one drop of water to alle- 
viate our burning thirst, it being at this time in the very 
heart of the dry season, which this year was more scorch- 
ing than I ever remembered it before. 

Plaving noAV changed my course to the north-cast, and 
passed the quagmire, about noon the following day we 
marched dri/ through the late fatal marsh, and an hour 
after we kept due west; wlien, falling in with a large 
field of yams, we demolished it; then proceeding for- 
ward, I encamped in the old settlement Cofaay, almost 
choked for want of Avater, not having met with any 
thing like it from the moment we sat out. Here, Iioav- 
ever, the negro slaves found means to procure us some, 
which, though stagnant and stinking like a kennel, avc 
drank, straining it through our shirt-sleeves. 

During this march, I nevertheless took notice of the 
following trees, not yet described, viz. the canavatepy, 
and the berklack, which are extemely fit for domestic use. 

Vol. II. U u The 


The first is beautifully striped, black and brown, and has 
much the appearance of that usually called brazil, Avhile 
it diffuses a smell in working not inferior to that of a 
carnation. The second is a pale red or pink colour, and is 
equally good for almost every purpose. I was this day 
also presented with a singular kind of fruit, called here 
the marmalade hox, being about the size of a large apple, 
rather oval, and all covered over with down. This fruit 
in the beginning is green, and Avhen ripe it turns to a 
brown colour : the husk is hard, and by a certain motion 
opens in halves like a walnut, v/hen the pulp appears 
like that of a medlar, being a sv/eet brown substance, and 
adhering to large kernels, which the inhabitants suck 
off with avidity ; and from this it derives the above 
name. As I took no particular notice of the tree, I 
am sorry not to have it in my power to give any account 
of it whatsoever. 

The 23d I marched east from Cofaay, with a view of 
obtaining some fresh accounts of the rebels; and pro- 
ceeded by a path of communication through cultivated 
fields, but fell in with nothing, some delightful views, 
and a large herd of warree hogs, excepted, which from 
the gnashing of their teeth and their stamping the ground 
before we saw them, we had actually mistaken for a 
straggling party of the enemy, and had consequently 
fresh primed, and prepared to engage them. 

About noon we returned to Gado-Sahj, ^\herc, sitting 
1 3 down 


down to rest from our fatigue, a tall old rebel negro ap- 
peared suddenly in the very midst of us, Avith a long 
Avhite beard, a Avhite cotton sheet tied about his slioulders, 
and a broken cutlass in his hand. Seeing this venerable 
apparition, I instantly started up, and forbidding my 
people to fire at him, I civilly desired him to approach 
me, pledging myself that no person under my command 
should dare to hurt him ; but that he should have every 
thing for his relief that I could afford. — He answered, 
" No, no, massera \" with the utmost delilaeration, and 
shaking his head in an instant disappeared ; while two 
of my men (contrary to ni}^ orders) fired after him, at 
the distance of perhaps six paces only, yet both missed 
their object, to my great satisfaction, he being a poor for- 
saken creature that had been left behind the rest, glean- 
ing a precarious subsistence from his own deserted fields 
wdiich we had formerly destroyed. What renders the 
negroes so difficult to hit with a ball is this, that they 
never run straight forward, but zig-zag, like the forked 
liffhtnino- in the elements. 

I now, to fulfil my orders, once more ransacked Cofaay, 
with its adjoining plains, though Avith a sore heart, on 
account of the poor lonely old rebel. Here, having cut 
down several cotton and plantain-trees, okero or althea, 
pigeon pease, maize, pine-apples, and some rice, most 
of which had spontaneously sprung up again since our 
Jast devastation, I could not help leaving, before a little 

u u 2 shed. 


CHAP, shed, where was some fresh ashes and banana shells, a 
y^^^..,^^ few rusk biscuits, and a good piece of salt beef, as also a 
bottle of new rum, for the unfortunate solitary old man,- 
this being his retreat; after which we once more en- 
camped in the fields of Cofaa3^ 

Having so frequently mentioned rice, it may be ex- 
pected that I should say something concerning its growth 
and cultivation. It rises to the height of four feet, Avitli 
furrowed stalks, and in appearance is not unlike wheat, 
but the stalks are knotted by hitervals, and stronger; the 
leaves are like those of reeds : the seeds are produced 
somewhat like barley, and grow on each side of the 
spikes or ears alternately. The or-yza or rice is cultivated 
in a warm and marshy soil ; the grains are oval, and if good 
ought to be white, hard, and transparent. As for the 
use of this commodity for food, it is so well known, that 
I shall only say, that without this grain our poor marines 
must long ago have all been starved, particularly in 
August 1 775 ; Avhen, for all allowance, they got per day one 
rusk biscuit, and three spikes of maize or Indian corn, for* 
Jive men; rice alone supplying, as I have intimated, the 
rest of the allowance. 

Having no^v fully completed my commission, I, with 
my detachment, marched back for the Casseepore Creek, 
directing my course through the ruined fields of Gado- 
Saby, which were at present choked up to a perfect 
wilderness. Hence we kept first to the south-west, and 



then due south, after whicli we shuig our hammocks chap. 
near a former encampment. It is to be observed, that at v^^Ti^ 
this time all the marshes were nearly dry, on account of 
the hottest season I ever remember ; while the fa>tid smell 
occasioned by the quantities of dead Avarrapa fish, that 
had been deserted by the Avater, Avas an intolerable nui- . 
sance. From amongst these putrid fishes, our negro 
slaves nevertheless selected the most tolerable, Avhich, 
fried in the evening, served them for a delicate morsel. 

The morning following we again marched south-Avest 
by Avest, Avhen we slung our hammocks not above four 
miles from the Cassepore Creek ; and on the 26th (keep- 
ing south-south-west) we arrived in the grand camp, much 
fatigued and emaciated, myself with a SAvelled face or 
erysipelas ; Avhen I gave in my journal to Lieutenant- 
Colonel de Borgnes, Avho commanded *: and I believe, 
upon my honour, that had Ave been ordered to remain 
tAventy years on this expedition, Avitli a possibility of saving 
our lives, the different diseases, plagues, and torments, 
Avould still have accumulated and varied Avithout end. 

A detachment of fifty men Avas next sent out to recon- 
noitre at Jerusalem, &c. ; and on the 6th of December 
the long-expected relief, consisting of three hundred and 
fifty men, arrived in the river Surinam from Holland, 
after a voyage of nine Aveeks and three days, of Avhich 
they spent a fortnight at Plymouth. 

* See the above route, and all the where they are by tliiferent lines 
others to Cado-Saby, in Plate LVI. distinctly niarived. 



By these the unfortunate account was brought, that 
Captain Jochem Meijer (who had on board a considerable 
sum of money for our troops) was taken by the Moors, 
and carried ^\'ith his crew to Morocco, where they were 
condemned to be slaves to the emperor*; and that the 
ship Paramaribo, Captain Spruyt (being one of the vessels 
that carried over the sick in the beginning of August) was 
wrecked and entirely lost in the channel, on the rocks of 
Ushant ; but that by the exertions of some French fishing- 
boats, the crew and troops had all been saved, and carried 
into Brest, Avhence they had taken a fresh passage for the 
Texel ; after which the Prince of Orange (who M'as ever 
distinguished for benevolence, and doing good and hu- 
mane actions) ordered the officers and private men, above 
one hundred in number, to receive the following sums, 
by way of defraying their loss, viz. each marine received 
about four, the subalterns thirty, the captains forty, and 
Major Medlar, who commanded, fifty pounds sterling. 
HoAvever, by this shipwreck, I lost all my three chests 
of sweetmeats and pickles, besides parrots, butterflies, 
monkies, &c. intended as presents to my friends in Eu- 
rope, Avhich indiscriminately went to the bottom, to lui/ 
no small mortification. 

Having now for about a month been lodged in a paltry 
hut, beaten by the wind and shoAvers of rain (which began 
to set in unexpectedly) ; and being informed, that not- 

* The above captain and his crew were since set at lil)erty, having 
been ransomed by the Dutch. 



withstanding the arrival of the rehef, we were still to 
stay sometime longer in the woods, which broke many 
hearts; I, on the 12th of December, earnestly set about 
building for myself a comfortable house, and which was 
finished, without either nail or hammmer, in less than six 
days, though it had two rooms, a piazza with rails, and a 
small kitchen, besides a garden, in which I sowed, in 
pepper-cresses, the names of Joanna and John ; while my 
next-door neighbour, who was my Iriend Captain Bolts, 
made shift to keep a goat, and thus we lived not alto- 
gether uncomfortably. Others kept hens and ducks, but 
not a cock was to be seen in the camp ; for these, having 
first had all their tongues cut out to prevent their cro-w- 
ing (though to no purpose) had been since condemned to 
lose their heads. In short, our gentlemen built a row of 
very curious houses indeed, all projecting from the beach ; 
while, on the opposite side, above a hundred green huts 
being constructed to receive the new-come troops, the 
whole together formed no contemptible street, though it 
must be confessed its inhabitants were little better than 

What was most remarkable in my own habitation, 
however, was its entry, which Avas not by the door, nor 
yet by the window, but only by the roof, where I crept 
in and out, allowing absolutely no other admittance ; and 
by this contrivance alone I was effectually guarded from 
those frequent visitors who smelt my pancakes, and used 


to make too free with my eggs and bacon, besides inter- 
rupting me while I was drawing, writing, or reading. 
Upon tlie whole, I must acknowledge, that this encamp- 
ment was agreeable enough (more so as being on elevated 
ground), had it not been for the pestilential damps and 
mephitic vapours that exhale constantly from the earth, 
and had already sent numbers to the other Avorld. 

During this short space of tranquillity I constructed in 
miniature my cottage in which T lived at the Hope, on an 
oblong board of about eighteen inches by twelve, which 
being entirely made of the manicole-tree and branches, 
like the original, was esteemed a master-piece ; and this I 
sent as a present to my friend Mr. de GraafFat Paramaribo, 
who since placed it in a cabinet of natural curiosities at 
Amsterdam. As I am upon this subject, I am tempted 
to present the reader with a view of two of my habita- 
tions, the one that at the Hope, where I spent such happy 
days ; and the other temporary, such as in the woods we 
constructed to be sheltered from the Aveather : — the first 
may be considered as the emblem of domestic felicity ; 
the second of rustic hardship and fatigue. 

The troops of the Society of Surinam, who had been 
encamped at the Wana Creek (the rainy season prema- 
turely setting in) now wisely broke up, and on the 26th 
passing by us, rowed down the river Cottica on their way 
to the plantations in the Pirica Creek ; but as for us, we 
were as usual condemned to linger in the Cassipore camp, 


t^yfca^i/ne'r or c/ieeA^/n^ ^^< ^^^y t/f^ .^r/v-v/ 

^^./'rJyJ^^l'real-^M^■ ^^/?^/^^_ 

LoiidM^.ViMijhtd- Drrri-Cij,/!,!,, J.Johwon.S.'TauV, ChurA lard. 
' 73 


while Fourgeoud still kept snug at Paramaribo. With 
the above officers we received intelligence that a few 
more rebels had been taken at the Marawina ; while we 
ourselves daily continued to send out patroles to the right 
and left, but met with nothing to capture. 

At last, on the 29th, six barges came to an anchor before 
our encampment, with part of the fresh troops that were 
arrived from Holland for our relief; which I could not 
help viewing with compassion, and not without a cause, 
many of them being already attacked with the scurvy, and 
other loathsome diseases. We however sent for bricks, 
and built an oven to bake fresh bread. Sec. and did all 
that was in our power to comfort them : having received 
also a supply of wine for my own use, I gave a hearty 
welcome to all the officers, to cheer their spirits ; but this 
ill-fated liquor had an effect far different from vhat I in- 
tended on one of our captains, P 1, by name, who, 

from some misunderstanding, challenged me to fight him 
instantly. Having retired to some distance from the 
camp, and drawing our sabres, he burst out into an im- 
moderate fit of laughter, and throwing away his weapon, 
desired me " to cut awa}' ; but that for his part he had 
" such a real regard for me, that he felt it was impossible 
" for him to make any resistance :" after which, catching 
me in both his arms, he gave me so hearty an t mbrace, 
that he had nearly stifled me, and I could not without 
the greatest difficulty get disentangled. Being recovered 

Vol. II. X X from 


from my surprize, I could not help smiling in my turn ; 
and after a friendly reprimand re-conducted my valiant 
opponent to the company, where we closed the year 
with the greatest mirth and conviviality. 

A confounded tumble through my hammock having 
ushered in the morning of 1777, Av^e went to the com- 
manding officer of the camp, to pay him the compli- 
ments of the season ; where I was shown the philander, 
or Mexican oppoasum, here called awaree, which had been 
just taken alive, and with all its young. 

1 have already mentioned the murine oppossum ; thus 
shall noAV only describe such peculiarities as I was able to 
remark, and which were indeed but few in number, the 
animal being in the bottom of an empty hogshead when I 
saw it, its biting preventing me to take it in my hand.— 
In the first place, it was much larger than the former, 
this being the size of an over-grown Norway rat : the 
colour was a yellowish grey all over, and the belly and 
limbs a dirty white; the muzzle was more blunt than 
that of the murine oppossum, with long whiskers ; its 
eyes not black but transparent, Avith a black ring round 
the iris; the tail extremely long, thick, and hairy, par- 
ticularly near the root, and its smell was very offensive. 
This oppossum had a pouch under his belly, formed by 
the folding of the skin, which is hairy Avithin as Avell as 
without; from this pouch I saAV the young ones (five or 
six in number) several times run out, when the mother 



was not disturbed, and a? often run into it upon the 
smallest noise, or shpking the hogshead. — As I pitied the 
poor creature, after its having been so long tormented, 
I suddenly kicked up the hogshead, when the oppossum 
with all its young escaped, and ran swiftly up a very high 
tree before Colonel Seyburg's cottage, and there it hung 
by the tail to one of the branches ; but as it is a dread- 
ful destroyer of poultry, and the Colonel apprehended that 
it would kill every one of his fowls, he ordered it, to my 
sorrow, to be shot do\vn Avith all its young ones. — The 
Virginian oppossum I never saw ; and my only further 
remark on this shall be, that its activity very much sur- 
prized me, as many writers have denied it this quality. 
For further particulars, I refer the reader to the murine 
or mouse oppossum above-mentioned, as in most circum- 
stances these two animals perfectly agree. 

Among the destroyers of poultry, there is another ani- 
mal in this country, known by the name of quacy-qiiacy : 
some call it the racoon, but which properly is the coati- 
mondi, or Brasilian weasel; though many people, with 
some degree of pi"opriety, compare it to a fox, as it is 
often able to carry away a goose or a turkey, and is also 
extremely cunning. This creature is sometimes near two 
feet long, the body shaped like that of a dog, and com- 
monly black, or rather dark brown, though many are of a 
blight bay colour : the tail is long, hairy, and annulated 
with black, and a deep buff; the breast and belly are a 

X X 2 dirty 


dirty white; the head is a light brown, with long jaws, 
and a black snout that projects upwards for near two 
inches, and is moveable like that of the tapira ; the eyes 
are small, the ears are short and romided, while on each 
side a curved stripe connects them and the muzzle ; the 
legs of the coati are short, especially the foremost ; the feet 
are very long, with five toes on each, and long claws, 
while the animal, hke the bear, always Avalks on the heel, 
and stands on those behind. No quadrupeds (the mon- 
kies not excepted) are better climbers on the trees, where 
these creatures commit dreadful ravages amongst birds- 
nests, every small animal which they can conquer be- 
coming their prey. In the poultry-yards in particular 
they commit great devastations, on which account every 
contrivance that can be invented is put in practice to 
destroy them. 

As I am upon the subje6t of animals, before I leave 
the woods I must describe another creature, which inhabits 
them, and which (though moi'e than twice the size of 
the last) lives chiefly on ants ; this is the great ant-eater, 
or ant-bear, called also the tamanoir, and by the Spa- 
niards the osa palmera. The body of this animal is co- 
vered over with very long shaggy hair ; on the back and 
belly it is black, and on the neck and sides a grey or 
yellowish white ; the head is extremely long and slender, 
of a light bay colour, with veiy small eyes ; the cars are 
short and round, and the moutli (which has no teeth) just 


.^//ur^- /a/^^i^/i^^-/^y, >if 'Y'r//^ -(^ ^ //r///// -< 

l.,,,„l,'ii. rnhn.,l„,l ]><;-r-j'."'j7!),%hyJ..lo/ui.'<ll .I'/yiiil.r iy„irr'i r,n,l 


large enough to admit its tongue ; the tail is of an enor- 
mous size, with very long black hair, something like that 
of a horse : with this extraordinary tail, when asleep (which 
is generallv: in the daytime, or during a hard shower of 
rain) the animal covers itself like a squirrel ; at other times 
he trails it along, and sweeps the ground. The limbs are 
silender, but covo;ed with long hair; the hindmost legs 
being shortest and black, with five claws ; those before are 
of H dirty while, \\ ith but four claws, the two nuddle claws 
being of an extraordinary length. 

The great ant-cater is a very bad walker, resting always 
on the heel of his awkward long feet, like the coati and 
bear; but he is a better climber, and so good a fighter, 
that no dog will hunt him, since whalever animal he 
catches between his fore claws (nay even the jaguar or 
tiger) he will not release while he has life. His food, as 
I have said, consists of ants, which he takes in the follow- 
ing manner: — when he comes to an ant-hillock, he unfolds 
his slender tongue, which is about tAventy inches long, 
most exactly resembling a worm ; this being covered 
over with a clammy matter or saliva, the ants get upon 
it in great numbers, and by drav/ing it into his mouth, 
he swallows thousands all alive, and renews the operation, 
till no more are to be found, when he marches in cjuest 
of another mountain, and in the same manner destroys 
the uuAvary inhabitants. He also climbs in quest ol wood- 
lice and wild lioney ; but should he meet with little suc- 
cess in his devastations, he is able to fast a considerable 



time M'ithout the smallest inconvenience. It is said that 
the great ant-bear is tameable, and that then be will pick 
crumbs of bread, and small pieces of flesh ; also that 
when killed, he affords good food to the Indians and ne- 
groes, the last of which I have seen devour his flesh with 
pleasure. Some ant-bears measure, from the snout to thq 
tip of the tail, no less than eight feet. — See the two last- 
described animals in the plate annexed. 

A small species of ant-bear, called the tainnndua, is 
also found in Surinam, though not very common. This 
differs from the former in having twenty toes, the head 
being thicker in proportion, and the tail smaller, which 
is variegated with bands of black and yellowish Avhite. — A 
lesser species still is called the fourmilUer, which, however, 
never came within my observation. — But to proceed. 

On the 3d, six more barges with troops came up from 
Paramaribo, which completed the number of three hun- 
dred and fifty men arrived from Holland. Amongst these, 
being informed there was a Captain Charles Small, come 
from the Scots Brigade, this gentleman having exchanged 
with poor Ensign IMacdonald (who was sent over sick) 
I instantly sculled down the river alone in a canoe to meet 
him, and offer him my assistance. I had no sooner got 
on board his barge, than I found him suspended in a 
hammock with a burnins; fever. He, not knowing me 
on account of my dress, which was no better than that of 
the most ragged sailor, asked me what I Avanted ; but 
when he saw in me his poor friend Stedman, changed 
1 from 


from a stout spriglitly young fellow, to a miserable debi- 
litated tatterdemalion, he grasped me by the hand, with- 
out uttering a word, and burst into tears : which agitation, 
while it increased his illness, shewed the goodness of his 
heart to me, more than any thing he could have uttered 
on the subject. — " D — n your blubbering, Charles!" said 
I ; " turn out of this stinking cockle-shell : I'll presently 
" cure thee ;" and getting him hoisted into my canoe, I 
brought him on shore to my own habitation, but with 
the greatest difficulty, being obliged to thrust him through 
a crevice made on purpose, as the hole in the roof was 
not calculated even for any healthy person's admittance, 
myself excepted. Having here slung his hammock near 
to my own, and boiled some water, I treated him with 
warm grog and a toasted biscuit, and he became much 
better from that very moment. He now acquainted me 
that one of his men was drowned on the passage ; and 
that Colonel Fourgeoud having entertained the officers 
with a ball after their landing, at which one of his cooks, 
and a couple of meagre marines, had been the fiddlers, 
he concluded his illness to be the consequence of too 
much dancino;. A little after this. Colonel Fourgeoud 
himself appearing in person in the camp amongst us, he 
soon, however, entertained us with musick of a difl^erent 
kind ; which was no less than the discouragiag news, 
that by theuiewly arrived corps of officers several of us 
had lost our rank (both in the regiment and in the army) 



c II A P. after parching above four years in a burning sun, toiling 
^.^^-.y^J^ ourselves almost to death, and subsisting upon stinking 
meat and black rusk. To add to this grievance, while 
the above gentlemen usurped our preferment, we were, 
instead of being relieved, ordered to continue in the 
Avoods, in order to teach them their duty. 

During the above unpleasing probation, the major's 
duty again fell to my share ; which was at this time ex- 
tremely disagreeable, being obliged daily to chastise the 
men, many of whom pilfered the magazine to alleviate 
hunger, having been without the article of bread for 
SCVC71 days, the oven being dropped to pieces. Amongst 
others, one poor fellow was nearly flogged to death for 
having borrowed one of the colonel's Bologna sausages ; 
for, let it be remembered, that our commander in chief, 
whatever might be the distress and hardships of the rest, 
never forgot to support his own dignity, by at least half 
a dozen of stout negroes loaded with bacon hams, Bologna 
sausages, bullocks' tongues, tea, coffee, sugar, Madeira 
wine, Holland's gin, &c. — 

Courage may prompt, but, ebbing out his strength, 
I\Iere unsupported man must yield at length : 
Shrunk with dry famine, and with toils declin'd, 
The drooping body will desert the mind; 
But built anew with health-conferring fare, 
With limbs and soul untam'd, he tires a war. 



At kngf b, on the Sth, a barge arrived, not only witli a 
supply of salt beef and rusk, but a bullock and two hogs, 
as a present from Mr. Felmaii, who, accompanied by his 
lad}', &c. came actually on a visit to Fourgeoud, in this 
very strange encampment. The above animals being im- 
mediately killed, they were distributed among four hun- 
dred people ; so that it may well be conceived the shares, 
though sweet, were not very large, after which the com- 
pany walked about to view our different habitations. 
Being arrived at my dwelling, Fourgeoud led them round 
and round, but seeing no door to get in, he called out, 
" Nobody at home .''" When I instantly thrust my head 
through the thatch, with a pancake in my hand, 
and offered to haul in the ladies ; but this they civilly 
declined. I never saw Fourgeoud laugh so much in my 
life. As soon, however, as he was able to recover his 
gravity, he exclaimed, " Sacre Dieu ! IlJ'aut etre Stedman, 
" — ilfaiit etre original comme lid ;" and re-conducted the 
company to his own apartment, where he gave me an 
invitation to follow them. Indeed, when Captain Small 
and I went out, we generally spent our time in a beautiful 
savannah, where we had erected a green shed, to be free 
in conversation, and called it Ranelagh ; here we caroused 
and cracked a bottle in private, till we could crack no 
longer, having lived so well that in a little time more 
than a week my cheese and bacon hams quite disappeared, 
and not a drop of wine or rum was left in the flasks. — 

Vol. II. . Yv After 


After this he, as well as I, were obliged to live on short 
allowance ; Avhile Small had the satisfaction, however, to 
see his shipmates do the same : who, not being ac(]uainted 
with the oeconomy necessary in a forest, had made all their 
flour into plum-pudding, and were already obliged to 
break their teeth on a piece of rye rusk. 

In short, so early as the I2th, one hundred and fifty of 
these newly-arrived people were already ordered to march ; 
when, by the way of seasoning them, besides heavy ac- 
coutrements and a hammock, they had orders each man to 
carry a stuffed knapsack on his back. Of this party, my 
friend Small happened to be one, who being as corpulent 
as Sir John Faljlaff, and I having accoutred him in the 
above manner, the poor fellow could hardly walk at all ; 
till declaring to Foiirgeoud that I must roll him along like 
a hogshead, he got leave to be disengaged from a part of 
his unwieldy encumbrances. 

Every thing being ready, this loaded detachment now 
faced to the right, and set out, with Colonel Fourgeoud 
at their head, for the river Marawina : and while I must 
here acknowledge that this Chief was now become to my- 
self as civil as I could expect or desire, yet justice compels 
me to add, that to all others he remained just as inflexible 
a tyrant as ever I had known him ; which character he 
imhappily seemed to think compatible with his rank. 

During their absence, I crossed the water, and cut down 
a cabbage-tree on the other side of the river Cottica, not 



only for the cal>bagc, but for the sake of the groe-groe c ii a p. 
worms, with wliich I knew it Avouhl swarm in about a \^_^^_,-^ 

Straying here through the woods with my black boy 
Quaco, I met with the following trees, still left for de- 
scription, viz. the cedar, the hrown-lieart, and the bullet- 
tree. The first, though it bears that name, is different 
from the cedars of Lebanon, which grow in a pyramidical 
form. The Surinam cedar, however, grows also to a great 
height, but is principally esteemed because the wood is 
never eaten by the worms or other insects, on account 
of its great bitterness ; it has also a most agreeable smell, 
and is therefore used in preference to most others for 
making chests, cupboards, lockers, and all sorts of joinery ; 
besides which, it is employed in making the tent-barges 
and other boats. The colour of the timber is a pale 
orange : it is both hard and light, and from the trunk 
exudes a gum (not unlike the gum Arabic) which is trans- 
parent, and diffuses a most agreeable tlavour. 

The brown-heart is in hardness of the same consistency 
as the purple-heart, and the green-heart already men- 
tioned, and is shaped into heavy timber for the same 
purposes, such as constructing sugar-mills, &c. : the co- 
lour of this wood is a beautiful brown. — The other is the 
bullet-tree ; this tree grows sometimes to sixty feet, but 
is not so thick in proportion as many others : the bark 
is grey and smooth, the timber brown, variegated or pow- 

Y y 2 dered 


dered with white specks. No wood in the forest is equal 
to this in weight, being heavier than sea-water, and so 
very durable, that when exposed to the open air neither 
rain or sun have any effect on it ; for this reason, liesides 
its other various uses, it is split into shingles to roof the 
houses, instead of slates or tiles, which, as I formerly men- 
tioned, would be too heavy and too hot. These shingles 
are sold for £. 4 sterling a thousand at Paramaribo, and 
continue sometimes tAventy-four years before they are 

I ought to mention also a kind of mahogany, which is 
found in the woods of Guiana, called the dncolla-bolla, 
and which is of a superior quality to any which is im- 
ported here, being of a deeper red tolour, and of a finer, 
more equal, and compact grain ; also of greater hardness 
and weight, and thus capable of receiving a more elegant 

About this period the whole camp was infested with a 
kind of wood-lice, so called in Surinam, but with more 
propriety they might be termed white ants, resembling- 
them almost in every particular, except that the ants 
dwell in the ground, and these build their nests on the 
trunks of trees: these nests, being black, round, and 
irregular, are not unlike the Avoolly head of a negro, but 
sometimes as large as the half of a hogshead, and com- 
posed of a rust-coloured incrustated earth, which is ex- 
tremely hard, and impenetrable to the weather. In this 



mass, which internally consists of innumerable cross 
roads, each the size of a goose-quill, they live together 
in myriads, whence they sally forth, and commit their 
depredations, unequalled by any other insect in Guiana, 
piercing through the hardest wood, leather, linen, or 
whatever comes in their way. They also frequently get 
into the houses by an incrustcd covered road made against 
the wall, resembling the half of a sliding pencil, which 
is with its windings sometimes several hundred feet long: 
if this is not destroj-ed upon its first appearance (which 
must be done by arsenick or the oil of turpentine) as 
they crumble every thing to dust, whole dwellings Avill 
be entirely demolished, and come down to the ground in 
rubbish. These insects (notwithstanding their fetid abo- 
minable smell) are reckoned a very good food for poultry, 
who are said to thrive on them even better than on Indian 
corn. I ought not to forget their extreme industry 
in repairing their habitation when injured, and their 
wonderful power of propagation, which (let ever such 
numbers be destroyed) brings them in a very short tinv^ 
to their former unaccountable multj})licit3\ 

To another pest we were also frequently subjected in 
this camp, and this was no less than clouds o^ flying lice, 
which covered our clothes sometimes so thick,, that they 
absolutely gave them the appearance of grey cloth. This 
was owing to the shedding of their M^ngs, which, being 
four in number,, they generally left behind them after 



they alighted, and beiiio; thus without the means of flying 
off' again, they remained on our jackets ; except however 
thus covering us all ovei', they caused us no other incon- 
venience. It is the opinion of some naturalists, that 
these flying lice are no other than the above-mentioned 
wood-lice, which when they become old get wings, leave 
their nests, and fly about, like some otiier ants, both in 
Europe and in America. 

About this time the discipline was peculiarly strict in 
the camp, so that whoever made the very least noise 
Avas most severely punished, nay, threatened to be shot; 
and even the sentinels were ordered to challenge rounds 
and patrols by no other sound than whistling, which was 
answered in the same manner. 

On the 18th, one of these being condemned to be 
flogged for speaking loud, I however found means (Four- 
geoud not being yet returned) to get him pardoned, after 
he was already stripped. The following day, nevertheless, 
evinced that I could punish when things were carried too 
far ; for seeing a large piece of boiled pork (about two 
pounds weight) flying past me with great velocity, and 
finding it was thrown by one marine to another, while 
they had got a <^uarrel, I instantly ordered them to pick 
,it up, and (having cut it in two) I stood over them myself 
■till they swallowed every morsel of it in my presence, 
sand and all, without either bread or drink : which they 
since declared was such a punishment as surpassed my 
1 conception, 


conception, and they sliould remember it to the end of c ii v p. 
their lives. ^^1^ 

On the 23d, I received from town a well-timed supply 
of wine and fresh provisions ; and the same day Colonel 
Fourgeoud, with his detachment, arrived from the Mara- 
wina. During this trip, our active commander had 
again discovered and destroyed fifty-nine houses, besides 
three fields of provisions. This certainly gave the finish- 
ing blow to the rebel negroes, since, having no further 
supply on this side the water, they entirely abandoned it, 
and went to settle in the French colony Cayenne. In this 
hard though necessary service the men had suffered pro- 
digioush', especially those newly arrived ; numbers of 
whom were carried in hammocks on poles, while near 
thirty Avere left sick at the jNIarawina, and my friend 
Small was at least one stone lighter. 

At this time, in the camp hospital, above one hundred 
were also dangerously ill. Nothing was heard but sighs 
and the shrieking of the strix or Guiana owl, which for 
ever kept them company during the dismal nights. 
Cramps, so common in Surinam, also infested those that 
Avere able to do duty ; and there reigned a general melan- 
choly all around. 

■ " The circling sky, 

" The wide enlivening air, is full of fate ; 
" And, struck by turns, in solitary pangs 
" They fall, untended and unmourn'd." 



Here one man was to be seen covcied over with bloody 
boils from head to foot ; there another led along by two 
of his comrades in a deep lethargy, who, in spite of 
])inching and pricking, dosed into eternity ; a third, swelled 
by the dropsy, and imploring the surgeon in vain to tap 
oif the water (who generally answered that it was too late) 
was left to expire by suffocation. In the hospital sonie 
were observed clasping their hands, and praying aloud to 
God to be relieved ; while others lay at their side in a 
frenzy fever, tearing their hair, blasplieming Providence, 
and cursing the day that they were born. — In short, all was 
dreadful beyond description, by the pen of a Milton 

" Sad noisome dark, 

" A lazar-house it seem'd, wherein were laid 

" Numbers of all, diseas'd : all maladies 

" Of ghastly spasm or racking torture ; qualms 

" Of heart-sick agony, all feverous kinds, 

" Convulsions, epilepsies, fierce catarrlis ; 

" Demoniac frenzy, moping melancholy, 

" And moon-struck madness ; pining atrophy, 

" Dropsies, and asthmas, and joint-racking rheums ; 

" Dire was the tossing, deep the groans ; Despair 

" Tended the sick, busiest from couch to couch. 

*' And over them triumphant Death his dart 

" Shook, but delay'd to strike, though oft invok'd 

" With vows, as their chief good and final hope." 



From day to day mortality now gained ground, while chap. 
by some accident, to complete the distress, part of the .^^^JJ", 
camp got on fire ; but this was fortunately extinguished 
without any material ill consequences, by the activity and 
exertions of the poor negroes. 

On the 26th 7ni/ misery, however, drew towards an end, 
when, to my astonishment, and without my asking it. 
Colonel Foui-geoud gave me a leave of absence, if I chose 
it, to accompany him, and stay henceforth at Paramaribo ; 
which, without hesitation, I most joyfully accepted. Thus, 
having made my friend Captain Small a present of my 
house, my Ranelagh, and all my fresh provisions, besides 
entertained him and some other officers on a dish of 
mountain-cabbage, and my groe-groe worms, which were 
just come to perfection, besides a hearty glass of wine, 
I took my last adieu from them all ; and at midnight, with 
Colonel Fourgeoud, rowed down the River Cottica in an 
elegant barge with ten oars, in company with two more 
of his officers. — And now farewell once more, ye shady 
Avoods, thou pleasing gloomy forest, pregnant with so 
many wonders, and so many plagues, and which, in the 
opinion of so many sufferers, even surpassed the ten 
plagues of EgT/pt !* 

* Should it be remarked that dur- though both of little use, had been 

ing this expedition some unchristian- provided, nothing like a parson was 

like expressions have escaped, let it ever seen amongst us, from the day 

be at the same time recollected, that we sailed from the Texel. 
while surgeons and even cooks. 

Vol. II. Zz „-^«lhavc 


" I have sent among you the pestilence after the 

" manner of Egypt : your young men have 1 slain with the 
" sword — I have made the stink of your camps to come up 
" unto your nostrils : yet have ye not returned unto me, saith 
" the Lord." 

The boat being shoved off, Colonel Fourgeoud now 
declared to us, that having ransacked the forest in every 
direction, and driven the rebels over the Marawina in 
Cayenne, he was determined no more to return to the 
woods, but in a few weeks to draw the long and painful 
expedition to a conclusion. 

Now, reader, it remains Avith you to acknowledge that 
I have not led you about the bush, but through it, with 
indefatigable perseverance : the more so, when it is to be 
considered that in the middle of the above hurry and 
distress, under which so many have sunk, I have often 
been deprived of pen, ink, and paper to make proper an- 
notations ; which last defect I have even more than once 
supplied by writing with a pencil on my cartridges, or on 
a bleached bone : had this not been unavoidably the 
case, more accuracy and many more remarks might with 
justice have been expected, which one need never be at a 
loss to make in a country so replete with different objects 
for speculation. 

Having rowed all night, and breakfasted at the new 

cordon (which was begun to be cut not far from our 

former post Devil's Harwar) on a dram and a biscuit, 

3 we 


we came about noon to the estate Lapaiv, where we 
dined with the planter, Monsieur Rivieres ; after which 
Fourgeoud, with his adjutant, proceeded on their voyage 
to town, while I with another officer went to the sea-side 
at the back of the plantation to shoot snipes and curlews. 

On our march thither and back again, passing two 
posts of the Society, the flag was hoisted, refreshments 
offered us, and every other civility shewn us that was in 
the power of the commanding officers. In shooting, 
however, we had very little sport, except that of killing 
some snipes, which flew in such clouds that they almost 
darkened the sky ; so that by only firing from time to 
time above our heads at random, we brought down scores 
at every shot, but they were of such a diminutive species, 
that they were scarcely worth the picking up. We might 
have here killed birds of greater size, such as spoon-bills, 
cranes, red curlews, and wild ducks of many kinds, had we 
not unluckily been cut off from the banks on which they 
were scattered, by the sea overflowing the quicksands 
betwixt us and them. They afforded us, nevertheless, a 
most delightful view, the beech appearing at a distance 
like a sheet of scarlet and purple, embroidered with every 
other colour. 

The shoveler or spoon-bill (which has some affinity to 
the cranes) is about the size of a goose : the legs are not 
very long, and it is web-footed but for a little way be- 
tween the toes : the feathers are a beautiful rose-colour, 

zz 2 though 


though they are white when 3'oung ; but the bill is truly 
remarkable in this bird, being flat, much broader before 
than at any other part, and circular, in some degree re- 
sembling a spoon, from which it takes its name. They 
are said to feed on frogs, rats, and lizards, yet fish is evi- 
dently their principal nourishment, from their frequent- 
ing the sea-side, and having a fishy taste when they are 

The crane orjabiru of Surinam, I can best compare to 
a stoik, of which it has much the appearance, but is 
larger. The body of this bird is milk white, but the 
prime feathers of the wings and tail are black : the limbs 
and toes are excessively long ; but I observed one pecu- 
liarity which distinguishes it from all other birds, viz. 
that it frequently sits upon the heel : the neck and bill 
are of an uncommon length, the latter being strong, and 
a little hooked at the point. The head of the crane or 
jabiru is perfectly black, on account of which, among the 
Dutch, it obtained the appellation of a negro-cop. It fre- 
quents the coast, like the others above mentioned, and 
lives entirely on fish : this bird is easily tamed. I have 
seen a couple of them in the poultry-yard belonging to 
Colonel Fourgeoud. — (See both these species of sea-fowls 
in the plate annexed, where the last is represented sitting 
in the posture I have described.) 

To delineate the different species of wild ducks that 
are in Surinam with any degree of accuracy, is a task 


^^^€^^^)?./7oy7yu0^o?- ,s^^^7^e/e/r. 

^/i^^a/^ /^f-i-, o/- { /'a^/K:y6y^/y^^^/^///a^. 

l,:iid.'n,PuHufud Drc.''i<'i-;^.l)v J.Jolinton.SH'aia:, Clairch Yard. 


which I acknowledge to be far beyond my reach. Suffice chap. 
it therefore to say, that in general they are not very large, v,,^,--.^ 
but adorned with the most splendid tints and most beau- 
tiful plumage that can be imagined, particularly those 
they call the cawereerkee, the sookooroorkee, and the amia- 
kee, AV'hich last are the smallest. No Avater-fowl of any 
kind, Avithout exception, can be more delicate eating than 
all those I have just mentioned ; while some of them 
are tameable, and frequently seen amongst the poultry on 
the plantations. 

Having the following day the opportunity of a boat, I 
prosecuted my voyage down the Cottica River till I came 
to Paramaribo, where in fine spirits and perfect health 
(however strange) I arrived that very same evening, and 
where I was most heartily welcomed by my many friends 
Avith the warmest congratulations on my still existing, 
after having escaped so many dangers, and been so long 
deprived of every comfort — torn by thorns, stung by 
insects — starved, tormented, emaciated, and Avounded — 
often without clothes, health, rest, money, refreshments, 
medicines, or friends ; — and after having lost so many of 

my brave companions, Avho lay buried in the dust. 

Thus ended my seventh and last campaign in the forest 
of Guiana. 



Some Account of a remarkable Negro. — The Troops prepare 
for Europe.-^Description of a Coffee Plantation. — Plan 
of Reform for the Increase of Population, and univerfal 
Happiness. — One more Instance of horrid Barbarity ; and 
Example of Humanity. — The Hegiment embarks. 

BEING now once more arrived in town, and wishing 
to be no longer troublesome to any body, I hired a 
very neat small house by the water-side, in which we 
lived nearly as happy as we had done at the Hope. 

The first person that visited me here was the American 
Captain Lewis, of the Peggy, who, to my great concern, 
told me, that poor Macdonald, the grateful sailor, had 
died on the homeward passage, after being twelve days at 
sea ; and desired him in his last words to return me, with 
his good wishes, the mother-of-pearl cork-screw I had 
formerly given him. He farther acquainted me also, to 
my sorrow, that three English vessels had been captured 
by the American Revetitie privateer sloop, which lay at 
this time, with her prizes, in the road before Paramaribo ; 
one of which, belonging to Ireland, was valued at above 
£. 50,000 sterling. 



Having been waited on by a number of planters and c 11 a p. 
others with congratulations on our success against the .^^^^^^^^ 
rebels ; amongst the rest appeared the celebrated Gramman 
§luacy, who came to shew me his fine coat, gold medal, 
&c. Avhich he had received as a present from the Prince 
of Orange, in Holland. This man, being one of the most 
extraordinary characters of all the negroes in Surinam, 
or perhaps in the world, 1 cannot proceed without giving 
some account of him ; the more so, as he has made his 
appearance once or twice already in the course of this 
history. — This African (for he was born on the coast of 
Guinea) by his insinuating temper and industry, not only 
obtained his freedom from a state of slavery, but by his 
wonderful ingenuity and artful conduct found the means 
of procuring a very competent subsistence. 

Having got the name of a lockoman, or sorcerer, among 
the loAver slaves, no crime of any consequence was com- 
mitted, especially at the plantations, but Gramman Quacy, 
which signifies Great-man Quacy, was instantly sent for 
to discover the perpetrators, which he so very seldom 
missed, owing, in fact, to their faith in his sorceries, 
added to his penetrating look* and authority among them, 
that he has often prevented farther mischief to their 
masters; and, for these services, occasionally received 
very capital rewards. The corps of rangers, and all 

* See in Chapter XXV. the manner in which I myself discovered a thief. 



fighting free negroes, are under his influence; to Avhom 
he sells his obias or amulets, in order to make them invul- 
nerable, and, of course, to engage without fear : by which 
deceit he has most certainly done much good to the 
colony, and at the same time filled his pockets with no 
inconsiderable profit to himself; Avhile his person by the 
blacks is adored and respected like a God. The trash 
of which his amulets are made costs him in reality no- 
thing ; being neither more nor less than a collection of 
small pebbles, sea-shells, cut hair, fish-bones, feathers, 
&c. the whole sewed up together in small packets, which 
are tied with a string of cotton round the neck, or some 
other part of the bodies of his credulous votaries. 

But besides these, and many other artful contrivances, 
he had the good fortune, in 1730, to find out the valuable 
root known by the name of Quacict bitter, of which he 
was actually the first discoverer, and from which it took 
its name : and, notwithstanding this medicine is now 
less in repute in England than formerly, it is highly 
esteemed in many other parts of the world for its efficacy 
in strengthening the stomach and restoring the appetite. 
It has, besides this valuable property, that of being a 
powerful febrifuge, and may be successfully used when 
the bark is nauseated, as is frequently the case. 

In 1761, it was made known to Linnceus by Mr. 
d'Ahlberg, formerly mentioned ; and the Swedish natu- 
ralist has since Avritten a treatise upon it. By this drug 


y//r rr/rr/(///v/ ly /'/■/////'/ // ^w///r// . 

Lt'iiiliii,l-i,/'l,:,/i,;/Jlr.-rj"/'jT,i^/;./..rr/,n.';ii-i;Pmil.! iViiiii-/, T.inl . 


alone Quacy might have amassed riches, were he not 
entirely abandoned to indolence and dissipation ; the con- 
sequence of which is, a complication of loathsome dis- 
tempers, of which the leprosy is one: and that disorder 
is, as I have already stated, absolutely incurable. Never- 
theless his age, though he could not exactly ascertain it, 
must have been very great, since he used frequently to 
repeat that he acted as drummer, and beat the alarm , 
on his master's estate, Avhen the French coitimodore, 
Jacques Cassard, put the colony under contribution, in 
the year 1712. 

Having taken a portrait of this extraordinary man, 
with his grey head of hair, and dressed in his blue and 
scarlet with gold lace, I, in the annexed plate, beg leave 
to introduce it to the reader. 

This very same week we had indeed a fresh proof of 
the good effects of Gramman Quacy 's animating- obias or 
amulets, a captain of the rangers, named Hannibal, 
bringing in the barbacued hands of two rebel ncgi'oes, 
which he had himself encountered and shot ; and one of 
these hands proved to be that of the noted rebel Cupido, 
formerly taken in 1774, and brought to Colonel Four- 
geoud in the forest, but from whom he had since that 
time, though loaded with chains, found means to run 

In returning the visits of my friends, I paid one to Mr. 
Andrew Reynsdorp, who shewed me the loop and button 

Vol. II. 3 A of 


of his hat, which being diamond, had cost him two hun- 
dred guineas — such is the luxury of Surinam. But even 
this is exceeded by the magnificence of M. cT Ahlhergh, 
who, Avhen I waited on him, besides a gold snuff-box set 
with brilliants, value six hundred pounds sterling, made 
me remark two silver bits (small pieces of money) set in 
gold, and surrounded with diamonds, with this inscrip- 
tion : 

" Soli Deo Gloria. Fortuna beaticuin, &c." 

Having signified m}^ surprize at this peculiar attention 
and respect to two sixpences, he declared to me that they 
were all the money he had in the world when he first 
came to Surinam from his own country, Sweden. — " Did 
" you work ?" said I. — " No." — " Did you beg P" — " No." 
■ — ■" You did not steal, sir i" — " No : but, entre notis, I 
" whined and acted the enthusiast, which sometimes is 
" very necessary, and I found preferable to the other 
" three." — To which I answered, " Sir, your candid con- 
" fession brings back to my remembrance your usage of 
" your negro slave. Baron, after having promised him his 
" manumission in Amsterdam, and fully proves what 
" you have just asserted." — One instance more of the ex- 
travagance and folly of the inhabitants of this colony, 
and I have done: Two of them disputing about a most 
elegant and expensive carriage that was imported from 
Holland, a law-suit ensued immediately, to determin& 



M'lio was to possess it, during whicli time the coach was 
left uncovered in the street till it fell to pieces, and was 
totally destroyed. 

On the 10th of February, most of our officers being 
now arrived at Paramaribo from the camp, Colonel 
Fourgeoud entertained the whole with a feast, as he was 
pleased to call it, at the head-quarters ; an old stable Ian- 
thorn, with broken panes of glass, hanging over our heads, 
which I expected every moment to drop into the soup. 
And here he acquainted us, with evident marks of satis- 
faction, that he had at last put a final end to the expedi- 
tion ; having, notwithstanding there was so little blood- 
shed, perfectly accomplished his aim in rooting out the 
rebels, by destroying twenty-one toavns or villages, 
and demolishing two hundred fields with vegetables 
of every kind, on which they depended for subsistence : 
also that the intelligence was now confirmed, that the 
negroes were to a man fled over the River Mara^vina, 
where they and their friends were settled, and protected 
by the French colony of Cayenne, Avho not only gave 
them shelter, but supplied them with every thing they 
wanted. On which good news we all heartily congratu- 
lated him, and drank further prosperity to the colony of 
Surinam with three cheers; the future safety of which 
now depended on the new cordon or path of circuinvalla- 
tion, defended by the troops of the Society, and the corps 
of black soldiers or rangers. 

In Dr. Firmyns works. Colonel Fourgeoud and his 
3 A 2 troops 


troops are twice mentioned as the saviours of the colony ; 
and by the Abbe Rer/nal they are noticed as a very brave 
and vahant corps : compliments to which they are Avith 
truth entitled. And what cannot but redound to his 
honour, is, that at the time he imposed such hardships 
on his own troops, he never deliberately put a rebel negro 
captive to death, nor even, if he could avoid it, delivered 
them into the hands of justice ; well knowing that while 
it was his duty to expel them, nothing but the most bar- 
barous usage and tyranny had driven these poor people 
to this last extremity. Indeed I myself, whom during 
the first three years he persecuted with unremitting 
severity, must do him the justice to say, that he was 
indefatigable in doing his duty ; and that, though con- 
fused, I believe him at bottom to have been an undaunted 
and very brave officer. 

He further acquainted us, that the vessels, with a fresh 
supply of provisions from Holland, had been cast on the 
lee-shore in the Texel Roads, one of them having her 
upper cabin stove away, with the second mate and three 
of her men washed overboard ; he added, however, that 
part of the stores had been saved, and loaded on board 
two bilanders, which were this very day arrived in the 
River Surinam. And now, so much in pai'ticular was I 
become his favourite, that he even made me his confi- 
dant; and . declared, that he proposed keeping the last 
arrived troops, however fast they were dying a^vay (and 
who had lately lost a man by straying in the woods) en- 


camped for many months after our departure. He then 
began to tell me what officers he meant, if possible, to 
ruin on their return, and which, by his recommendation, 
he intended to promote : but here I took the hberty to 
stop him short, by declaring, upon my honour, that those 
very gentlemen should be apprised by myself of their im- 
pending danger, if he persisted in carrying this cruel plan 
in execution. This at least had the effect to end the dis- 
agreeable conversation : when, in my turn, I added, 
" Sir, permit me farther to put you in remembrance of 
" these very troops you have just mentioned, in regard to 
*' their truly distressed situation at the Casseepore Creek ; 
" while their surgeon is gaining gold watches and dia- 
" mond rings by curing fashionable diseases among the 
" gentry at Paramaribo." To which he replied, " Vous 
" etes un brave garcon ;" and promised to take my hints 
into consideration. 

I was now invited once more by Captain Mackneal to 
spend a few days on his coffee estate, Sporksgift ; but 
though I was prevented on this occasion from accepting 
the invitation, I will take this opportunity to describe 
that useful berry, which, nat being a native of Guiana, it 
is said Avas first planted in Surinam by the Count deNeakf 
though others ascribe it to one Hansbadi, a silversmith,, 
in 17ii0*. 

* la 1554, the coffee-berry first il was introduced iu London ; and iu 
came to Conslantinopletroui Arabia. 172S, hy Sir Nicholas Lazca, it was 
About the middle otthe 16th century plunted \n the islaud of Jamaica. 



The coffee-berry is the produce of an elegant tree, 
which is seldom allowed to grow higher than a man can 
reach, in order to facilitate the gathering of it. The 
bark of this tree is light brown, and the leaves like laurel, 
having a beautiful polish ; with these it is thickly covered, 
the branches diverging from near the surface of the earth 
to the summit. The berries, which are oval, are first 
green, and gradually change their colour, till they are 
ripe, when they acquire a bright crimson hue, like that of 
a cherry. In each of these berries are two kernels resem- 
bling beans, lying flat upon each other. Of these a good 
tree is said to produce three or four pounds weight at each 
crop ; for this tree, hke most other vegetable productions 
in this luxuriant climate, bears two crops every year. 

To give the curious a better idea of this useful plant, 
I present him with a sprig of it, copied from nature in the 
annexed plate ; — in which the figure A refers to the wood, 
where it was cut off; B is the upper side of the leaf; C 
the lower side of the same; D is the berry just beginning 
to change; H the same in full perfection, being of a beau- 
tiful crimson ; and F the kernels or beans as they appear 
when they are divested of their husk, and ready for ex- 

The buildings on a coffee estate are, first, the dwelling 
house, which is usually situated for pleasure near the 
banks of a river; and for convenience adjoining to it 
are erected the out-houses for the overseer and book- 
keeper, with store-houses and small offices: the other 
1 1 necessary 



'?/y i^^j 


London, Puilirhtd I>tcri-^J^,ht JJohn^n.S.'J'aul/- Church Y.ird. 


7. Tdf DM'elli/u} Howe 
'2. The Over.ive/v Jiwellmij 
3 . TTic Bool-keepav Office 
4 .Tfie KhcJien 
o.T/ie StiTefu'Use 

6 .TIte J'cmltry hoitse 

7 .Ttic HoifJ-st\' 

B.T/ie Boat- fiOu.'e or .'mall Bock 
9 .Tfie Ciirpcritnv aL- Coofer.f LoA)e 

lO.Tlic Bniitq LoJiff tor the Cottee 

II . Tfie Biid.''C7ici L oilt/r Tar do 

I2.T7ie JSrip-o - fioiLfej' 

I 3. Tfie Hor.ce Stahleo- 

14. TIte Fold for STieep .4- JiiJlodc^- 

15. Tlie Great Guwd fioiisc 

I6.r/te Ho.,jyaal 

1 7 . Tfie Fic)ean - fiaiux 

1 8. Tfie Coni-ftouse or Granary 

I9.I7ie'toy hauses 

'iO.Tlic SentiT Baxej tor Watehmen 

to the Plan. 

Z J. Tfie F/ood,>ate.f 

'^2. Tfie Gnat Brau-fridyfe 

2S.Tfie Limdimj Place 

24. Tfie Great \anal<- 

2n Tfie Ifi'rer or Ovek 

20'.77ie Grnvef uaflc.<- 

27 Tfu- Brynu) Ftoor for Coffee 

28. Tfie Neqro Oeo-dejuf 

29. Tfie To.ftiur for the Jfoivej- 

3 0. Tfie Pa,>tun- tor tlie Sheep fi' BiiHocAv 
3 1. Tfu Toidtiy -yimi 
3 'i . Tfie Hoqs - 1 a/d 
33. Tfie Kdc/ien Ganlerw 
3 4-. Tfu- Ffouer do 
35 .Tfie Tfantain Tire.<- 
36. Tfie Gnne.f of Orange Tree^ 
37 .Tfie Biim.f S- Gutter.^ for Braniinej 
3 8. Tfie Tilth to enter tfie Fields 
3 9. The Bridfles over the Giittav 
40 .TIte Gate.!, Btnrietv, Sec. 

^.^^//yf^a^'Tei^u^^'/r ^.f/^f- (/'//■/ //A/ //^ 

London, ridilijh,.! Da 



necessary buildings are a carpenter's lodge, a dock and 
boat-house, and two capital cofFee-lodges, the one to bruise 
and separate the pulp from the berries, the other to dry 
them ; the rest consist of negro-houses, a stable, hospital, 
and warehouses, which altogether appear like a small vil- 
lage. The coffee-lodge alone sometimes costs five thousand 
pounds sterling, and sometimes more. But to give a more 
complete idea of tlie whole apparatus, I must refer to the 
plate, where all the buildings, fields, paths, gardens, 
floodgates, and canals are marked, and explained by the 
necessary references. The plan, as exhibited in this plate, 
is intended to unite at once elegance, convenience, and 
safety. It is elegant, as being perfectly regular ; conve- 
nient, as having every thing at hand and under the 
planter's own inspection ; and safe, being surrounded by 
a broad canal, which by floodgates lets in the water fresh 
from the river, besides a draw-bridge, which during the 
night cuts off all communication from without. 

I shall now proceed to the planting-ground, which is 
divided into large square pieces, in each of which are 
generally two thousand beautiful coffee-trees, growing at 
■ eight or ten feet distance from each other. These trees, 
which begin to bear at about the age of three years, are 
in their prime at six, and continue to produce fruit till 
they are thirty ; the manner of supplying them being 
from good nurseries, which no coffee estate is ever with- 
out, having already mentioned that they afford two crops 
every year, which is about Midsummer and Christmas. 



At the times of harvest, it is not unpleasing to see the 
negroes picking the crimson berries among the pohshed 
green, where all ages and sexes are employed to fulfil their 
task -with ardour, -when the youth who having first filled 
their baskets, wantonly run naked, and play amongst the 
luxuriant foliage. 

I will now conduct them before the overseer's presence, 
where, all the baskets being inspected, the flogging com- 
mences, which is mostly inflicted with impartial severity on 
all %ho have not fulfilled their tasks, whether from idleness 
or incapacity. This ceremony concluded, the berries are 
carried home into the bruising-lodge, and the slaves re- 
turn home to their houses. The berries being bruised in 
a mill for that puri)ose, in the above lodge, to separate 
the kernels from the husks or pulpy substance, they are 
next steeped in Avater one night to cleanse them, and then 
spread on the drying-floor, which is exposed to the open 
air, and is constructed of flat stones ; after which they 
are spread on garrets made for the purpose, to let them 
evaporate and dry internally, during which time they 
must be turned over every day with Avooden shovels : 
this done, they are once more dried in large coolers or 
drawers, that run easily on rollers in and out of the win- 
dows, to prevent them from being overtaken by showers 
of rain : then they are put into wooden mortars, and 
beaten by candle-hght with heavy wooden pestles, like 
the rice at Gado-Saby, to divest them of a thin coat or 
pellicle that unites the two kernels in the pulp. At this 



exercise the negroes wonderfully keep time, and always sing 
a chorus. Being next separated from the chafli' through a 
bunt-mill, once more thoroughly dried on the coolers, and 
the whole beans picked from the bruised, which last are con- 
sumed in thccolony : they are finally put intocasks or barrels, 
of abont three or four hundred weight each, for exportation. 

I shall only farther observe, that in Surinam some coffee 
plantations produce above 1 50,000 pounds weight per 
onmim ; and that, as I have already mentioned, in the year 
before our arrival no less was exported to Amsterdam alone 
than 1 2,267,1 34 pounds of this valuable article, the prices of 
which have fluctuated, from threepence halfpenny to eigh- 
teen pence ; but which, calculated at the average price of 
eightpence halfpenny, produces a yearly income of not 
less than 400,000 pounds sterling; (which is no despicable 
rev^enue) besides what goes to Rotterdam and Zealand. 

This is sufficient to prove that the cultivation of coffee 
is highly worthy the attention of the planters : and as 
for the virtues of this excellent berry, Avithout entering 
into particulars, I will only refer the reader to that highly- 
approved pamphlet, entitled, " A Treatise concerning the 
" Properties and Effects of Coffee ; b}^ Benjamin Moseli/, 
" M. D. Author of Observations on the Dysentery of the 
" West Indies ;" from which I cannot resist the temptation 
of extracting the following passage: — " Bacon says, coffee 
" comforts the head and heart, and helps digestion. 
** Doctor JVillis says, being dail}' drunk, it wonderfully 
" clears and enlivens each part of the soul, nnd disperses 

Vol. II. 3 B " all 


" all the clouds of every function. The celebrated Doctor 
" Harvei/ used it often. Voltaire lived almost entirely on 
" it ; and the learned and sedentary' of every country have 
" recourse to it to refresh the brain, oppressed by study 
" and contemplation." 

With the above description I must conclude the obser- 
vations which I have been able to make on such of the 
vegetable productions of this colony as have offered 
themselves to my examination. But so abundant is the 
variety, and so extraordinary the properties, of the trees, 
plants, roots, &c. of this countr}^ that by far the greater 
number are as 3'et perfectly unknown to the oldest inha- 
bitants of this settlement, and to all the world besides. 

A few years ago a Count Geiitelly, an ingenious noble- 
man, travelled through the desarts of Guiana with some 
Indians, and had acquired considerable knowledge in this 
his favourite study. But alas ! his labours, which pro- 
mised fair to be of material benefit to the Botanic 
Society, and to mankind in general, were interrupted by a 
fever, which, owing to his excessive fatigue, he caught at 
the River Corrcntine, and cut him oft' in the midst of his 
useful and entertaining researches. 

Having now concluded my account of the different 
productions of the colony, particularly cotton, sugar, 
cacao, indigo, and coffee, to which it is indebted for its 
riches; and having once more repeated that the diflerent 
trees, shrubs, plants, roots, gums, and perfumes, are 
€qually as innumerable as they are excellent ; I cannot 



have a fairer opportunity of fulfilling ny promise of 
submitting to the reader a few considerations, by an at- 
tention to Avhich 1 cannot help thinking that not only 
Surinam, but the West India colonies in general, might 
accumulate wealth to themselves, and promote the per- 
manent happiness of the slaves that are under their sub- 
jection, without having recourse to the Coast of Guinea to 
supply the almost hourly consumption of that unfortu- 
nate people. But before I proceed, it will be necessary 
to state the manner in which the negro slaves are distri- 
buted and treated, by the customs of this settlement 
onl}^ without adverting to the distribution or government 
of them in other colonies; from M'liich, however, those 
may equally derive some profit ; — and then I shall endea- 
vour to point out how, in my opinion, the}^ ougfit to be 
distributed and treated, according to the laws, not only 
of humanity but of common sense. 

I have before observed that in Surinam there are sup- 
posed to be on an average about 75,000 negro slaves of all 
denominations, which (allowing them, for the sake of a 
round number, to amount to 80,000) are here distributed 
in the following extraordinary maimer, viz. The planta- 
tions, being about 800 in number, though some have but 
2'i negroes and others 400, we will suppose them to possess 
100 slaves each, which complement is exactly the above 
number of 80,000 peoj)le. These are employed in this 
settlement as follows ; the first column of fisrurcs alludins 
to ojie estate, the second ditto to cigfit hundred. 

3 n 2 





One Estate. 


Soo Estates. 

Four boys or male servants to attend about the 

house ------- 

Maids or female servants to wash, sew, iron, &c. 

A cook for the planter, overfeer, &c. 

A fowler, or huntsman, to provide game for the 

table .--.__- 

A fishing negro to provide fish for ditto 
A gardener to provide the table and the flower 

garden ----_.- 
To attend the bullocks and horses on the estate 
To attend the sheep on the estate - - - 
To attend the hogs on the estate - - - 
To attend the poultry that is on the estate - - 
Carpenter negroes, to build houses, boats, &c. 
Cooper negroes, to make and repair hogsheads - 
A mason to build and repair the brick foundations 
At Paramaribo, some to trades, others for shew - 
A negro surgeon, to attend the sick negroes - - 
Sick and incurable, that are in the hospitals - 
A nurse for the negro children that cannot be 

with their parents - - - - . 
Children under age, that can do no work of any 

kind -.-._.- 

Superannuated negroes, worn out by slavery 
To work in the fields no more than 25 miserable 
wretches --___- 

Total, or complete number of slaves in the colony 


























By this it appears, that no more than 20,000, or only 
one-fourth of the whole number, are condemned to do 
all the labour of the fields, on whom it may be said 
chiefly falls the dreadful lot of untimely mortality that I 
have formerly mentioned. Now it is evident, that if 
the 50,000 able-bodied slaves that are in the colony of 
Surinam Avere put to equal drudgery, the mortality, which 
is noAV at the rate of five per cent, would then increase to 
at least the number of twelve out of every hundred, and 
would completely extirpate the whole mass in little more 
than eight years time. 

Having thus at an average demonstrated how they are 
distributed, I must briefly observe, that while full 30,000 
live better than the common people of England, and near 
30,000 are kept in idleness, and do no work in the fields; 
the remaining 20,000 may be classed (that is in general) 
among the most miserable wretches on earth ; and are 
Avorked, ftarved, insulted, and flogged to death, without 
being so much as allowed to complain for redress, with- 
out being heard in their own defence, without receiving 
common justice on any occasion, and thus may be con- 
sidered as dead-alive, since cut oft' from all the common 
privileges of human society. 

I will now proceed, by candidly asking the world, If the 
above is not an improper and senseless misapplication, not 
only of wealth, but of human life and labour; which, 
only by a proper distribution and management, might 
accumulate the one and relieve the other .'* 



Now would this inconsiderate colony but give up their 
liabits of pride and luxury, nay, in a moderate degree, 
20,000 negroes at least might be added to those now 
labouring in the fields, Avhich (providing the whole were 
treated with less severity) must at the same time keep 
the above superfluous number of idlers employed ; and 
by assisting the others in their necessary occupations, 
could not but tend greatly to prevent that shocking mor- 
tality, to which they are at present exposed by unbounded 
ill-usage and barbarity. 

But every reform must begin at that which is the source 
of manners as well as oi justice ; and those therefore who 
are entrusted with the executive government should have 
no temptation to overlook the breaches of a law, while 
it ought to be a sacred and invariable rule never to allow 
either the governor or the magistrates of such a colony 
to be the proprietors of more slaves than merely a limited 
number, to attend on their persons, according to their 
ranks: since more than once, even to my observation, it 
■iias occurred that those who made, and those who were 
.^appointed to enforce the laws, have been the first that 
hrolce them, for the paltr}' benefit of causing their negroes 
to work on a Sunday, or to follow the bent of their un- 
bounded passions; from which shameful example from 
Ihe magistrate, the contagion must necessarily spread 
among the individuals. 

Let the governor and principal magistrates, therefor^, 

be sent out from Europe; let them be gentlemen of 

1 fortune 


fortune and education ; and above all, men of liberal g h a p. 
minds, men that are firm and proof against the allure- ^J^JL^^ 
ment of a bribe, or the glittering of gold, and whose 
passions are restrained by sentiment and manly feelings. 
Let these men be handsomely rewarded by that nation 
whom they so materially serve, and the colony which 
they so conspicuously protect; but let their salaries be 
ascertained, without depending on the blood and sweat 
of the miserable Africans. Then let such men enact 
impartial regulations, by which the negro slaves are to 
perform no more than their fair task and labour a rea- 
sonable number of hours in the twenty-four: let these be 
followed by protecting laAvs, and let them be no longer 
racked, tormented, wantonly murdered, or infamously rob- 
bed of all that is dear to the human affections, their wives 
and daughters. Let regulations be adopted by which 
they may be pi-operly fed, and attended to when sick or 
indisposed ; and, above all, let equal justice be admini- 
stered ; suffer them, when outraged or plundered, to obtain 
a hearing ; permit them to complain, and enable them to 
prove by evidence the grievances by which they are op- 
pressed. Even give them what we so much value our- 

JURY, nay» partly composed of their own sable compa- 
nions. Thus, would you have them work and act like 
men, first suffer them to be such. 

AYhen regulations conform to these shall be adopted and 


enforced, then I venture to say, that nations will feel the 
benefit of their colonies — then planters will become rich, 
UTid their overseers become honest ; then slavery will be little 
more than a name ; and subjects will, with pleasure, fulfil 
their limited task : then, and not till then, Avill population 
sufliciently increase for the necessary work, and the exe- 
crable Guinea trade be totully abolished, which is now too 
frequently carried on with barbarity and unbounded usur- 
pation. Then the master will with pleasure look on his 
gable subjects as on his children, and the principal source 
of his happiness, while the negroes will bless the day 
their ancestors did first set foot on American ground. 

Having thus, according to my opinion, pointed out 
the way, and the only way (if well considered) to redress 
the grievances of this and many other colonies, I would 
^Iso recommend to planters and overseers in general, to 
peruse with attention a small work, entitled, " Letters to 
" a young Planter ; or Observations on the Management 
^' of a Sugar Plantation : to which is added, the Planter's 
.*' Calendar. AVritten on the Island of Grenada, by an old 
" Planter," and published in London in 178.5, 8vo. price 
One Shilling and Sixpence, and sold by Strachan. 

Let them next lake an example by that incomparable 
woman Mrs. Godefroy, by Mr. Thomas Palmer, and a few 
.others, who consider their slaves as their fellow-creatures, 
without paying the smallest regard either to their pagan- 
ism or complexion ; and who increase both their wealth 



and their happiness by their humanity. — I will now once 
more proceed with my narrative. 

On the l6th, being invited to dine with his excellency 
the Governor, I laid before him my collection of drawings, 
and remarks on the colony of Surinam, which I had the 
satisfaction to see him honour with the highest appro- 
bation. I then returned him my thanks, not only for 
the material assistance he had afforded me in completing 
this work, but for tlie unlimited marks of regard and 
distinction Avith which he had treated me from first to last, 
during the whole time I resided in Guiana. 

Availing myself of his friendship, I ventured, two days 
after, to give him the following very uncommon request, 
praying him to lay it before the court ; which, with a 
smile on his countenance, and a hearty shake by the hand, 
he actually promised me to perform ; viz. 

" I, the under-subscribed, do pledge my xcord of honour, 
" (being all I possess in the world besides my pay) as bail, 
" that if my late ardent request to the court for the emanci- 
" pation of my dear boy Johxny Stedma?? be granted, the 
" said boy shall never lo the end of his life become a charge 
" to the colony of Surinam. 

(Signed) " John G. Stedman." 

" Paramaribo, 
" Feb iStli, 1777." 

Having now done the utmost that lay in mi/ power, I 

for several days waited the result with anxiety, but with- 

VoL, II. 3 C out 


out meeling Avith the smallest hopes of success : thus, 
with a broken heart, I Avas obliged at last to give him 
(sweet fellow) over for lost, or take him with me to 
Europe, w^hich must have been plunging a dagger in the 
bosom of his mother. 

While I remained in this situation, the transport ships 
were put in commission on the 26th for our departure, 
and I myself ordered as one of the commissaries to see 
them wooded and watered ; the officers w ere also cleared 
their arrears, and thirteen men discharged at their own 
desire, to push their fortune at Paramaribo. I ought 
here not to omit, that the industrious Colonel Fourgeoud 
once more paid us all in paper, by which, as usual, we 
lost ten per cent. ; which, by letting the Jews have the 
gold and silver, he prudently lodged in his omu pocket ; 
and while the, many hundreds of florins allowed us by 
government to defray excise duties, taxes, &c. were never 
brought to account, or, rather, we were forbidden to 
enquire after them at all. These were trifles indeed, when 
divided among so many gentlemen ; but, in one solid 
mass, they were no contemptible picking. 

On the 1st of March a serjeant arrived from the camp 
at the Casseepore Creek, in Rio Cottica, where the last- 
arrived troops were hourly dying away ; and brought the 
almost incredible account, that the man I mentioned to 
"have been lost in the woods on the 1 0th of February, was 
actually returned, after having been missing six-and-twenty 
\ dai/s, 


days, nine of which he subsisted on a few pounds of rusk chap. 


biscuit, and seventeen on nothing at all but water. He v^^,-,^^^ 
added, that he had entirely lost his voice, and was reduced 
to a perfect skeleton: however, by the care taken of him 
b}^ the officers, there were still hopes of his life. Should 
any person hesitate to believe this extraordinary' fact, let 
them read Monsieur Godms well-authenticated letter to 
his friend Monsieur de la Condanmie, wherein he gives 
an account of the dreadful suft'erings of his lady during 
her route from Rio Hmnba to Lagtmo, through the woods 
of South America, in October 1 769 ; where a delicate 
woman, after being deserted by the Indian guides, and 
After both her brothers had fallen martyrs to their hard- 
ships and misery, subsisted ten days alone in a wild forest 
without food, without knowing where she was, and sur- 
rounded Avith tigers, serpents, and dangers of every de- 
scription : I say, let them only read the narrative of 
this lady's suft'erings, and their credulity Avill no longer 
be staggered at what I myself have related. I have, in- 
deed, even omitted fadts, which, on account of their 
singularity, must in the eyes of some have appeared to 
border on the marvellous. But in the forests of South 
America such extraordinary realities are to be found, that 
there is assuredly no need to have recourse to fiction or 
the least exaggeration. 

Who, for instance, would believe, that almost a whole 
detachment of eighty marines, one day marching through 

3 c 2 a thick 




a thick wood, imagined to a man that they were stepping 
one after another over a large fallen tree, that obstructed 
their way ; till at length it began to move, and proved to 
be no other than a full grown serpent of the aboma kind, 
measuring, according to Colonel Fourgeoud's computa- 
tion, between thirty and forty feet in length ? yet this 
is an indubitable truth. The above animal Avas neither 
killed nor hurt; the Colonel ordering the remaining 
part}^ to form in a half circle and march around it, in 
order that they themselves at the same time might escape 
every danger from the monster's matchless strength. 

In this place I shall mention another extraordinary 
circumstance, Avhich is, that one mornins Colonel Four- 
geoud resting in his hammock, with one hand carelessly 
leaning over the side, a large rattle-snake that lay coiled 
up among the long grass which was under it, was actually 
severed in two by the sentinel, during the very moment 
of action that it made a spring to bite him : of which 
the soldier, whose name was John Kiefhaher, had been 
apprised first by the sound of its rattle, and next by 
seeing the snake's head erected, while it was brandishing 
its forked tongue. 

As I am treating of these reptiles, I cannot resist the 
temptation of inserting a fact, which I learned from 
I\Ir. Francis Rome of Philadelphia, a respectable old man ; 
who informed me, that riding out one morning to visit a 
friend, his horse refused to go forward, being terrified at 

a large 


a large rattle-snake that lay across the road. Mr. Rowe chap. 

having heard of its power of fascination, in which he ^Jl^j]^ 

was a believer, alighted to lead the animal round it ; 

but during that time the snake, having coiled himself up, 

sounded its rattle, and stared him so full in the face, and 

Avith such fire in its eyes, that the cold sweat broke out 

upon him ; thus, whilst he durst neither retreat or advance, 

he imagined himself gradually rivetted to the spot. 

" However," continued he, " my reason remained ; and 

" my resolution getting the better of my alarm, I sud- 

'• denly approached him, and with one stroke of my 

" cudgel knocked out his brains." 

On the 3d of March my friend de Graaf sailed for 
Holland, but first for St. Eustatia, where his brother Avas 
governor; and to my great satisfaction took with him 
Joanna's youngest brother, Henrij, for Avhom he has 
since obtained his freedom. I sailed with them down 
the river as far as J3ram's Point, and Avished them a 
successful voyage. As I here went ashore in a fishing- 
boat, I Avas tempted to leap into the sea, and enjoy the 
cooling and healthy pleasure of swimming in the Atlantic 
ocean. The fishermen having caught a quantity of 
large fish, I discovered one among them not yet men- 
tioned in my narrative, this Avas the yellow-hack, between 
two and three feet long, thus called from its colour, 
which almost resembles that of a lemon, but the belly is 
Avhite : the head is very large, with two long barbs ; but 



c H A P. the body is small, and without scales, like the cod; it is, 
,^^^^^^^ however, not near so good, being coarse and insipid 
eating. Two other small fishes I also saw in the boat, 
the one called here the zecepee, resembling a whip-lash ; 
tlie other waracoo, which is a delicate eating, but has 
nothing in its form or habits deserving a particular 

The 8 th of March, being the Prince of Orange's birth- 
day, it was celebrated at the head quarters; where, after 
dinner, in the court ledge, hearing Captain Bolis in an 
undeserved manner censured by the colonel's adjutant, for 
recommending one of the young volunteers of an ex- 
cellent character, but who had no friends to support him*, 
I broke through the ring that surrounded them in a pas- 
sion, and not being able to restrain myself, publicly 
reproved the aggressor, even in Fourgeoud's presence, 
when a furious altercation and very high words imme- 
diately ensued ; the consequence of which was, that next 
morning at sun-rise we walked to the savannah without 
seconds, where, near the gallows, we drew our small swords, 
and after making a few passes at each other. Captain A^an 
Geurick's point met my shell, which having nearly 
pierced, his blade snapped in two pieces, and the fortune 
of war put him entirely in my powei'. Disdaining, how- 

* A Mr. Shejftr, already named, to last, on the pay of a private soldier, 
who had served with honour from firft during this painful expedition. 



ever, to take a mean advantage, I instantly dropped mj 
small sword, and desired him to step home and replace 
his own, in order to renew the battle : but this proposal 
he was pleased to call so generous, that taking me by the 
hand, he requested a renewal of friendship ; thus acknow- 
ledging we had been too hasty on both sides, we went to 
visit poor Bolts, who knew nothing of our morning's walk, 
and was (though not without difficulty) persuaded also to 
enter into the amicable treaty : by which a second ren- 
counter was happily prevented, and a general reconcilia- 
tion took place. 

On the 10th, having spent most of the day with the 
Governor, I in the evening went on board the ships with 
Captain Bolts, to inspect the preparations for the voyage ; 
where we found that the mice and rats had made such 
havock among our provision, with which we were now 
very well stocked, that I Avas under the necessity of pro- 
curing half a dozen cats to destroy them, Avhich useful 
animals are in Surinam neither so plenty, nor so good, as 
in Europe, being lazy and indolent, on account of the 
climate. I observed, they were also smaller and ranker, 
with remarkably long muzzles and sharp ears. 

The following day I was shocked and surprised beyond 
the power of expression, at seeing a Miss Jettee de la 
Mare, daughter to the lately deceased gentleman of that 
name, a lovely mulatto girl, aged fourteen, Avho had been 
christened in 1 775, and educated as a young lady, drag- 


ged to court in chains, with her mother and a few more 
of her relations, the whole surrounded by a military 
guard. I had almost attempted a rescue, when, having 
enquired the cause, she called out to mc herself, weeping 
iiiost bitterly; and informed me, that " she was going 
" to be tried by IMr. Schoiiten, her mother's master, for 
" refusing to perform the Avork of a common slave, which 
" she was utterly unable to perform, and could ncA-er 
" have expected, from the footing upon which she had 
" been educated till that unhappy moment." 

By the laws of the country, however, she was not only 
obliged to submit, but at his desire was condemned, for 
disobedience, together with her poor mother, and all her 
relations, who had presumed to support her claim to 
liberty, to be privately whipped ; and had it not been for 
the humanity of Mr. Wickers, who was at that time the 
fiscal or town clerk, and since was governor, this infamous 
sentence Mould most certainly have been put in execu- 
tion. The unfortunate Miss Jette de la Mare was, from 
this period, nevertheless torched to submit to the tjn'anny 
of her unmanl}^ master, while pitied by all her acquaint- 
ance, and lamented by every stranger that was a witness 
to the inliuman transaction. 

Such were the fatal consequences of not having been 
timely emancipated ; and such were they indeed, that 
they made me tremble for my little boy. Happily my 
uneasiness was not of long duration ; for, however impro- 


bable and unexpected, I was surprized on the very same 
day with a polite message from the Governor and the 
Court, acquainting me that, " having taken my former 
" sei-vices into consideration, together with my humanity 
" and gallantry, in offering my honour as bail to see my 
" child, before I left him, made a free citizen of the Avorld; 
" they had unanimously decreed, without farther cere- 
" mony or expence, to compliment me with a letter, 
" which was at the same time officially presented to me, 
" containing his emancipation from that day, for 


No man could be more suddenly transported from woe 
to happiness than I was at this moment; while his poor 
mother shed tears for joy and gratitude; the more so, as 
we had lost all hopes, and the favour came perfectly un- 
expected, and while near forty beautiful boys and girls 
were left to perpetual slavery by their parents of my 
acquaintance, and many of them without being so much 
as once enquired after at all. 

What is most extraordinary indeed is, that while the 
Avell-thinking few highly applauded my sensibility, many 
not only blamed, but publicly derided me for my paternal 
affection, which was called a weakness, a whim. So extra- 
vagant was my joy on this day, however, at having acted 
the reverse part of Inkle to Yarico, that I became like 
one frantic with pleasure. I not only made my will in his 
favour (though, God knows, I had little to dispose of) but 
I appointed my friends Mr. Robert Gordon and Mr. James 

Vol. II. 3 D Gonrhnj 


Gourlaij to be my executors and his guardians during 
my absence, in Avhose hands I left all my papers sealed, 
till I should demand them again, or they should be in- 
formed of my death : I then ordered all my sheep, poul- 
try, &c. which had prodigiously encreased, to be trans- 
ported, and put under their care ; and making a new suit 
ofcloaths for the occasion, which cost me twenty guineas, 
I waited on a Mr. Snyderhans, one of the clergymen at 
Paramaribo, to appoint a day when my boy, my Jolinni/ 
Stedman, should be made a Christian *. 

On the 18 th Colonel Fourgeoud's remaining troops 
at last came down from the encampments at Cassecpore 
Creek, and every preparation was made for our departure. 
At the same time, the ecstacy of the few surviving marines 
at their quitting this country Avas so great, having now 
also received part of their clearance, that such intempe- 
rance, riot, and disorder ensued, as produced the most 
formidable quarrels between them and the troops of the 
Society, till, some being wounded and some being flogged, 
peace was finally, though with difficulty, re-established. 

* I should not here omil to men- against their former master or mis- 

tion, that in the colony of Surinam tress. 

all emaneipated slaves are under the And, finall}-, if any emancipated 

following restrictions, viz. slave, male or female, dies in the 

They are (if males) bound to help colony, and leaves behind any pos- 

in defending the settlement against sessions whatever, in that case one 

all home and foreign enemies. quarter of the property also goes to 

No emaneipated slave, male or his former owners, either male or 

female, can ever go to law at all female. 



This same day a poor sailor, while I Avas on board, was 
drowned in my presence, who fell from the gunwhale into 
the river, with the sheet anchor, which had been neglected 
to be lashed to the ringbolts. I instantly leaped into a boat 
to try to save him, but could only get his hat ; the man 
went to the bottom, and never more was seen. 

The day of our departure now approached fast, and I 
gave up my house ; when, at Mrs. Godefroy's pressing 
invitation, I spent the few remaining moments in that 
which she had prepared for the reception of Joanna and 
her boy, in her beautiful garden, charmingly situated, 
under the shade of tamarind and orange trees ; which 
house she also had neatly furnished with every accommo- 
dation that could be desired, besides allowing Joanna a 
negro woman and a girl to attend on her for life. Thus 
situated, how blest should I have been in this spot to 
end m}' days ! — But fate ordained it otherwise. 

On the 22d, I made it my business with Captain Small 
(who was come down with leave of absence) to Avait on 
the Reverend Mr. Snyderhans, according to appointmen.t, 
but who, to both our great surprize, peremptorily refused 
to christen the boy ; alleging for his reason, that as I was 
going to Holland, I could not answer for his christian 
education. We replied, that he was under two very 
proper guardians : the blacksmith's son (for such was this 
divine) persisted, and we remonstrated, but to no purpose, 
for he was just as deaf as his father's anvil, and I believe, 
3 D 2 upon 

upon my soul, quite as empty as his bellows ; till at length, 
wearied out with his fanatical impertinence, I swore that 
I would sooner see the boy die a heathen, than christened 
by such a blockhead ; while my friend Small could not 
help bestowing on him a hearty curse, and, slapping 
the door with a A-engeance, v/e departed. 

Feasting and conviviality now prevailed once more at 
Paramaribo, as on our first arrival. Grand dinners, sup- 
pers, and balls were heard of in every quarter. But I 
only visited a few of my select friends, amongst which 
number had constantly been Governor Nepveu, and 
where, for the last time, I made one of the company at a 
truly magnificent entertainment, which ended the scene 
of liberality and hospitality, for Avhich the inhabitants of 
Surinam are so justly conspicuous ; and on the S5th the 
baggage was shipped on board the vessels. 

Numberless, indeed, were the presents for the voyage, 
M'ith which 1 in particular was now overstocked from 
every quarter ; and my provisions of live cattle, poultry, 
Avine, rum, &c. &c. Avere almost suflScient to carry me 
round the globe : amongst the rest, in a small bottle case, 
coniaining liquors, I found a crystal phial filled Avith 
essential oil of orange, and a parcel of what they called 
here tonquin beans. — The first is extracted from the rind 
or peel of the oranges : Avhich is done here by the tedious 
and laborious method of squeezing it betAveen the finger 
and thumb. A fcAv drops of this on a small piece of 



sugar, is said to be an excellent remedy to strengthen tlie chap. 
stomach, create an appetite, and help digeftion ; and one .^,_' 1^ 
single drop smells so strong, that it is sufficient to per- 
fume a whole apartment. 1 he tonquin beans are said to 
gTow in a thick pulp, something like a walnut, and on a 
large tree. I never saw them otherwise than dried, when 
they bear some resemblance to a prune or dried plum, 
and are made use of to scent snufFand tobacco, to which 
they impart a moft agreeable odour. 

On the 26th, we took our last leave of his Excellency 
the Governor, en corps, as assuredly was his due; after 
which all the officers of the Society troops waited on 
Colonel Fourgeoud, at the head quarters, to wish us a 
prosperous voyage to Holland, and the day was spent by 
a regale, en militaire, viz. a dinner, as usual, of salt pro- 
visions; but I must acknowledge, accompanied with as 
much good liquor of every kind, as Surinam could fur- 
nish, and a very hearty welcome. 

I believe that now a hundred times Fourgeoud shook 
me by the hand, declaring, " That there was not a young 
" man he loved better in the world ; that had he com- 
" manded me to march through fire as well as water, he 
" was convinced I should never have left it, without ac- 
" complishing his orders ;" with many other fine com- 
pliments. But I must candidly acknowledge, that though 
I had a heart to forgive, my mind would never permit 
me to forget the many and unnecessary difficulties and 



miseries to Avhich I had been too wantonly exposed. At 
the same time he informed me, that he did not propose 
to depart with us, but intended to follow the regiment 
very soon, with the remains of the last-come relief, when 
he would render me every service in his power. What- 
ever were his real motives for such a sudden change in 
his disposition tovards me, suffice it to say, that few peo- 
ple at this time were better friends, than were the old 
Colonel Fourgeoud and Captain Stedman. 

In the evening I went to take a short farewell of my 
most valuable acquaintances, such as Mrs. Godefroy, Mr. 
and Mrs. Demelley, Mr. and Mrs. Lolkens, Mr. and Mrs. 
Gordon, Mr. Gourlay, Captain Mcickneal,'DoctoTKissam,Scc. 
who had all (besides Mr. Kennedy, and Mr. de Graaf, now 
gone to Holland) treated me with the most constant and 
distinguished civility since I had been in the colony: but 
my soul was too full of a friend that was still dearer, to 
be impressed with that sensibility on separating from 
them, that it must have felt on another occasion. — And 
here I cannot in justice omit remarking, that while I 
gave the most impetuous vent to my feelings, not the 
smallest expression of poignant sorrow, or even of dejec- 
tion, escaped from Joanna's lips ; while her good sense and 
fortitude even restrained the tear from starting in my 
afflicted presence. I now once more earnestly pressed 
her to accompany me, in which I was seconded by the 
inestimable Mrs. Godefroy and all her friends; but she 
g remained 


remained equally inflexible, and her steady answer was as c h a p. 

before — " That, dreadful as appeared the fatal separation, ^^^^^...^^ 

" perhaps never more to meet, yet she could not but 

" prefer remaining in Surinam : first, from a consciousness 

" that, with propriety, she had not the disposal of herself ; 

" and, secondly, from pride, wishing in her present con- 

" dition rather to be one of the first among her own class 

" in America, than a reflection or burthen on me in Eu- 

" rope, as she was convinced must be the case, unless our 

" circumstances became one day more independent." 

Here Joanna shewed great emotion, but immediately 

retired to weep in private. — What could I say or do ? — 

— Not knowing how to answer, or sufficiently to admire 

her firmness and resignation, which so greatly exceeded 

my own, I determined, if possible, to imitate her conduct, 

and calmly to resign myself to ray fate, preparing for the 

fatal moment, Avhen my heart forebode me we were to 

pronounce the last adieu, and separate for ever. 

" Zaire, 11 est trop vrai que I'honneur me Tordonne, 
" Que je vous adorai ! que je vous abandonne ! 
" Que je renonce a vous ! que vous le desirer ! 
" Que sous un autre loix Zaire vous pleurer." 

The whole corps being ordered, at seven o'clock on the 
morning of the 27th, to wait on Colonel Fourgeoud at the 
head quarters, I tore myself away from all that was dear 
to me in this world without disturbing them, in order to 



prevent the tender scene of parting. He then conducted 
us to the water side, where the boats lay in waiting; and 
Ave were immediately embarked, under a general salute, 
and colours flying, from the fortress and the vessels in the 
roads. The whole corps now having dined on board the 
staff-ship with Lieutenant Colonel de Borgnes, Colonel 
Fourgeoud politely invited me to accompany him back to 
town till next morning ; but Avhich, with a broken heart, 
I thought best to decline. He then took his final leave, 
and wishing us all a safe and prosperous voyage to Europe, 
he returned under a salute of nine guns and three cheers, 
with Captain Van Geurike, his adjutant, back to Para- 

On the 29th of March, at midnight, the signal-gun being 
fired, the two ships got under way, and dropped down till 
before the fortress New Amsterdam, where they once 
more came to an anchor. 

Here my friends Gordon and Gourlay, the guardians 
of my boy, after the convivial Colonel Seyburg (for such 
he certainly was) had entertained them on board his vessel, 
the Hollandia, affectionately coming to visit me, they did 
no less than actually prevail on me to accompany them 
back to Paramaribo. My soul could not resist this second 
invitation of once more beholding what was so dear to me. 
— I went, and, must I say it .^ — found Joanna, who had 
displayed so much fortitude in my presence, now bathing 
in tears, and scarcely alive, so much was she become 



the victim of melancholy and despair. Nor had she c ii a p. 
partaken of food, or sleep, since my departure, nor spoken ^.^^..^^ 
to any living creature, indeed not stirred from the spot 
where I had left her on the morning of the CTth. 

The ships not being quite ready to go to sea till two 
days after, I was prevailed upon to stay on shore a little 
longer, with poor Joanna and her boy, Avhieh seemed to 
cheer her : But, alas ! too dear we paid for this too short 
reprieve ! since, but few hours had elapsed, when a sailor 
abruptly came in, with the message that the ship's boat 
lay in waiting that minute to carry me on board. — At that 
instant — Heavens! what were my feelings! — Joanna's 
mother took the infant from her arms, the all-worthy 

Mrs. Godefroy supporting herself her brothers and 

sisters hung around me, crying, and invoking Heaven 
aloud for my safety — while the unfortunate Joanna 
(now but nineteen) gazing on me, and holding me by the 
hand, with a look ten thousand times more dejected than 

Sterne's Maria, — Avas unable to utter one word ! ! ! 1 

perceived she Avas distracted — the hour was come — I ex- 
changed a ringlet of their hair, and fondly pressed them 
both to my bosom: — the power of speech also forsook 
me, and my heart tacitly invoked the protection of Pro- 
vidence to befriend them. — Joanna noAV shut her beau- 
teous eyes — her lips turned the pale colour of death — she 
bowed her head, and motionless sunk in the arms of her 
ADOPTED MOTHER : — Here I roused all my remaining 
Vol. XL 3 E fortitude, 


fortitude, and leaving them surrounded by every care 
and attention departed, and bid God bless them!!! 

The boat still delaying a few moments, I now stepped up 
to poor Fourgeoud, surrounded by^jny friends, and grasp- 
ing his veteran hand, I could not, for my soul, but for- 
give him all the hardships he had ever occasioned me. — 
He was affected. — This was a debt he owed me. — I 
wished him every good, and finally rowed down the 
river Surinam. 

At this time the ships were riding off Bram's Point, 
where Mr. Teiier, the deputy governor, came on board 
to wish us a prosperous voyage ; and, after dinner, under 
a salute of seven guns, together with Captains Small and 
Fredericy, who had accompanied me hither, he returned 
back to Paramaribo. 



The Ships weigh Anchor, and put to Sea — Review of the 
Troops — Account of the Voyage — The Arrival in the Texel 
— Description of the Fampus near Amsterdam — Final 
Debarkation in the Town of Bois-le-Duc — The Death of 
Colonel Fourgeoud — End of t lie Expedition — Short History 
of the late Scotch Brigade — Conclusion. 

I ^ VERY thing being at last perfectly adjusted for our chap. 
'*— ' departure, both vessels, under the command of ^^^• 
Lieutenant Colonel de Borgnes, weighed anchor on the 
morning of the 1st of April, 1777, when, with a fresh 
breeze at E. we put to sea, and kept course N.and N. W. — 
Motionless and speechless, I hung over the ship's stern till 
the land quite disappeared. After some days, however, 
by considerable exertions, I got the better of my melan- 
choly, though not of my affection, and my mind became 
once more composed and calm. What chiefly contributed 
to the restoring of my peace, was the comfortable reflec- 
tion, that if I had in some measure injured myself, 1 had 
at least done good to a few others, by relie\ mg three* 
innocent and deserving young people from a state of 

* Joanna, Johnny, and Quaco. 

3 E 2 bondage. 



CHAP, bondage. Yet, for this action, I was assuredly most amply 
rewarded by the preservation of my life, principally owing 
to their vmremitting care and attention, while such num- 
bers fell all around me, and more were ruined in their 
constitution, the victims of the climate and the service, 
some having lost the use of their limbs, and some of their 
memory ; nay, one or two were entirely deprived of their 
mental faculties, and continued in a state of incurable 
insanity for ever. 

In short, out of the number of near twelve hundred 
able-bodied men, not one hundred returned to their 
friends and their country : and perhaps not twenty 
amongst these were to be found in perfect health. Among 
the dead were (including the surgeons) betAveen twenty 
and thirty officers; three of which number were colonels, 
and one a major. So very destructive was the service to 
Europeans in such a climate; and such ever must be the 
result of the most successful operations in the unwhole- 
some atmosphere of woods and marshes. 

One or two remarks I must make before I conclude 
this subject, which are : — First, that among the officers 
and private men who had formerly been in the West 
Indies, none died, while among the whole number of 
above one thousand privates, I can only recollect oiie single 
marine who escaped from sickness ; and next, that of the 
few belonging to the corps that were now on their voyage 
for the Texel (those gentlemen alone excepted, who at 



this time belonged to the staff) I myself was the only officer 
who had sailed out with the regiment in 1772. This last 
was a pleasing reflection indeed, and which could not but 
render me sincerely thankful to Providence. 

About the 1 4th of April, having passed the Tropicks, and 
changed course to N. N. E. and N. E. Ave were becalmed 
for some days. I ought not to omit that when in about 
15 degrees N. latitude, we sailed through what is vulgarly 
called the Grass Sea, from its being covered over with a 
floating kind of green and yellow weed, called gulph 
weeds; some of which, when dried in the sun, and spread 
between two sheets of paper, are very curious, resembling 
trees, flowers, shrubs, &c. and in which are harboured 
small crustaceous fish, scollops, muscles, and shells of 
many thousand different species. Among the last is often 
found that wonderful sea reptile, called the hippocampus, 
or sea-horse, which I could compare to nothing better 
than the chevalier of a chess-board ; though it is gene- 
rally larger, and sometimes eight or nine inches in length. 
The body is composed of cartilaginous rings : the head, 
snout, and mane are incrusted all over; and the tail, 
which is curvated upwards in the figure of an -S', termi- 
nates in a point. 

On the 19th, the calm still continuing, we were daily 
entertained by swarms of flying fish, and several doradoes 
and grarapusses swimming and tumbling before and after 
the ships, as if delighting to keep us company. The 


grampus is a fish of the cetaceous kind, something re- 
seinbhng the dolphin, but much larger, and approaching 
the Avhale in size, some being near twenty feet in length, 
and prodigiously fat. This fish has forty strong teeth ; is 
of a dark brown colour, and spouts water with consider- 
able force. We also saw at some distance from the vessels 
several times above the water a large north-caper. This 
fish, which very much resembles the Greenland whale, 
is more dangerous on account of its being more active, 
which proceeds from the body being smaller and flatter 
than that of the former. The jaw is shorter, with very 
small barbs : the skin is whiter, and the produce of its 
blubber amounts seldom to more than thirty tons. 

About the 2:2d, the weather began to change consider- 
ably, and the whole ship's company were attacked with 
a severe cold and cough, and many also with the ague. 

On the 30th, the crew was so weak as to be hardly able 
to do their duty; two of them indeed, and one marine, 
Arere already dead and overboard. Colonel de Borgnes 
Avas also at this time so much indisposed, that the com- 
mand devolved upon me for a few days during his illness, 
when observing the other ship ahead, and almost out of 
sight, I availed myself of my commodoreship, by hoisting 
a flag at the main-top, and firing a gun to windAvard to 
bring her to, which she punctually obeyed. 

A large shark noAV sAvimming alongside the ship, we did 

all that lay in our power to take it, but to no purpose. 

3 Sharks 

Z:/^ /-^.//'/. .^ .'y^r 


l.''ii.U'n.ruhlislu.l Itarrli-j^i.ln^oH . S.' I\,ul..- n,i,i-.ii ),inl . 


Sharks are in these seas of different kinds; but what is 
generally called the white shark is the most terrible of 
its species, on account of its size, weighing often one 
thousand pounds, and measuring sixteen or eighteen feet 
in length ; the head, which is something depressed, is large; 
it has two spouting holes, and prominent eyes, Avliich it 
can turn in every direction, and bespeak the malignity 
of its all-devouring nature ; nearly under these are its 
mouth and throat, of such an enormous size, that it will 
swallow a bull-dog : its teeth, which are placed in five or 
six rows, are so sharp and strong, that they will snap off a 
man's arm or his leg with ease, which has very frequently 
happened. The whole shape of this fish is in every respect 
like that of the dog-fish found in the North Seas, with 
very strong fins, one dorsal, two ventral, and two abdo- 
minal : the tail is bifurcated, the upper part being longest ; 
the skin is slimy, rough, and used for what we call sha- 
green. The shark always swims with velocity, but must 
turn upon its side to take its prey, by which many fish 
escape its jaAvs. 

The remora, or sucking-fish, is frequently found sticking 
to sharks, and to ships' bottoms : this fish is ash-coloured, 
and long, about twenty inches; the body roundish, and 
tapering near the tail ; the fins are placed as those of the 
shark, and the under skin is projecting ; its sucker is, how- 
ever, what makes it most remarkable, being an oval gristly 
plate above its head, with transverse bars like the palate 



of a sheep. This sucker has so much attraction, that no 
waves, however violent, can beat it off. — (For both these 
fishes, see the Plate annexed.) 

The pilot-^sh ought here also to be noticed : this is small, 
with brilliant colours, and is said not only to feed upon 
the gills of the shark, but to direct it to its prc}^, from 
which singularity originates its name. 

On the 1st of May, being exactly one month at sea, 
during which time, by way of making a trial, I had con- 
tinued bare-footed and bare-headed, without catching 
cold ; I this day, for the first time, not only dressed like 
my ship-mates, but wore every thing double, and some 
things triple, which I found exceedingly comfortable. 

About this time a Mr. Nei/seus, one of our surgeons, 
having on board a crahbodago or grisson (whose ferocity 
I have already described) to carry home as a curiosity, the 
mischievous creature broke loose, and in one night mur- 
dered all the monkies, parrots, poultry and other animals 
that were upon deck, while it drove most of the crew who 
had the watch down the hatchway ; till luckily one of 
them with a hand-spike knocked out his brains. 

On the 3d, we had hard gales and heavy showers at 
S. E. Latitude about 40°. From this time the gale daily 
encreased, till the ninth, when the weather began to mo- 

We now saw several porpoises, herring-gulls, &c. The 
first is a fish about five or six feet long, excessively fat, 



of a bluish black colour, and without scales ; the head 
has small eyes, and no gills, but a long snout, and sharp 
teeth. The fins are but one dorsal, and two ventral, and 
the tail is horizontal, to enable it to leap above the water, 
Avhich it does frequently to blow or breathe, at which 
time its snorting may be heard at a great distance. The 
flesh of the porpoise when killed is red, and looks like 
some kinds of pork. 

The herring-guil is a bird as large as a tame duck, per- 
fectly white, part of the beak and prime feathers excepted, 
which are of a dark ash-colour ; the eyes are grey, the 
bill and feet are yelloAV ; the claws are black, and the 
length of its wings is between four and five feet, from 
the extremity of the one to the other. 

On the 1 3th, in the morning-watch, being not far from 
the Azores or Western Isles, the vessel was nearly laid on 
her beam-ends, though then under double-reefed top- 
sails, by a sudden squall at E. At this time a broken top- 
gallant-mast, a new hand-spike, &c. floated past the ship, 
the melancholy remains of a shipwreck, which we since 
were informed to be a Dutch homeward-bound East 
Indiaman, that had foundered with all the crew near the 
island of Terceira. 

On the 1 4th the wind was violent, carrying away our 
fore- top-gallant-mast, and splitting the main-sail, while 
the other vessel lost her bowsprit, &c. ; and on the evening 
of the 15th it blew a perfect storm, accompanied with 

Vol. II. 3 F thunder 


CHAT, thunder and lightning, and very heavy rain, which con- 
y^^^^^^ tinned during the night, and which brought our main- 
top-mast by the board, while the ship's crew Avere so 
very much reduced as to be hardly able to clear the 
wreck, in which I cheerfully assisted, by cutting aAvay 
with a hatchet. 

The two following days we continued scudding before 
the Avind, Avith a reef in the fore-sail, the sea running 
mountains high, and constantly breaking over the vessel 
— pumps going day and niglit; soon after Avhich we 
saluted the Alarm frigate from Holland, Avhich compli- 
ment they returned. 

At length, the Aveather becoming fair, Ave Av^ere carried 
within soundings, on the 19th, Avhen we hove the lead in 
ninety fathom Avater ; but the Avind shifting to the N. E. 
with foul weather, Ave beat about in the chops of the 
Channel, till the morning of the 21st, when at half-past 
one a signal gun Avas fired for the other vessel, that Ave 
saAv the light ojff Scilly ; and at four o'clock P. M. got the 
pilot on board. 

Having been becalmed tAvo days off Dover, it was the 
S 7th before we first saw the Dutch coast: here we purchased 
some excellent fish from a Schevelm boat, Avith Avhich Ave 
entertained the whole creAV, though during this sea voyage 
©o ship's company could be better provided. 

Having kept off shore during the night, Ave at last 
doubled Kcyhduyn and the Heldcr ; and on the £8th, at 



three o'clock P. M. both ships, under a discharge of nine 
guns, dropped anchor in the Texel roads. 

On the 30th, having passed the small island of Uric, in 
the Zuyder Sea, which is the onlij rock in the province of 
Holland, both vessels running before the wind with a 
fine breeze, prcmeditatedly stuck fast upon the Pampus — ■ 
this is a large bank of soft mire, covered with shoal water, 
and not far from Amsterdam, which it naturally protects 
like a barrier from all foreign invaders ; since all ships 
whatever must either be lifted over or dragged through 
this bank of mud. 

The first is done by sinking two concave vessels, called 
camels^ which being chained together under the bottom 
of an Indiaman or man-of-war, of whatever burthen, the 
water is pumped out of them, when rising gradually to 
the surface with their burthen, they carry it to where 
there is to be found sufficient depth to keep it afloat. 

The second method is practised on smaller vessels, and 
consists of half a dozen sail boats, called water-manak'ms, 
towing them through the mud, which can never be done 
but when straight before the wind : at which time not 
only the ship itself, but the boats that have her in tow, 
must crowd all the sail they possibly can carry. 

On the morning of the 51st, having been becahiied all 
night, a fresh breeze at E. again sprung up, when we 
fired a gun as a signal, and five or six w^ter-manakins 
instantly came off, by the help of which we were dragged 

3 F 2 over 


CHAP, over the Pampus, not at the rate of fourteen knots an 

t_^^^^, hour, but at that of fourteen hours a knot, since we did 

not get clear of it in less than three days sailing, though 

not four miles in length : however, I must confess, that 

the last day we had scarcely any wind at all. 

During this tedious passage, it was no bad entertain- 
ment, to observe the contrast between some newly-arrived 
Norwegians and us ; those people sitting upon deck in 
their shirts, and wiping off the perspiration, while we 
were strutting in great coats and fur caps, like so many 
Muscovites, to keep us from the cold. 

Having at this time received a considerable present of 
refreshments, sent by the citj^ of Amsterdam to the de- 
liverers of their favourite colon}'^, and being so near 
revisiting their old friends and acquaintances, all on board 
were in the highest flow of spirits, and exulting with 
gladness — excepting one ! — from Avhose mind every hap- 
piness was banished. 

I must here still relate the following singular circum- 
stance : A man-of-war's boat coming alongside the Hol- 
landia, the officer and crew no sooner entered on board, 
than one of them, without speaking, ran up aloft, with a 
knife in his teeth, to cut down the pennant. At this time 
Lieutenant Colonel Seyburg, presenting a musquet, and 
swearing he would shoot him out of the rigging, the poor 
fellow came down by the back-stays like a shot, to our 
great entertainment; next, having explained to him that 



both vessels had been put in commission by the Prince of 
Orange, the amazed lieutenant made a handsome apo- 
logy, and left the ship. 

On the 3d of June, every thing being in readiness, 
the troops were put on board six lighters, appointed to 
transport them to Bois-le-Duc, in which town they were 
next to be completed, and do the duty as part of the gar- 
rison. On leaving the vessels we were once more saluted 
with nine guns from each; which having returned with 
three cheers, Ave set sail for the place above mentioned. 
As we passed in the lighters through the inland towns, 
such as Saardam, Haerlem, and Tergow, I thought them 
truly magnificent, particularly the glass painting in the 
great church of the latter; but their inhabitants, who 
crowded about us, from curiosity to see us, appeared but a 
disgusting assemblage of ill-formed and ill-dressed rabble, 
so much had my prejvidices been changed by living 
among the Indians and blacks : their eyes seemed to re- 
semble those of a pig ; their complexions were like the 
colour of foul linen ; they seemed to have no teeth, and 
to be covered over with rags and dirt. This prejudice, 
however, was not against these people only, but against all 
Europeans in general, when compared to the sparkling 
eyes, ivory teeth, shining skin, and remarkable cleanli- 
ness of those I had left behind me. But the most ludi- 
crous circumstance was, that during all tliis we never 
once considered the truly extraordinary figure that we 



made ourselves, being so much sunburnt and so pale, 
that we -were nearly the colour of dried parchment, by 
beat and fatigue ; and so thin that we looked like moving 
skeletons ; to which I may add, that having lived so long 
in the woods, we had perfectly the appearance of wild 
people : and I in particular, very deservedly, obtained the 
characteristic title of le Sauvage Anglois, or the English 

In this state we arrived, on the 9th, at the town of 
Bois-le-Duc, where the troops Avere finally disembarked. 

" Per varies casus, & tot discrimina rerum, 
" Pervenimus ad Latiutn." — — 

" Olini meminisse juvabit." 

Thus ended, perhaps, one of the most extraordinary ex- 
peditions that was ever undertaken by European troops; 
and to which only the exploits of the American Buccaneers 
have any, and even that a very distant, resemblance. 

On our arrival I found that Lieutenant Colonel Wes- 
terlo, who went sick to Europe, in 1 773, was not yet quite 
recovered. This gentleman now invited me, in company 
with some others, to dine with him at the public mess ; 
where, while some Dutch officers complained that the 
soup was smoky, and the beef was tough, we adventurers 
declared that we never had tasted a more delicious repast ; 
and at the same time, while they praised the strawberries, 
cherries, and other European fruits, we thought them very 



indifterent, and greatly inferior to the avogado-pear, the 
water-melon, and the pine-apple, to which we had been 
lately accustomed — which shews that every thing in this 
world is only good or bad by comparison. 

The following day we were introduced, on the parade, 
to the Lieutenant Governor, General Hardenbrook, and 
spent the evening at his lady's card assembly, where I 
must acknowledge I was charmed with some very sweet 
faces, fresh as the rose and the lily, while they were no 
less entertained with our grotesque appearance, though 
we had now borrowed the assistance of powder and 

On the 18th the troops were finally cleared with, and 
paid their remaining arrears, and those who chose it per- 
mitted to return to their former regiments. Some of the 
privates had from thirty to forty pounds to receive, which, 
sailor-like, having earned it like horses, they spent like 
asses. Among others, a young fellow of my conipan}^ 
whose late regiment chanced to be quartered in the very 
same town, hired tliree post-chaises to carry him the length 
of one street only, ordering a couple of drunken fiddlers in 
the first, his knapsack in the second, and placing himself 
in the third, supported by a brace of the frail sisterhood : 
he was, however, unfortunately shipwrecked in his course, 
being run foul of by the major de place, who, having brokeji 
the fiddles, and set the ladies adrift, tOAved the roaring 
adventurer himself, after a hard tug, to the quarter-guard, 
a, Avherc 


where he came to an anchor in the bilboes, till the gale 
of his dissipation was quite spent, and he had got rid of 
all his cargo. In a similar manner went most of the 
money which had been earned with so much danger, 
hardship, and fatigue. 

Now came the time to keep my long-made resolution 
of bidding a lasting farewel to Colonel Fourgeoud's regi- 
ment; from which, on the 10th day of August, 1 obtained 
my free dismission, having requested it, immediately 
after my debarkation, from the Prince of Orange, who 
at the same time honoured me with a fresh Captain's 
commission in the Honourable General Stuart's regiment, 
which I had left in September 1 772 ; while from that 
date to this very day my full pay had amounted to little 
more than four hundred and fifty pounds sterling, having 
regularly been stopped out of this sum ten pounds per 
annum for the putrid beef, pork, rusk-bread, and hard 
pease, that so miraculously had kept soul and body toge- 

Let me not, however, be considered as wishing to cast 
a reflection on the Dutch nation in general, who indeed 
omitted nothing for our preservation and encouragement 
during this long and painful service: a people whose 
virtues have been for ages as conspicuous as their valour 
—one man alone was the cause of all our sufferings. 

Having now exchanged my blue coat for a scarlet one, 
bought a very handsome horse, and put Quaco in a bril- 



// /■/ '/// . ////////'/■, 

/^v/ /'// . ' ////f,/ ,)\ '- 


l,i:ii,i,'n,riibli.rlMl J)i,rf1i;i)-!, In- j..lohn.tnn,.(.l r„iil.' Oilinli In 


liant livery, I for the last time entertained my shipmates, 
with whom, without exception, I drank an eveilasting 
friendship: then taking my final farewell of them all, I 
the next morning set out to rejoin the old Scotch regi- 
ment, where I Avas received with the strongest marks of 
joy and unfeigned friendship by the corps. 

Going now to take my leave of Surinam, after all the 
horrors and cruelties with which I must have hurt both 
the eye and the heart of the feeling reader, I Avill close 
the scene with an emblematical picture of Europe sup- 
ported by Africa and America, accompanied by an ardent 
wish that in the friendly manner as they are represented, 
they may henceforth and to all eternity be the props of 
each other. I might have included Asia, but this I omit- 
ted, as having no connection with the present narrative : 
we only differ in colour, but are certainly all created by 
the same Hand. Thus, if it has not pleased fortune to 
make us equal in rank and authority, let us at least use 
the superiority Ave possess Avith moderation, and not 
only proffer that happiness Avhich avc have to bestow on 
our equals, but let us extend it Avith cheerfulness to the 
lowest of our deserving dependants. 

On the 25th of August I repaired to the palace of Loo, 
in Guelderland, Avhere, by the Colonel of the regiment, I 
Avas introduced to his Serene Highness the Stadtholder ; 
Avho not only Avas pleased to give me a gracious recep-- 
tion, remarking, that by my looks I must have suffered 

Vol. II. 5 G much, 


much, but soon after promoted me to the rank of Major 
in the same Scottish regiment. 

As I had- now the pleasure also to see a few others of my 
fellow sufferers recompensed after their hardships, I had 
reason to think the less of our former troubles ; thus, in- 
stead of indulging in censure, 1 found a more solid conso- 
lation in the triumph of truth, which was brought to 
light without mj farther interference. 

" Magna est Veritas & prevalebit." 

On the 24th of September I went to the Hague, where 
I presented his Serene Highness Avith eighteen Jigures in 
wax, made by myself, for his museum, which were most 
graciously accepted. They represented the free Indians 
of Guiana, and negro slaves of Surinam, engaged in dif- 
ferent occupations, on an island, supported by a crystal 
mirror, and ornamented with gold. 

I now also, with his own consent, made a present of 
my faithful black boy, Quaco, to the Countess of Rosen- 
daal, to whose family I was under very great obligations ; 
and who since, on account of his honesty and sober con- 
duct, not only christened him, by the name of Stedman, 
at my desire, but promoted him to be their butler, with 
a pn mise to take care of him as long as he lived; which 
Tvas particularly grateful to me, being such advantages 
as I could never have procured for him myself. 

Here I cannot omit an anecdote of attachment in this 

boy: — 


boy : — Having set out by myself on a short journey, I 
found a crown-piece more than I expelled in my purse, 
and for which I was at a loss to account ; till on my return, 
when I questioned Quaco, he said, " that fearing I might 
" be short of cash, where people seemed so fond of it, he 
" had put his five-shilling piece in my pocket." — This 
action Avas the more generous, not only in the manner it 
was done, but being at that time the only crown poor 
Quaco possessed in this world. 

About the latter end of October, I was offered by the 
directors of the settlement to be sent over as a lieutenant- 
governor to the colony of Berhice, situated next to Suri- 
nam. In consequence, I immediately went to Amsterdamy 
to wait on them, and hear the proposals, in which they 
indeed offered me a higher salary, and greater advantages, 
than they had ever oftbred to any other gentleman in that 
situation ; but I insisted on having either the govern- 
ment if I survived, or a decent pension after a certain 
number of years at my return ; which being out of their 
power, they said, to grant, I declined accepting of the 
offer altogether, judging it more prudent to recover my 
health and vigour in Europe with a Scottish company, 
than to parch any longer under the Torrid Zone, with- 
out a prospect of settling at home with honour and a 
competent fortune. Nor was it long before I perfectly 
recovered, and became as stout and healthy as I had ever 
3 G 2 been 


been in all my life : a happiness of which not one among 
one hundred of my late shipmates could boast. 

Among others, poor Colonel Fourgeoud did not 
long enjoy his good fortune; for he was scarcely arrived 
in Holland, with the remaining few who stayed some time 
behind us, than his beloved ptisan having failed him, he 
was one morning found dead in his bed, attended only by 
a negro, and buried with military honours at the Hague. 

Not long after this, expired also in Surinam, Four- 
geoud's mortal enemy, the Goverxou of the colony; 
which vacancy was most Avorthily filled up by Colonel 
Tcjier, and since by the deserving Mr. Wickers*. 

From this period nothing worth recording occurred 
till the year 1782, when the Emperor of Germany hav- 
ing retaken the barrier towns from the States of Holland, 
General Stuart's reoiment was the last that evacuated the 
city of Namut; and on the same day the Imperial troops, 
marched in to take possession : after which the Emperor 
ordered, in the year 1783, all the fortifications to be de- 
molished. Soon after tliis, the Scotch biigade, the pri- 
vates of which now consist6<^ of all nations, was natural- 
ized by the States of Holland, that is, formed into three 

* This genlkman having also re- in this nanalive) and who had some 

signed, I have the pleasure to ac- time before re-entered into the ser- 

quaint my readers, that in the year viee of the Society troops, was ap- 

1792, that gallant officer, Mr. F. pointed Governor of the colony of 

Fredericy (so frequently mentioned Surinam. 




Dutch regiments, on account of the war with Great Bri- c h a p. 
tain ; and this circumstance induced myself and most of 
the principal oliiccrs immediately to resign — as we refused 
to serve against our King and Country. 

Having thus left the Dutch service, on which day, by 
the Prince of Orange, I was complimented with the rank 
of Ikutcnant-colonel, the above gentlemen went to Eng- 
land, where, in consequence of their loyalty, they were 
taken under his Britannic Majesty's protection; and, 
on the 18th of June, eleven of them, of which number 
I was so happy to make one, were, by General Conway^ 
introduced at St. James's, where we had the honour to 
kiss his ]\Iajesty's hand. 

On the 2 7th of the same month, the half-pay was voted 
for them all by the British House of Conmions, accord- 
ing to the rank in which each individual had actually 
served while abroad*. — But, that tlie reader may have 
some idea of Avhat is meant by the Scotch Brigade, 
and of what they formerly consisted, I will beg leave to 
insert the following particulars : 

" In 1570 this ancient corps first landed in Holland, as 
" independent companies, commanded by some of the 
" first noblemen in Scotland. 

* The above gentlemen, who were and honourable corps in Britain, 

looked upon as being the real repre- which was since re-embodied under 

sentatives of his Majesty' 's Scotch the command of General Francis 

brigade, had their loyalty further Dundas, and sent to gaxj:isonGibr air 

rewarded by the revival of that old tar. 

" In 


" In the year 1578 their gallant behaviour, together 
" with the English, at the battle of Reminat, near Mechlin, 
" is mentioned particularly by Stvada. 

" In 1579 Metiin was surprized, and the Spanish and 
" Walloon guards taken prisoners by Colonel Balfour, 
" with his regiment alone. 

" In 1588, at the memorable blockade of i3e/-o-e«-o/>- 
*' Zoom by the Prince of Parma, the Scots, under the 
" command of General Balfour and Colonel Scott, made 
" a sortie, and demolished the greatest part of the Spanish 
" lines, by which the enemy were forced to break up the 
" siege, with considerable loss of men and ammunition. 

" In 1590, at the siege of Zutphen-Deve7iter, ISImegueJi 
" and Hulst, their bravery is well known. 

" In 1593 they shared so much of the glory at the 
" taking of Gertrudenbcrg, that both General BaHbur 
" and his regiment were highly distinguished by Prince 
" Maurice. The General he made governor to command 
" the garrison, instead of his brother Prince ILnry ; and 
" the regiment he appointed, as the most spirited corps, 
" to defend it. 

" In 1599, at the taking of Bomm el, the Scots suffered 
" most considerably. 

** In 1600 two field officers, eight captains, with above 

" six hundred private men, were left dead on the field, 

•' after the famous Battle of the Downs, near Nieuport, 

" where both they and the English behaved with the 

11 " greatest 


*' greatest gallantry ; and to the valour of these united chap. 


" bands was attributed the success of the day. y^^^^y-^ 

" In 1601, at the siege of Ostend, which lasted three 
" years, and at which was levelled the whole power of 
*' Spain, nothing could equal the valour and courage 
« both of the Scotch and English, the first commanded 
« by Generals Balfour and St. Clair, the latter by Lords 
" Willougldnj and Vcre ; who, after a great slaughter of 
" the Spaniards (including all their best officers) forced 
" the assailants to raise the siege, and retreat with great 
" shame and confusion. 

" During the government of the three first Princes of 
" Orange, Wiliiam, Maurice, and Frederick-Henry, the 
" Scotch behaved with so much bravery, honour, and 
" reputation, that by the last prince (besides many other 
" marks of distinction which he conferred on them) they 
" were called the bulwarks of the republick. 

" The necessary limits of this chapter compel me to 
" omit many memorable services which were rendered 
" by this distinguished body of njen to the provinces of 
" Holland ; but I cannot overlook the last siege of Bergen- 
" op -Zoom by the French, in 1747; where, while others 
" shamefully ran away, one regiment of Scots in the 
**■ middle of the town, having twice repulsed the enemy, 
«' fought alone till they were nearly cut to pieces, leaving 
«' fifteen officers and above five hundred privates on the 
" field." — Such is the history of the late Scotch brigade 



CHAP, in the Dutch service : and such were the outlines of its 


^...t^'^^J,^ mihtary cliaracter, till the da}^ of its dissolution, in 1 783. 

I must now draw this narrative to a conclusion, by 
once more mentioning the name of Joanna, and ac- 
quaint the reader, that, alas! Joanxa is no 

MORE !!! — ' — • 

In the month of August 1783, I received the melan- 
choly tidings from Mr. Gourlay (which pierced me to 
the soul) that on the fatal /i'/if/i of November, this virtuous 
young woman departed this life, as some suspected by 
poison*, administered by the hand of jealousy and envy, 
on account of her prosperity, and the marks of distinction 
which her superior merit had so justly attracted from the 
respectable part of the colony. 

But she is no more !- Readei- ! — the virtuous Joanna, 
who so often saved my life, is no more ! ! ! — Her adopted 
mother, IVIrs. Godefroy, who bedewed her beauteous 
body with tears, ordered it to be interred Avith every mark 
of respect, under the grove of orange trees where she had 
lived. Her lovely boy was sent to me, with a bill of near 
two hundred pounds, his private property, by inheritance 
from his mother. — Soon after which expired both his very 
faithful guardians. 

This CHARMING TouTH, having made a most com- 
mendable progress in his education in Devon, Avent two 

* Tier emancipated brother Henry underwent the same melancholy fate. 



West India voyages, with the highest character as a sailor ; 
and during the Spanish troubles served with honour as 
a midshipman on board his Majesty's ships Southampton 
and Lizard, ever ready to engage in any service that the 
advantage of his king and country called for. — But, Oh ! 
— he also is no more, having since perished at sea off the 
island of Jamaica. 

The effect which the following lines had on the sym- 
pathetic and ingenious Mrs. Cowley, could alone induce 
me to intrude them on the Public. — Let this be my 
apology Oh ! more than bitter task !!! 


J->ouD sounds the tempest ! — peals of thunder roar; 
Tremendous lightnings flash from shore to shore : 
Seas dash the shaking rocks — seas mount the flaming sky, 
And elements convuls'd, speak dissolution nigh. 
Such scenes as these (while tossing on the waves, 
True to his duty still) the manly sailor braves ; 
Such was my Boy — (whose eyes could never weep 
But for his neighbour's woes) now swallow'd in the deep. 
Oh ! agonizing pain — pain never felt before — 
My manly boy — my John — my Sailor is no more : 

Still let me mourn with hope and God adore 

With hope, to see my sailor once again 
Floating on seas of bliss, thro' th' azure main : 
Till then a short farewell — my lovely boy, 
Thy shipmates darling, and thy father's joy. 
Vol. II. 3 H Yet 



Yet one small comfort soothes (while doom'd to part, 

Dear gallant youth !) thy parent's broken heart; 

No more thy tender frame, thy blooming age, 

Shall be the sport of Ocean's turb'lent rage : 

No more thy olive beau tics on the waves 

Shall be the scorn of some European slaves ; 

Whose optics, blind to merit, ne'er could spy 

That sterling worth could bloom beneath a western sky. 

No more, my dear — no more — (while such xccre scar'd) 

Undaunted shalt thou rock upon the yard ; 

There, while the silver moon gleam'd thro' the gale. 

With manly skill and courage hand the sail. 

When Fame, who scann'd the value of her Tar, 

Did make thee shine on board a man-of-war 

With honour * — while, with equal glory fir'd, 

To please a parent, brother, friend, thou e'er aspir'd ; 

Till Death — relentless Death — none can withstand, 

To cut thy cable gave the last command !!! 

Soar now, my angel, to thy Maker's shrine. 
There reap that prize, due to such worth as thine. 
Fly, gentle shade — fly to that blest abode. 
There view thy mother — and adore thy God : 

There, Oh ! my Boy ! on that celestial shore. 

Oh \ may we gladly meet — and part no more ! ! ! 

A Parent. 

* Since the above lines were writ- — ^This officer loved my Sailor well ; 

ten, the last of his commanders, the nor was he less esteemed by Captain 

gallant Captain John Hutt, lost his Richard Keatet, from whom he had 

life in the memorable action, fought the honour to receive his first naval 

under Admiral Lord Howe, against education, 
tbe French, on the istofJune, 1794. 

2 And 


And now farewell, my friends, who have been pleased 
to peruse this narrative of my distresses with sympathetic 
sensibility ; particularly those v/hose goodness of heart can 
forgive my inaccuracies and foibles. — I say, farewell: 
claiming no other merit whatever throughout these 
pages, than that of having spoke the simple truth ; which, 
if I wilfully have violated, may these volumes perish, 
and be forgotten with their author! — But should this 
treasure, truth, so rarely to be met with, be found in 
this performance : — 

" Let one poor sprig of bays around my head 

'^ Bloom while I live ; and point me out when dead," 


3 H 2 





ACCOREE negroes 

p. 265 
Agate, stone - - G 
Agouti, rabbit - 157 
Ajurucura bird - a i 
Ambulinary leaf - 9.^ 
Amphisbojna snake 203 
Ammodytes snake 273 
Annamoe bird - - 33 
Ants (fire) - - 94 

large - - 141 

hillocks - - 169 

Angola peas - 10 1 

Ant bear (great) - 340 

small - 343 

Anana, fruit - - a2i 
Anaca, bird - - 227 
Arnotta - - - 20 
Arlacacca turtle - l69 
Arrowouka Indians 195 
Aloe (American) 243 


Bat of Surinam - 146 
Baboon (howling) 244 
Bee-bee wood - - 119 
Beautiful landscapes 171 

Bourracourra tree p. 1 s 
Bongora, shrub - 244 
Boassy, disease - 285 
Black cabbage-tree 169 
Blue dipsas snake 203 
Blue parrot - - 31 
Brooms (natural) i!9 
Brown heart tree - 347 
Brazil wood - - 18 
Butterfly (blue & red) 23 

—green - 203 

Butter of palm-worms 


of pistachio nuts 1 19 

Bush worms - - ) 89 
Bullet tree - - - 34 7 
Berklack tree - - 329 


Camcleon, lizard - 19 

Capsicum, pepper 74 

Cabiai, animal - 1 39 

Caps (natural) - 119 

Calebasse tree - 123 

Cavey (spotted) - 157 

Carrots - - - 239 

Camawarry - - 187 

Cabbage tree - - G8 

Cabbages - - 239 

Cacao tree 
Cassia tree 
Canavatepy tree 
Cocatoo parrots 
Cat (tiger) 
Cats - - - 
Cica pepper 
Cossowee tree - 

Couguar tiger - 
Coney (Indian) 
Coffee tree 
Crassy wood 
Cromback bird 
Crocro bird 
Crassy-crassy ■ 
Crested eagle ■ 
Curema fish 
Cedar tree 
Corks " - ■ 

p. 213 

- 233 

- 329 

- 31 

- 52 

- 383 

- 74 

- 20 

- 28 


- 51 

- 33g 

- 306 

- 28 

- 41 

- 187 

- 187 
• - 285 

■ - 311 

■ - 356 

■ - 239 

■ - 192 
eeree 29 

■ - 286 
- - 347 

■ - 119 





- P 


Date tree - 


Devil of the woods 


Dogs - - - 


■ 82 

Dipsas snake 

- - 




Ducks (wild) 

- - 





Dung fish 

- - 



Eagle (crested) - 3ii 

Eta, tree - - - 143 


Fire ants - - - 94 

Flying dog, bat - 146 

lice - - 349 

squirrel - 17 

Fennel - - - - 219 

Female papaya tree 252 

Fig tree - - -219 

Founnillier - - 342 

Fruit (foreign) - 77 

Gado-Saby town 109 

Galinas bird - - 243 

Goats - - - - 39 

Gourd tree - - 123 

Golden rod - - 219 

Gold mines - - 

Ginger . . _ 0^2 

Guava tree - - 3 

Groe-groe worms - 22 

Grison, animal - 42 

Green butterfly p. 203 

Grass sparrow - 226 
Gulph weed - 397 

Grampus fish - - 397 

Green paroquet - 33 

Guinea worm - - 286 

Gull (herring) - 40 i 

Grasshopper - - 37 

Grapes - - - 219 


Ilare (water) - - 157 

Haddock, fish - 251 

Hippopotamus - 181 

Mumming bird - 220 

Herring gull - - 401 

Hippocampus - 397 

Howling baboon - 244 


Jabiru crane - - 336 

Jaguar tiger - - 50 

Jaguaretta tiger - 52 

Jew-Savannah - 303 

Indigo plant - - 314 

Iron ore . - . 

wood tree - 1 7 

Indian loscs - - 2S9 
Jessamine tree - 239 
shrub - 219 


Kook, disease - - I86 

King of vultures - 3li 

Lattacaca pepper 74 
Land-scorpion - - 32 7 

Lettuces, sallad p. 239 
Leprosy, disease - 285 
Lizard (agama) - 19 

• salamander ig 

devil of the woods 

Lime tree - - - 75 
Lice (wood) - - 348 

(flying) - - 349 

Locust, reptile - 177 
Locust, tree - - 1 70 
Lota, disease - - 284 


Maureecee tree 
Mammee apple 
INIanatce . . - 
Matakee tree - - 
Markoory tree 
Marmalade box 
Mahogany tree 
Mermaids - - - 
Mexican oppossum 
Medlar tree - - 
Mineral ores - - 
Mint shrub - - 
Monkey (saccawinl 


■ quata 


Mountain cabbage 
Monpe tree - - 
Monbiara tree 
Murine oppossum 
Musk melon - - 


























Naaynaayfisee - p. 
Negroes (African) 

white - - 




Gaugo - - 

Nago - - 

■ Riemba 

N. Zoko - 

Papa - 

Night owl 
North-caper whale 
New-mara fish 


Old wifee fish - - 
Oppossum (mouse) 
■ Mexican 

Orlean tree - - 
Owl (night) - - 
Oryza rice - - 
Osa palmera 
Orange oil - 
Oroocoocoo snake 


2 3 (J 


Paca, animal - - 1,57 

Parrots (green) - si 

• ■ blue - - 31 

cocatoo - 31 

Partridge - - - 33 

PasscssY fish - - 192 

Paca, spotted cavey 157 

Pacarara coney - 157 

Patakee fish - p. 178 

Pappaya tree - - 252 

Papaw snake - - 273 

Panipus, bar - - 403 
Palm-tree (cabbage) 68 

date - 160 

eta - - 143 

maureecee 69 

Palm wine - - -119 

Palm-tree worms - 22 

Paroquets - - - 32 

— — green - 33 

Pepper cresses - 239 
Pistachio nuts, pinda 76 

Pigeon peas - - 101 

Pilot-fish - - - 400 

Philander - - - 338 

Physick nut tree 233 

Pine apple - - 220 

Poison tree - - 188 

Pomegranates - - 219 

Pomme de canelle 324 

Potatoes - - - 23'2 

Provost fish - - 192 

Plantation (cacao) 2 13 

indigo 314 

— coffee 366 

Plover, bird - - C26 

Porpoise fish - - 400 

Prare-prare fish - 19a 

Purslane (wild) - 123 

Purple-heart tree - ] 7 

Quata monkey 
Quacia;, bitter - 

- 10 

- 3ii9 

- S60 

Rattle snake - p. 201 

Rats and mice - - 50 

Rat-coney - - - 158 

Radishes - . . 239 

Remora fish - - 399 

Red-breast, bird - 226 

— lilies - - - 239 
— - sorrel - - - 239 
River horse - - 181 
Rice - - - - 330 
Rowcow arnotta - 20 
Rosemary - - - 219 
Roses (Indian) - 239 
Rock-cod fish - 47 


Saccawinkee monkey 12 
Salamander lizard - 19 

Salt of ashes - - 118 

Sand box tree - - 169 

Sabatille tree - -251 

Sage - . - . 219 

Seven boom - - 234 

Sensitive plant - 239 

Separee fish - - 25 1 
Seve-yaars boontie 233 

Sea snails - - - 192 

— cow • - - - 180 

— weed - - - 397 

— horse - - . 397 

— women - - - 182 
Siliba fish - - - 037 
Silver mines - - 6 
Soete boontie - - 233 
Sokay fish - - - 23? 
Sour sap tree - -251 



Sour sap tree, small 251 
Sorrel (red) - - 239 
Sun fish - - - 6 1 
Spaanse-jufier - - 37 
Scare-sleep - - - S8 
Snake-fish - - - 61 
Spotted-cat fish - 62 
Spider (bush) - 96 
Shades (human) 103 
Spectre of G uiana 146 
Scolopendra reptile 172 
Snake (oroocoococr) 158 

•' two-headed 208 

'- whip 

■ dipsas 





Snails (sea) 
Snake-root (Virginia) 

Strix, owl - - - 247 
Scorpion (land) - 327 
Snipe - - - - 335 
Spoon-bill shoveler 355 
Shark - - - - 398 
Squirrel - . . 17 

white - - 17 

flying - - 17 

Taibo, wood rat - 4 1 

Tapira - - 
Tayers root 
Tarpoen fish 
Tamandua - 
Tea - - - 
Tiger - - 



p. 181 

- 232 

- 237 

- 286 

- 340 

- S42 

- 233 

- 50 

- 51 

- 52 

- 310 

Tympany, disease 
Toecoema worms - 23 
Tomat^ - - - 233 
Tobacco - - - C32 
Torro-torro fish - 23 7 
Tokay-galinas - - 243 
Tonquin beans - S88 
Turtle (land) - - 168 
Two-headed snake 203 
Two-fingered negroes 

Tubboes, disease - 2S6 
Trochulus, bird - 227 


Urk Island 


Vampire bat 

- 403 

- 146 

- 243 

Vielleur, insect p. 38 
Vultures - - - 3 10 
king of - 311 


Wanacoe monkey - 12 

Walking-leaf - - 95 

Waracoo fish - - 382 

Water hog - - - 139 

— hare - - - 157 

melon - - 220 

Weepee fish - - 382 

Wine (palm tree) 119 

Wild duck - - - 356 

Whip snake - - 139 

White negroes - 260 

Wood pecker - - 242 

Wood-louse, bird - 242 

insect 348 

Woodcock, bird - 20 
Worms, (groe-groe) 22 

Wood rat - - - 41 

Worms (tape) - 286 


Yaws, disease - - 285 

Yellow-back fish - 381 



- 251 


Directions for placing the Plates. 


Vol. II. 


xLi. \T I E W of the Hope and Clarenbeck, in Comc\yin^ facing Page 5 

xLii. ^ The Quato and Saccawinkec Monkeys - - - 10 

XLI IT. Sprig of the Arnotta or Rovvcow Tree - - - - 21 

xLiv. The blue and crimson Butterfly, and Palm tree Worms - 23 

xLV. The Annamoe and green Parrots of Guiana - - - 33 

xLVi. The Wood-rat, and Crabbo-dago or Grison - - - 42 

XLV 1 1. The Dago-fisee, and the New-mara Fish - - - - 47 

xLViii. The Jaguar and Tiger-cat of Surinam ----- 52 

xLix. A Surinam Planter in his Morning Dress - - - - 58 

L. The Mountain-cabbage and Maureecee Tree - - - 70 

Li. View of Magdenberg and Calais, in Cosaweenica - - 74 

Lii. Limes, Capsicum, Mammee Apple, &c. - - - - -76 

Liii. A rebel Negro armed, and on his Guard - - - - 91 

Liv. Manner of Bush-fighting, and Gradation of Shades - - 102 

LV. March through a Swamp in Terra Firma - . - - 107 

Lvi. Plan of the principal Field of Action ----- 129 

LVii. The Murine Oppossum and Vampire Bat - - - - 147 

LViii. The Agouti and Spotted Cavey ------ 157 

Lix. The Hippopotamus and Manati of Guiana - - - - 132 

Lx. The Camp at Java Creek, and Encampment at Jerusalem - I88 

Lxi. Indian Female of the Arrowouka Nation - - - - 196 

Lxii. Green Butterfly and Rattle Snake, &c. - . . _ _ 203 

Lxiii. Sprig of the Cacao Tree ------- 215 

Lxiv. Musk and Water Melons, and Pine Apple - - - _ 221 

Lxv. The Mumming Bird, with its Nest, &c. . - _ _ 228 

Lxvi. Manner of catching Fish by the Spring Hook, &c. - - 236 

Lxvii. The yellow Wood-pecker, &c. ----- - 243 

LXV I II. A Family of Loango Negroes - - - - - - 291 

Lxix. IVIusical Instruments of the African Negroes - _ _ 296 

Lxx. View of the Jews Savannah, and ]Mount Blue Bergh - - 303 

Lxxi. Execution of breaking on the Rack - _ _ - _ so8 

Lxxii. Sprig of the Indigo Plant - --._-_ 314 

Lxxiii. Manner of sleeping in the Woods — the Cottage - - _ 336 

Lxxiv. The Tamandua and Coati Mondi - _ _ _ _ 341 

Lxxv. Tlie Spoonbill and Crane of Guiana ----- 355 

LxxvT. The celebrated Graman Quacy ------ s6l 

Lxxvii. Sprig of the Cotiee Tree ---_-._ sqq 

LXX VII I. Plan of a regular Coffee Plantation ----- 357 

Lxxix. The Shark and Kemora Fish ------ 399 

xxxx. Europe, supported by Africa and America 3 . _ - 409 

Luke Hanfard, printer, near Lincolii's-Inn-Fields.